Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy

1.1. Teacher Centered

1.2. Student Centered

1.3. Love Centered


1.5. Progressivism

1.5.1. Project-Based Learning

1.5.2. Teachers assisting students Letting students choose a topic of a certain unit we may be learning to do a project or presentation on, there for it lets them choose something that might sound interesting to them to learn about more. (Brandon Hunter) In reading from the Foundations of America Education I found that teachers who use the philology progressivism should teach and plan lessons that deal with group activities. (Brandon Hunter) The progressivist teacher works beyond the individual in the classroom.

1.5.3. Develop problem-solving and decision-making skills.

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Conservative

2.2. Every person determines their outcome.

2.3. Individuals make their own future and determine their own success.

2.4. Government should NOT be able to provide all citizens with minimally acceptable standard of living.

3. Educational Reform

3.1. The right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and emotionally disturbed.

3.2. Jefferson supported public education to further the success of the U.S.

3.3. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education. (Created in 1837 in Mass.)

3.4. Normal schools were created for teacher education. (Mass. 1839)

3.5. Public education was for public stability and social mobility.

3.6. Reforms of the Standards Era 1980's to present day Cycles of reform.

3.6.1. Sputnik and the Space race influence.

3.6.2. 1957-1960's emphasis on excellence

3.6.3. Mid 1960's emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Act 1963.

3.6.4. Elementary/ Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

3.7. 1980's to present day

3.7.1. Nation at Risk (Reagan), Goals 2000 (Clinton), NCLB (Bush), RTT (Obama). Still under these influences today.

3.7.2. Teaching to the Test to Survive

3.7.3. Failing Schools

3.7.4. Charter Schools

3.7.5. Privatization of Schools

4. Equality of Opportunity

4.1. Do you have the following beliefs?

4.1.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.

4.1.2. Americans believe that hard work, thrift and bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

4.2. Calculating educational and life outcomes

4.2.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

4.3. Social Stratification - three systems

4.3.1. Caste - a persons' social level is determined by race or religion

4.3.2. Estate systems - a persons' social level is determined by family value and worth

4.3.3. Class systems - a persons' worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement p 340

4.4. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation.

4.5. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class

4.6. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success p 430

4.7. Class

4.7.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class

4.7.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance p 342

4.8. Race

4.8.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans p 343

4.9. Gender

4.9.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment

4.9.2. Disparities still exist in educational and job salaries p 343

4.10. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success.

4.10.1. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students.

4.11. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the ELA Education of Handicapped 1975

4.11.1. IDEA 1996

4.11.2. REI - Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming p 364

4.12. School differences and Education outcomes

4.13. The Coleman Study 1966

4.13.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body compositions between schools p 367

4.13.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle class

4.13.3. Private school students outperform public school students

4.13.4. Differences in schools do make a difference. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students. p 368

4.13.5. Where a students attends school is often related to race a socioeconomic status.

4.14. School segregation

4.14.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing

4.14.2. Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels that integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools. p 372-373

4.15. Education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes. p 377.

5. Education Inequality

5.1. Sociological explanations of inequality

5.1.1. Functionalists theorists support the idea that each students success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

5.1.2. Conflict theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment

5.1.3. Interactionists theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class, schools, and environment.

5.2. Student-Centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture, and the student

5.3. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate, and teacher expectations.

5.4. Student centered explanations p421

5.4.1. Genetic differences explanations p 422

5.4.2. Cultural deprivation explanations p 423

5.4.3. Cultural differences explanations p 423-427

5.5. School centered explanations

5.5.1. School financing p 428

5.5.2. Effective schools p 431

5.5.3. Between school differences p 433

5.5.4. Curriculum and pedalogic Within school differences p 434 Curriculum and ability grouping p 434-436

5.6. The BIG questions?? Do schools reproduce inequality???

5.6.1. Yes and no, family does but school... not so much.

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. The school serves as the focal point for addressing societal issues.

6.2. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647.

6.2.1. To teach people to read so they will know salvation.

6.3. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

6.3.1. Started Public Education

6.4. The first public university to admit women was the University of Iowa in 1856.

6.5. John Dewey

6.5.1. The father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individuals to create a better society.

6.5.2. Progressivism

6.5.3. Dewey's philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools.

6.6. The Committee of Ten was created by the Nationa; Education Association which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliot.

6.6.1. The committee's recommendation for high school in 1918 was: Health, Command of fundamental processes, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, ethical character.

6.7. The dilemma for Education for All.

6.7.1. 1.Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek versus science and math, etc.

6.7.2. 2. College entrance requirements due to so many disparities in entrance requirements.

6.7.3. 3. High school students should be prepared for life not college.

6.7.4. 4. All students should follow the same courses of study regardless of need for further education.

6.7.5. The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education p.73

6.8. Post World War II 1945-1980

6.8.1. Post World War II demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility.

6.8.2. The battle; standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all.

6.8.3. The college student movement for civil rights

6.8.4. U. of Michigan, U. of California at Berkeley, San Francisco State U., Kent State U.

6.8.5. Progressive v. Traditional Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896 p.77 Public facilities could separate races but had to be equal facilities Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954, overruled the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. (Dissolved the separation of races)

6.9. Three Historical Perspectives of U.S. Education p. 83

6.9.1. Democratic-Liberal School, Radical-Revisionist School, Conservative

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. The societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

7.2. The instructional level includes family, schools, churches, businesses, government and media.

7.3. The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions with such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals.

7.4. The Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

7.5. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission. Students are taught the values and beliefs of the society for them to think and act like other members of society. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which result in how they are successful.

7.6. Conflict - schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate the actual achievement. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement. Interactional theorist suggest that schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage.

7.7. More education results in better jobs and opportunities.

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. The U.S. Constitution does not provide for education.

8.2. Student Composition in public schools

8.2.1. 53.5 % are white

8.2.2. Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white

8.2.3. Ten states have no minorities

8.2.4. Large states are heavily multiracial

8.3. Degree of Openness

8.3.1. Very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exist.

8.3.2. Very democratic process of education

8.3.3. Open to all and very inclusive

8.4. Private schools

8.4.1. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students.

8.5. International Comparisons

8.5.1. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

8.6. France

8.6.1. France has every elitists educational system.

8.7. Former Soviet Union

8.7.1. Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need.

8.7.2. Being a member of elite Communist Party had benefits for those children.

8.7.3. This special interest created a stratified system.

8.8. Japan

8.8.1. After WWII, Japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes.

8.8.2. Education is highly competitive.

8.8.3. Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams.

8.8.4. A double system of education exist.

8.9. School Processes and Cultures

8.9.1. Schools are separate social organizations because They have definitive populations They have political structures They represent a multitude of social groups. They are prevailed by the "we feeling". They have their own special culture.

8.9.2. Teachers are in conflict with students Curriculum v. social goals of students

8.9.3. Teachers, teaching and Professionalism Turn each day into a special event Key to teaching in exercising control Most effective feedback is from students The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result. This multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn-out

9. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

9.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

9.2. Social influences

9.2.1. Social efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

9.2.2. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

9.3. Political influences

9.3.1. Political influences of the curriculum have determine and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught.

9.3.2. Who shapes the curriculum and determines what is taught?

9.3.3. Should business determine the curriculum?

9.3.4. Should religion determine the curriculum?

9.4. Societies' influences

9.4.1. Social order determines the curriculum p. 292

9.5. Cultural influences

9.6. Special interests

9.7. Historically

9.8. Idealists say we should teach the greats works of mankind

9.9. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation

9.10. Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization.

9.11. Conservatist of the 1980's and 1990's say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. P282

9.12. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum.

9.13. Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that is has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture.

9.14. Should the curriculum be flexible to meet all needs or should it be meeting the needs of a diverse population?

9.15. Should the wealthy determine the curriculum?

9.16. Which group has the most power to influence curriculum? P 286

9.17. Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose schools that support their belief.

9.18. Curriculum influences chart. P 287

9.19. Other influences on the curriculum

9.19.1. Evolutionists

9.19.2. Creationists

9.19.3. Science and math

9.19.4. Nation at Risk

9.19.5. NCLB

9.19.6. RTT

9.20. Sociology of the Curriculum

9.20.1. Society influences the curriculum

9.20.2. Formal curriculum - what is cognitively taught (subjects)

9.20.3. Informal or Hidden curriculum - taught but not obvious to sight

9.20.4. Null Curriculum - what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

9.21. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order. p. 293

9.22. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom. p. 294

9.23. The Effects of the Curriculum

9.23.1. Do students actually learn what is taught? p. 300

9.23.2. What is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them.

9.23.3. Closing the gap how?

9.23.4. Schooling does have an impact on learning.

9.23.5. Effective school characteristics. P 301

9.23.6. Do all students have the same educational experience even though they attend the same classes.

9.24. How will you teach and what determines how you teach? One word describes or determines your approach.

9.25. Maturity includes chronological maturity, social maturity, emotional maturity, culturally - valued maturity, political maturity and _______?_______.

10. Education Reform and School Improvement

10.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

10.1.1. A calling for the profession

10.1.2. A professional knowledge

10.1.3. Personal qualities

10.1.4. With-it-ness

10.1.5. Instructional effectiveness

10.1.6. Good communicator

10.1.7. Street smart

10.1.8. Willing to go the extra mile

10.1.9. Lifelong learner

10.2. The single most important factor in a students education is the teacher.

10.3. Reform in Education 1980s-2012

10.3.1. Two waves of attack The first was concerned with accountability and acievement The second was concerned with the process of the school. Top down management from federal government. p 513

10.4. John Goodlad - Book called The Place Called School

10.5. Federal Involvement

10.5.1. America 2000 p 514

10.5.2. Goals 2000 p 515

10.5.3. No Child Left Behind p 517

10.5.4. Race to the top p 518

10.6. Approaches to Reform p 519

10.6.1. Neo Liberal Approach

10.6.2. Societal and Community Approach

10.7. Schools Based Reforms p 520

10.7.1. School choice

10.7.2. Charter Schools

10.7.3. Tuition Vouchers

10.7.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

10.7.5. Intersectional Choice plans (any public school in district)

10.8. School-Business partnerships p 526-527

10.8.1. Procession of schools

10.8.2. school to work programs

10.9. Teacher Education Programs p 528

10.9.1. Three Major Points More intellectual demands in education programs Attract and retain competent teachers Reorganize educational academic and professional development

10.10. Teacher Qualities p 531

10.11. The effective school movement p 531

10.12. Plan on p 532

10.13. Highly effective school characteristics p 533

10.14. Societal, community, economic and political reforms p 533

10.14.1. State takeovers pros and cons p 536

10.14.2. School finance reforms p 538 Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education

10.14.3. Full service schools p 539 Repair and educate the community

10.15. Connecting school community and societal reforms p 540