Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Perspectives

1.1. 1."Schools have too often the life chances of poor and minority children and therefore the problem of underachievement by these groups is a critical issue" (p.29).

1.2. 2"In line with the liberal belief in equality of opportunity, it stresses the schools role in providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society" (p.27).

1.3. 3. "Because liberals place a heavy emphasis on issues of equality of opportunity, and because they believe that the capitalist system often gives unfair advantages to those with wealth and power, liberals assert that the role of government is to ensure the fair treatment of all citizens , to ensure that equality of opportunity exists, and to minimize exceedingly great differences in the life chances and life outcomes of the country/s richest and poorest citizens" (p.24).

1.4. Visions

1.5. 1. "Traditional visions tend to view the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society, such as hard work, family, unity, individual initiative, and so on"(p.26).

1.6. 2. "Traditional schools generally stress basic educational practices and expect mastery of academic learning in the care subjects of math, reading , writing, science and social studies" (

1.7. 3. "Online schools and homeschooling, while having the potential to deliver quality instruction, can lack the opportunity for children to learn along side a community of other children" (

2. African-American

3. Equal Opportunity for All

4. Politics of Education

5. 1. Female students, however, out perform male students in most categories, with the exception of mathematics and science, where they have made some gains.

6. 2. The cardinal of Education does not include measures of socioeconomic status and social class background in order to provide similar analyses of the relationship between social class and educational achievement and attainment.

7. 3. Chapter 9 indicate, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic levels are also highly correlated with curriculum track placement, with working-class and minority students more likely to be in lowwr tracks,and white and affluent students more likely to be in higher tracks.

8. One response to the Coleman Study

9. 1. In the past twelve years a body of empirical knowledge has accumulated, beginning with the Equality of Educational Opportunity survey (Coleman et al., 1966), ad based on both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, which unequivocally indicates that, overall, between school differences in any measureable attribute of instructions are only modestly related to a variety of outcome variables.

10. 2. "In the examinations of effects on achievement, statistical controls on family background are introduced, in order to control on those background characteristics that are most related to achievement. The achievement differences between the private sectors and the public sector are reduced (more for other private schools than for Catholic schools) but differences remain" (p.368).

11. 3." Formal decomposition of the variance attributable to individual background and the social composition of the schools suggests that going to a highly segregated African American school has a profound effect on a student's achievement outcomes, above and beyond the effect of individual poverty or minority status. Specifically, both the racial/ethnic and social class composition of a student's school are 1 3/4 times more important than a student's individual race/ethnicity or social class for understanding educational outcomes" (p.369).

12. Inequality Education

12.1. one sociological explanation of unequal achievement

12.2. 1. "Functionalists believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family backgrounds" (p.488).

12.3. 2. "The conventional wisdom of the time suggested that economically disadvantaged students attended inferior schools-schools that spent less money on each student, schools that spent less money on materials and extracurricular activities, and schools that had inferior teachers" (p.421).

12.4. "Given sensitivity of the subject, more often than not the debate about Jensen's work consisted of polemical attacks accusing him of being a racist and dismissed his claim that there is a biological biases of intelligence, rather than carefully considering his arguments" (p. 422).

12.5. one school-centered explanation

12.6. 1. "Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources" (p.428).

12.7. 2. "The use of foundation state aid programs, which seeks to make sure all districts receive a minimum standard of funding, with more state aid going to poorer districts in order to enable poorer districts to meet this minimum level, is one way of providing equality of opportunity" (p.430).

12.8. 3. "Thus, if students from the same racial and socioeconomic backgrounds attending different schools within the same community perform at significantly different rates, then something within the schools themselves must be affecting student performance" (p. 432).

13. Educational Reform

13.1. one school-based reform: school-business partnership.

13.2. 1. "The Committee to Support Philadelphia Public Schools pledged management assistance and training to the Philadelphia School District to restructure and implement a site-based management plan" (p. 526).

13.3. 2. "However, despite the considerable publicity that surrounds these partnerships, the fact is that in the 1980s, only 1.5 percent of corporate giving was to public primary and secondary public schools" (p. 526).

13.4. 3. "School-business partnerships have attracted considerable media attention, but there is little convincing evidence that they have significantly improved schools or that, as a means of reform, school-business partnerships will address the fundamental problems facing U.S. education" (p. 526).

13.5. one societal, economic, community, or political reform

13.6. 1. leadership as the driver for change;

13.7. 2. parent-community ties;

13.8. 3. professional capacity;

13.9. 4. student-centered learning climate;

13.10. 5. instructional guidance.

14. 4. My perspective and vision for role of teacher is to be a role model for my students who are in my classroom. My vision is to have a comfortable environment for my students to learn and that they are free to share their feelings with others.

15. Sociology of Education

15.1. Relationship between school and society

15.1.1. 1. parents Parents are very important to our school system and communities.

15.1.2. 2. churches There are different religions in our society.

15.1.3. 3. children Children who makes a difference in our school.

15.2. Three effects of schooling or individuals

15.2.1. 1. Knowledge and attitudes Children increase their learning in different areas.

15.2.2. 2. Employment "The economic and social worth of an academic credential , however, cannot be fully measured by examining its effects on job performance" (p.122).

15.2.3. 3. Education "Private and public school students may receive the same amount of education , but a private school diploma may act as a "mobility escalator" because it represents a more prestigious educational route" (p.122).

16. Philosophy of Education

16.1. My perspective and vision for generic notions are to show passionate, respect, and friendship to my students in different cultures. My vision is for my students to increase their learning in different areas that causes them to struggle and help them to overcome the challenge in their lives.

16.2. My perspective and vision for key researchers are to find different researches on important facts and information that are are proven to help me as a teacher and my students to become more successful in learning and teaching.

16.3. 3. My perspective and vision for goal of education is to be committed and dedicated to my students and faculty that I am around. Goal of education is to see that my students are learning for what have been introduce to them. My vision is to push my students further toward in their studies in many ways.

16.4. 5. My perspective and vision for model of instruction is to be clear with my instructions when they are given to teachers and students. Also, is not to judge my students and families' background. "General models and families of teaching methods are guides for designing educational activities, environments and experiences. They help to specify methods of teaching and patterns for these methods. Instructional strategies or teaching methods, depend on a number of factors such as the developmental level of students, goals, intent and objectives of the teacher, content, and envioronment including time, physical setting and resources." (

16.5. 6. My perspective and vision for curriculums is to teach curriculums that will help enrich my students' knowledge. Also, it is my desire to see when I teach curriculums that it will reshape my children's thinking when they learn in many ways.

17. History of Education

17.1. 1. The age of Reform: The rise of the Common School. 1. "In other parts of the country, charity schools provided the only opportunities for disadvantaged children to obtain education" (pg. 67).

17.2. 2. "Mann's arguments for the establishment of the common school, or free publicly funded elementary schools, reflects both of which were to be addressed through free public education" (pg. 68).

17.3. 3. "These men and women often lacked higher education and did not hold public office, but often articulated their ideas with the fervor of evangelical" (pg. 67).

17.4. Historical Interpretation

17.5. 1. "The U.S. school system has expanded to serve more students for longer periods of time than any other system in the modern world" (pg. 82).

17.6. 2. "However, historians and sociologists of education disagree about whether this pattern of increased access means a pattern of educational success" (pg. 83).

17.7. 3. "It has also been marked by a somewhat ironic pattern of cycles of reform about the aims, goals, and purpose of education on one hand, and little change in actual classroom practice on the other" (pg. 82).

17.8. Schools as Organizations

17.9. Great Britain

17.10. 1. Children from wealthy homes received academic training in grammar schools, and children from working-class homes received vocational training. In short, Great Britain had a decentralized educational system that was fundamentally elastic" (p.225).

17.11. 2. "For the children of very wealthy families, parents, often hired tutors." (p.225).

17.12. France

17.13. 1. The educational system in France is quite centralized compared to the United States and Great Britain.

17.14. 2. The French believe, by and large, that this system of examinations is meritocratic, even though it is common knowledge that the system stratifies students by social class background" ().

17.15. Soviet Union

17.16. 1. "The purpose of the educational system was to create the "new Soviet man and woman." These men and women were to become the leaders of the proletarian revolution that would transform the Soviet Union into a socialist paradise" (226).

17.17. 2. "Former Soviet citizens are still experimenting with new curricula, privatization, school choice, and new educational philosophies" (p. 227).

17.18. Japan

17.19. 1. "The Japanese educational system seemed to produce skilled workers and highly competent managers" (p. 227).

17.20. 2. "The Japanese system of education is highly competitive" (p.227).

17.21. Germany

17.22. 1. "The close connection between business schools in the training of workers is viewed as a model by many advocates of educational reform in the United States" (p.228).

17.23. 2. "Higher Education is open to large numbers of students, but also highly unequal and stratified, with technical and vocational programs and liberal arts and sciences in two-year community colleges, and a system of nonelite and elite four-year public and private colleges and universities" (228).

17.24. Finland

17.25. 1. "Perhaps the most remarkable characteristic of the Finnish education system is the way in which it recruits, educate, retains, and respects the professionalism of classroom teachers" (p.229).

17.26. 2. "As the United States works towards improving its education system and eliminating achievement gaps, it might be able to learn from the Finnish experience with education reform" (p.229).

17.27. Chapter 7 Curriculum, Pedagogy, and The Transmission of Knowledge

17.28. Historical Curriculum

17.29. 1. Developmentalist Curriculum: Is related to the needs and interests of the student rather than the society.

17.30. 2. child and curriculum

17.31. 3. student centered and the needs of the interests of the child.

17.32. Sociological Curriculum

17.33. 1. Hidden Curriculum

17.34. 2. teach the importance of rules and messages

17.35. 3. teach the importance about sharing the highlights in the lesson when it is introduce.