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Pitfalls in clinical research EFNS teaching course by Mind Map: Pitfalls in clinical research EFNS
teaching course
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Pitfalls in clinical research EFNS teaching course

RCT presentation 1


external effects

Components observed effect

Learning from single observations or on basis of experience

regressionto the mean

Treatment effect


Phases of clinical trials, picture

Subgroup analysis, picture, be careful, usually too little patients to do subgroups

Factorial design, picture, reference, dennis black

Cross over designs, picture, picture

Stopping rules, picture

Primary outcome measures, picture

Secondary outcome measures, picture

Clinical trial, paradigm for etiologic research, you need, comparability, Extraneous effectgs, Prognosis, Information

Study size


Aim of intervention

Explanatory study

Pragmatic study

example, picture


Comparability of natural history, NHi = NHr

Comparability of extraneous effects (EFi = EFr)

placebo or fake treatment iin the reference group


"Intention to treat" analysis


Comparability of information

IBi = IBr



picture, picture

Randomisation is not always needed, very soft, very hard outcomes, everything in middle YES

Basic data analysis

picture - data analysis 1

picture - data analysis 2

picture - data analysis 3

CONSORT 2010 checklist of information to include when reporting a randomised trial

important to look at

example ICSS trial, International Carotid Stent Trial, Elegibility, interventions, randomisation, outcome measures, picture, Outcome assessment blinded, picture, Sample Size, picture, New node

Validity and generalisability


presentation 2


Cohort study

Example, Basal artery thrombosis, picture, aim, BASICS study, picture, picture, Determinants, primary outcome, picture, Baseline variables, picture, results picture, Risk rations, Reflections, picture 1, picture 2

Case control study

Example, picture, Lay out data case-control study, picture, Advantages case-control study, picture, Design options in case-control studies, picture, picture, Selection of controls, picture, picture, RATIO study - 1, Ratio study - 2, no pic, Biases, picture, solutions, picture, pictures, design, analyses, Data RATIO study - 3, picture, Data RATIO - 4, picture

Presentation 3

Common errors in research


pitfalls in studies of prognosis, selection by indication, inappropriate measures, known risk factors shall always be included in equations, Chance findings always happen


interval scale vs ordinal scale

Is your data normal divided?, check the shape of your data


Take a structure approach to diagnosis, don't rely on chance, Tests have false positive / negative results, eg chance to have MS, eg chance to have white spots on brain in MRI, picture study, Sensitivity / specificity, A single measure of test properties, combines sensitivity and specificity, true positives/false positives, name: likelihood ratio, can be combined with a priori odds