My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative Viewpoint

1.1.1. This viewpoint has its origins in the 1800's and is based on the ideas of Social Darwinism. Human progress is dependent on individual initiative and hard work. The free market economy of capitalism is viewed as the most productive economic system. The idea of Social Darwinism is that individuals must compete in the social environment to survive. In other words, "survival of the fittest". The perspective maintains a positive view of U.S. society and societal problems.

1.1.2. With this viewpoint, individuals believe that individual achievement is determined by intelligence, hard work, and initiative. There has been a steady decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and decline of authority. Conservatives see the role of school as providing educational training to ensure talented and hard working students receive the tools to maximize economic and social productivity. Highly supports the idea of returning to the basics, return to traditional curriculum, and accountability.

1.2. Liberal Viewpoint

1.2.1. This viewpoint has its origins in the 1900's and is based on the works of John Dewy and progressivism. This perspective is concerned with the equality and balancing the economic productivity of capitalism with the social and economic needs of the people. Insists that government involvement in economic, political and social areas is necessary for fair treatment of all citizens.

1.2.2. Liberals keep a positive view of U.S. society much like Conservatives, but with reservations. They believe that without government intervention, capitalism creates far too much political and economic disparity between citizens.

1.2.3. Believe that students begin school with different life chances; hence some groups have significantly more advantages than others. Schools limit the chances of poor and minority children, schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority, and traditional curriculum disregards diverse cultures in society. Support quality with equality, effective research, enhanced opportunities for disadvantaged groups, a more culturally diverse curriculum, and a balance between performance standards and ensuring students can meet them.

1.3. Radical Viewpoint

1.3.1. Is based on the writings of German economist and philosopher Karl Marx Perspective is mostly negative about U.S. society due to the perceived inequalities created by a capitalist system. Believe that schools should be used to eliminate inequalities in society, however, they also believe that equality in schools is only an illusion. Students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds begin school with unequal opportunities which coincides with the liberal perspective towards education Schools fail the poor, minorities, and women through classist/racist policies, schools stifle understanding of societal problems in America by promoting conformity and the education system promotes inequality. Support teachers, parents, and students having a greater voice in decision making, curriculum based on finding solutions for social problems, and curriculum which is multicultural, anti-racist, and anti-classist.

1.4. Neo-Liberal

1.4.1. a combination of both conservative and liberal perspectives Criticizes failing schools and attribute school failures to teacher unions, teacher tenure, layoffs based on seniority, and the absence of school, teacher, and student accountability. Reforms focus on five areas of educational policy: austerity, the market model, individualism, state intervention, economic prosperity, race, and class.

1.5. Visions of Education

1.5.1. Traditional Schools are necessary for the transmission of traditional U.S. values in society, such as hard work, individual initiative, and family unity.

1.5.2. Progressivism Schools are central to solving social problems, essential to the development of individuals, and an integral part of democratic society.

2. The History of Education

2.1. Democratic Society of Early Version Schools

2.1.1. The early versions of schools in order to understand how the present-day school evolved The school was charged with assuming roles that once were the province of family, church, and community It continues to serve as a focal point in larger issues of societal needs There is little consensus on the motives for school reforms

2.2. Old World & New World Education: Colonial Era

2.2.1. The society of the Old World was highly stratified and the view most Europeans held was that only the sons of the rich acquired an education since they would be the future ruling class.

2.2.2. Nine institutions for higher learning were founded prior the American Revolution Harvard University 1636 College of William and Mary (1693) Yale University (1701) University of Pennsylvania (1740) Princeton University (1749) Columbia University (1754) Brown University (1764) Rutgers University (1766) Dartmouth College (1769)

2.2.3. The colleges themselves were not revolutionary and primarily taught the same subjects found at Oxford and Cambridge. Latin and Greek were required subject.

2.2.4. Even before education began to formalize and acquire certain specific patterns, there were distinctly different themes regarding the purpose of education. The Puritans in New England passed what is known as the Old Deluder Laws 1st Law: chastised parents for not attending to their children's "ability to read and understand the principles of religion and capital laws of this country" 2nd Law: every town appointed one person to teach all children, regardless of gender, to read and write. Wasn't very popular throughout New England where it set up the precedent for public responsibility to education

2.3. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

2.3.1. Men and women during the time of the Industrial Revolution lacked higher education and did not hold public office but often articulated their ideas through evangelical Christianity.

2.3.2. By 1820, those interested in education believed that the schools that had been established by the pre-war generation were not functioning effectively.

2.3.3. Horace Mann of Massachusetts lobbied for a state board of education The Massachusetts legislature created one in 1837 where Mann became the first secretary in that board for 11 years. Partly due to Mann's efforts, the first state of normal school was established in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1839. His efforts to emphasizing a public school system reflected on both the concerns for stability and order as well as social mobility

2.3.4. Radicals did not particularly rejoice in the idea of free public education These types of people saw Mann's idea of education as a way to teach skills about hygiene, punctuality, and rudimentary skills that would create docile workers.

2.3.5. Education for Women Going into the 20th century, education for women was viewed as biologically harmful or too stressful. Opportunities for education were extremely limited where very few females achieved an education other than rudimentary literacy and numeracy.

2.3.6. Education for African-Americans There were very few opportunities where Southerners believed that literacy bred insubordination and revolution It was forbidden for African-Americans to learn how to read and write in slave populations; however in the North, blacks were separated from public school. Benjamin Roberts in 1846 filed a legal suit over the requirement that his daughter attend a segregated school. This became known as the Roberts v. City of Boston case where the court ruled that the local school committee had the right to establish separate educational facilities for whites and blacks. As a result, African-Americans were encouraged to build their own schools where funds were received by their churches and abolitionists.

2.4. Urbanization and the Progressive Impetus

2.4.1. The beginning of the 19th century ushered in a massive wave of immigration and urbanization on unprecedented proportions.

2.4.2. These immigrants language, customs, and living styles were dramatically different from those of the previous group

2.4.3. School was a means of addressing social problems so reformers once again looked to schools as a means of preserving and promoting democracy within the new social order.

2.4.4. John Dewey advocated the creation of a curriculum that would allow for the child's interest and developmental level while introducing the child to the becoming an independent, insightful individual.

2.4.5. G. Stanley Hall argued that traditional schools stifled the child's natural impulses and suggested that schools individualize instruction and attend to the needs and interests of the children. Progressive reform known as child-centered reform

2.4.6. Edward L. Thorndyke believed that schools could change human beings in a positive way and that the methods and aims of pedagogy to achieve this would be scientifically determined.

2.5. The Emergence of the Public High School

2.5.1. Prior to 1875, fewer than 25,000 students were enrolled in public high schools

2.5.2. Most students attended private academies such as traditional, college preparatory, or vocational schools

2.5.3. Main Goals of Secondary Education (the Cardinal Principles) Health Command of Fundamental Processes Worthy home-membership Vocation Citizenship Worthy use of leisure Ethical character

2.6. Post-World War II Equity Era: 1945-1980

2.6.1. Maintained the views of progressive and traditional aspects regarding public education

2.6.2. Issued an era of reform cycles where discussion was focused on what children should receive and whether all children should receive the same education Many of these debates targeted on curriculum and teaching methods which was strongly associated with the question of equity versus excellence

2.6.3. The GI Bill of Rights offered 16 million servicemen and woman an opportunity to pursue higher education This drew attention to the issue of educational inequalities for the poor and disadvantaged,in general, and for African-Americans in particular

2.6.4. The unequal and separate education of African-Americans in the South became a focal point of the civil rights movements of the 1930 all the way to the 1950s Brown v. Topeka Board of Education was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court ruled that state-imposed segregation of schools was unconstitutional. The issue of segregation was not solely present in the South but many Northern cities and metropolitan areas viewed it necessary for blacks to receive a separate education from white people

2.6.5. By the late 1960s, many colleges and universities adopted the policy of open enrollment where any student from any background would be allowed admittance. Additionally, financial aid was given to those who could not afford to pay for higher education

2.7. Educational Reaction and Reform and the Standards Era: 1980s-2012

2.7.1. Conservative critics in the 1970s argued that liberal reforms in pedagogy and curriculum, and in the arena of educational opportunity had resulted in the decline of authority and standards

2.7.2. Furthermore, critics argued that the preoccupation with using the schools to ameliorate social problems not only failed by was part of formalizing mass mediocrity

2.7.3. In the 1990s and early part of the 20th century, the reforms towards education set by President Clinton and President G.W. Bush were intended to balance equity and excellence 1st = the school choice movement seeks to give parents the right to choose the public school to send their children rather than relying on zoning patterns 2nd = enhanced federal supports for schools to improve NCLB's accountability mechanisms

2.8. Different Types of Schools Established Throughout History

2.8.1. The Democratic-Liberal School Involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all Suggested that each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and reject the conservative view of schools

2.8.2. The Radical-Revisionist School Revised the history of education in a more critical direction where they argue that the history of U.S. education is the story of expanded success for very different reasons and results Believe that the educational system expanded to meet the needs of the elites in society for the control of the working class and immigrants and for economic effectiveness as well as productivity

2.9. Conservative Perspective towards the History of Education

2.9.1. A largely political opinion amongst conservatives was that the so-called progressive education was a failure to fulfill its lofty social goals without sacrificing academic quality

2.9.2. Critics such as Ravitch and Hirsch believed that the historical pursuit of social and political objectives results in significant harm to the traditional goals of schooling

2.10. Radical-Revisionist Perspective towards the History of Education

2.10.1. Defended the democratic-liberal position where they believe that schools have expanded opportunities to countless numbers of the disadvantage and immigrants

2.10.2. Argue that the adjustment of the traditional curriculum meets the needs of all these groups has been a violation of the fundamental function of schooling which is to develop the powers of intelligence

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. The Purpose of Sociological Inquiry

3.1.1. The overall purpose of sociological inquiry is to focus on the influence of schooling on equity and opportunity for students.

3.1.2. Schools serve as "gatekeepers" of knowledge and skills, and hence provide students with both economic and social worth in the world of employment.

3.2. 3 Major Theories about the Relationships Between Schools and Sociology

3.2.1. Functional Theories: functional sociologists assess the interdependence of the social system They view society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work

3.2.2. Interactional Theories: interactional sociologists take a up close view of the interactions between students, teachers

3.2.3. Conflict Theories: conflict sociologists assert that society is not held together by shared values alone Believe that values along with the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups

3.3. Functionalist Theory

3.3.1. Interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society

3.3.2. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society

3.3.3. When one part of the system is not working, it affects all other parts and creates social problems, which leads to social change

3.4. Social Conflict Theory

3.4.1. This theory is primarily a Marxist based social theory

3.4.2. Argues that social classes within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources

3.4.3. According to this theory, inequality exists because those in control of a disproportionate share of society's resources actively defend their advantages

3.5. Interaction Theory

3.5.1. An approach to questions about social cognition or how one understands other people

3.5.2. Focuses on behaviors and environmental contexts rather than on mental processes or academic achievement

3.6. Influences of School

3.6.1. The effects of schooling impact a variety of areas including knowledge, attitude, employment, education, and social mobility In a tracking system, the entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the students' overall achievement is above average, normal, or below average De Facto Segregation is essentially racial segregation, especially in public schools, that happen "by fact" rather than by legal requirement Schools reinforce larger cultural messages about gender including the idea that gender is an essential characteristic for organizing social life

3.7. Types of Schools

3.7.1. Inadequate schools share three common items 1. Overcrowding 2. Poor physical condition of the building 3. Lack of supplies/materials for the teachers and students

3.8. Societal Level

3.8.1. There is structure of dominance in society which leads to accepting and practicing societal ideologies

3.9. Institutional Level

3.9.1. Streaming from the societal level, this level formalizes educational structures which leads to forming education ideologies and concepts used in specific schools

3.10. Interpersonal Level

3.10.1. Continues on the momentum of the societal and institutional level where there are higher teacher expectations and promoting educational interactions

3.11. Intrapsychic Level

3.11.1. Between the societal, institutional and interpersonal level each outcome ultimately ends up with varying educational outcomes, cognitive responses, and non-cognitive responses

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Essentialism

4.1.1. A teacher-centered philosophy which is rooted in the concept of Realism

4.1.2. Generally known as the "do less, more focus" where focus is centered on academia that is specific as opposed to being broad

4.1.3. The curriculum is geared towards the fundamentals Major Theorists greatly contributed to this particular philosophy William Bagley E.D. Hirsch

4.1.4. There are 3 R's at the Elementary level and 5 core subjects in high school

4.2. Perennialism

4.2.1. A teacher-centered philosophy which is rooted in the concept of Idealism

4.2.2. Expounds the past and teachers universally agreed upon knowledge and cherished societal values Often teaches from the "Great Books" and not regular textbooks The Bible The Odyssey The Illiad Known as the Socratic Method of Teaching where several theorists contributed to this thinking Mortimer Adler Robert Hutchins

4.3. Progressivism

4.3.1. A student-centered philosophy rooted in Pragmatism Encourages students how to think, not what to think Teaches problem-solving inquiry, cooperation, and self-discipline Scientific Method Scientific Inquiry

4.4. Social Reconstructionism

4.4.1. A student-centered philosophy directed into focusing on Societal Reform Major Theorists Theodore Braneld George Counts Paulo Freire

4.5. Existentialism

4.5.1. A student-centered philosophy emphasizing individualism and personal self-fulfillment

4.5.2. Subject matter is secondary to self-understanding where learning is self-paced and self-directed

4.5.3. The learning environment is open with a focus on the individual student growth Major Theorists Maxine Greene A.S. Neill

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. The Structure of Education

5.1.1. Education in the United States of America is one of the nation's largest business.

5.1.2. Schools are powerful organizations that profoundly affect the lives of those children and adults who come in contact with them.

5.1.3. The organization of U.S. schools is very complex with multiple levels constituting it's operation. There are two different types of school systems Public Private

5.2. Goverance

5.2.1. The federal government made no claims regarding its authority towards education where the state retained their authority and responsibility for education.

5.2.2. The United States has 50 separate state school systems.

5.2.3. Most U.S. public schools are paid for by the revenue that is raised by local property taxes. Therefore, taxpayers have a substantial stake in the schools within their districts to voice their opinion and money usage.

5.3. Size & Degree of Centralization

5.3.1. The elementary and secondary school system is extremely large. Nearly 55 million children enroll in education which costs roughly $650 billion annually.

5.3.2. Centralization has been issued for many years where it was deemed to be cost effective.

5.3.3. This has a negative impact on the diversity of schools that students may attend. Large institutions are more bureaucratic. High degree of centralization diminishes the amount of democratic participation.

5.4. Student Composition

5.4.1. The U.S. school systems have a large diversity of students according to different races. White African American Asian Hispanic

5.4.2. 53.5% of students in both primary and secondary schools were white in 2010.

5.4.3. Schools are becoming more diverse, however, where there has been a trend toward increasing residential segregation.

5.4.4. Race does not only constitute student composition but other things as well. Gender Social Class Ability Sexuality

5.5. Private Schools

5.5.1. Attract students that are from families that wealthy and committed towards education.

5.5.2. Such schools constitute of 25% of all elementary and secondary schools.

5.5.3. Most private schools are affiliated with a religious organization.

5.5.4. Are less bureaucratic than public schools where they are more innovative.

5.6. Great Britain Schools

5.6.1. Prior to the 19th century, education was deemed the responsibility of the parents. Therefore, all schools were private and no public schools were available. Very wealthy families hired tutors instead of subjecting their children to private school. For poor children, however, schooling was not an option.

5.6.2. During the 19th century, many religious organizations became to operate charity schools for the poor. The establishment of a national educational system for all children was opposed by the Church of England and Roman Catholics in the early 19th century.

5.6.3. Since 1988, England and Wales have implemented a highly centralized national curriculum and system of national assessment. The British Educational system no longer is stratified where students are placed into classes based on social class. The national curriculum has eliminated the comprehensive secondary school.

5.7. Teacher Qualifications

5.7.1. In 2008, 75.2% of all public school teachers in the United States were women.

5.7.2. There are numerous certifications and steps that are required before a teacher is certified to teach in a designated state. College degree in the academic field of choice Full licensure to teach Demonstrates knowledge of content in each subject Passing scores on Praxis exams

5.7.3. Many states believe that entry-level qualifications of teachers has decreased the quality of teachers.

5.8. The Nature of Teaching

5.8.1. Teaching is a very demanding profession were teachers must be skilled in many area of technical expertise and human relations.

5.8.2. Teachers have many roles in which they are expected to play in their professional lives. Colleague Friend Nurturer Facilitator Researcher Program Developer Administrator Decision Maker Professional Leader Community Activist

5.8.3. Teaching is a personal undertaking where teaching style becomes an artistic expression as opposed to a scientific resolution.

5.9. Underqualified Teachers

5.9.1. Many teachers were teaching out of their field of expertise thereby promoting an inadequate learning environment.

5.9.2. Teachers are being assigned to teach subjects that do not match their training or education.

5.9.3. Principals often find it easier to hire unqualified teachers than qualified ones. Absence of status and professionalism in teaching leads to high dropout rates in the first five years of teaching. Districts, therefore, are constantly replacing teachers on an ongoing basis

5.10. Teacher Professionalization

5.10.1. Teachers have little opportunity to gain a reputation for excellence outside of their school or school district.

5.10.2. Teachers are beginning to be part of a controlling process rather than an instructional one.

5.10.3. Teachers are expected to be thoughtful experts in education whereas the conditions of their employment leave little scope for thoughtfulness or expertise.

5.10.4. A teacher education program should include a clearly articulated relationship between education and the arts and sciences.

5.10.5. Students should stay together with teams of faculty members throughout their period of preparation and that universities should commit enough resources to ensure high quality teachers.

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. What Schools Teach

6.1.1. The curriculum is viewed as an objective and organized body of knowledge to be transmitted to students.

6.1.2. It is also mandated by the state education department and implemented in an organized manner within the schools.

6.2. Traditional Approach to Curriculum

6.2.1. This type of approach has been primarily concerned with the science of the curriculum.

6.2.2. View the curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge and examine the ways in which this knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated.

6.2.3. This approach seldom questions the central component of transmit knowledge and values to students.

6.3. New Sociology of Education Approach

6.3.1. Rather than viewing curriculum as an objective body of knowledge, they suggested that the curriculum is an organized body of knowledge that represents political, social, and ideological interests.

6.3.2. Looked critically at the curriculum as a reflection of the dominant interests in society and suggested that what is taught in schools is a critical component of the effects of schooling

6.3.3. Did not view curriculum as value neutral but rather as the subject for critical and ideological analysis.

6.3.4. Rejects the view that the curriculum is objective and instead insists that the curriculum is subjective.

6.4. History & Philosophy of Curriculum

6.4.1. Humanist curriculum reflects the idealist philosophy Purpose of education is to present to students the best of what has been thought and written. Knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educational citizenry. Curriculum focused on the Western heritage as the basis for intellectual development. Dominated the 19th-20th century U.S. Education and was recommended to all secondary students.

6.4.2. Conservative curriculum assumed a common culture The purpose of schooling was to transmit a common body of knowledge in order to reproduce a common cultural heritage. Disagreement about the role of schools in transmitting a common culture was the key argument in the 20th century.

6.4.3. Social Efficiency curriculum was a philosophically pragmatist approach developed in the early 20th century. Created as a response to the development of mass public secondary education.

6.5. Development of Standardized Testing

6.5.1. Was related to the differentiation of the curriculum.

6.5.2. At the elementary school level, intelligence tests and reading tests were used to assign students to ability groups and ability-grouped classes.

6.5.3. At the secondary level, standardized tests were used to place students into different curriculum tracks

6.5.4. Became the process by which students were placed in different curriculum tracks in a fair and meritocratic manner.

6.6. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.6.1. Related to the needs and interest of students rather than the needs of society.

6.6.2. This curriculum based it's ideas off of Dewey's writings retailed to the relationship between the child and the curriculum.

6.6.3. Stressed flexibility in both what was taught and how it was taught with the emphasis on the development of each child's individual capacities.

6.7. Politics of Curriculum

6.7.1. Analyzes the struggle over different concepts of what should be taught in American school systems.

6.7.2. The history of U.S. curriculum may be understood in terms of different models of school knowledge where labeling these groups and determining their degree of control is still the subject of debate.

6.7.3. The central question in the politics of curriculum is who shapes the curriculum As the new sociology of education suggests, the curriculum is not a value-neutral objective set of information to be transmitted to students It represents what a culture wants its students to know.

6.8. The Sociology of the Curriculum

6.8.1. Focuses on not only what is taught but why it is taught.

6.8.2. Reject the objectivist notion that curriculum is value neutral where they view it as a reflection of particular interests within a society. Functionalists argue that the school curriculum represents the codification of the knowledge that students need to become competent members of society. The role of schools is to combat the social and moral breakdown initiated by modernization

6.8.3. Sociologists believe that the school curriculum includes both what is formally included as the subject matter to be learned as well as the informal or hidden curriculum.

6.9. Multicultural Education

6.9.1. The conflict perspective illustrates that beginning in the 1980s, humanist curriculum argued that traditional curriculum was Eurocentric and male dominated.

6.9.2. Researchers have been encouraging school systems to integrate five dimensions of multiculturalism in classrooms Content integration Knowledge construction Prejudice reduction Equity pedagogy Empowering school culture

6.10. Differing View of Pedagogic Practices

6.10.1. Mimetic Tradition Based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students Best method is through what is termed the didactic method where relying on lectures is the main form of communication

6.10.2. Transformative Tradition The function of education is more broad and ambiguous where emotion should be the governing element. Reject the authoritarian relationship between teacher and student and argue instead that teaching and learning are inextricably linked.

6.10.3. Feminist Theory Suggest that a curriculum and pedagogy that teach caring and that are explicitly anti-sexist is required.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. In early America, individuals believed that hard work, thrift, and a little bit of luck should determine who receives the economic and social benefits that society has to offer.

7.1.1. Public education has been a key component in minimizing the importance of class and wealth as a determinant who will succeed in life.

7.1.2. Social stratification is a strutural characteristic of society where human differences do not cause social stratification but such causes human differences. In the 1990s, individuals looking for the American dream suffered a decline in terms of their incomes when income was adjusted for inflation.

7.2. Many people are discriminated based on social class, gender, and race in America as well as across the globe.

7.2.1. However, parents attempt to let life be for their children so that they may be successful in terms of material comfort, security, personal fulfillment, and occupation.

7.3. Class

7.3.1. Students in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences.

7.3.2. Factors such as school expense dictate the level of school involvement for families. Families from the upper and middle class are more likely to expect their children to finish school, whereas working-class and underclass families often have lower levels of expectations for their children.

7.3.3. Teachers have been found to think more highly of middle-class and upper middle-class children than they do of working-class children. Additionally, peer groups have a significant influence on students' attitudes toward learning. In a school that enrolls many middle-class students, there is a high likelihood that more emphasis is placed on high academic achievement than in a school where there are few middle-class children.

7.3.4. There is direct correlation between parental income and children's performance on achievement tests as well as placement in ability groups and curriculum tracks.

7.4. Race

7.4.1. An individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve. 5.2% of white students drop out of school 9.3% of African American students drop out of school 17.6% of Hispanic American students drop out of school

7.4.2. 89% of white students will be able to read at the intermediate level which includes the ability to search for specific information, interrelate ideas, and make generalizations about literature, science, and social studies materials. 66% of African-American students have reached the level of reading proficiency 70% of Hispanic-American students are reading at the intermediate level

7.4.3. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites and their rewards for educational attainment are significantly less.

7.5. Gender

7.5.1. Historically, an individual's gender was directly related to his or her educational attainment.

7.5.2. Even though women are often rated as being better students than men, in the past they were less likely to attain the same level of education. Females are less likely to drop out of school than males and are more likely to have a higher level of reading proficiency than males The one area that males outperform females is in mathematics proficiency

7.5.3. More women are attending post-secondary institutions than men although it is true that many of the postsecondary institutions are less academically and socially prestigious than those attended by men

7.6. Students with Special Needs

7.6.1. The field of special education has mirrored the debates about equality of educational opportunity and the concern with the appropriate placement of students with special needs

7.6.2. Beginning in the late 1960s, parents of children with special needs began to put pressure on the educational system to serve their children more appropriately and effectively.

7.6.3. Parents often argued that their children were treated as invisible and not given appropriate services or in some cases excluded entirely from schools.

7.6.4. Disability studies theorists argue that handicapping conditions are for the most part socially constructed and although there may be cognitive differences at the polar ends

7.7. School Differences

7.7.1. The better the school, the greater its positive impact on students A deep faith in the power of education to overcome ignorance and inequality virtually requires one to believe that there is a close and powerful relationship between the characteristics of schools and their effects on students.

7.7.2. Schools have both indirect and direct effects on students' lives Ex. A direct effect is the amount of cognitive growth that can be attributed to years of schooling Indirect effects are more difficult to measure but are significant because they relate to the social consequences of having attended certain types of schools

7.7.3. Two Hypotheses concerning the relationship between school characteristics and student outcomes 1st: There is a strong, positive correlation between school quality and student achievement. Conservatives, liberals, and radicals all seem to subscribe to this hypothesis. 2nd: There is a very weak relationship between school characteristics and student outcomes. The organizational characteristics of schools are not strong enough to undo the cognitive and social consequences of class background.

7.8. Coleman Study

7.8.1. In 1966, schools were challenged with the assumption that school characteristics were extremely important in determining student outcomes

7.8.2. Sociologist James Coleman received a substantial grant to study the relationship between the organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement The motivation behind this grant was to demonstrate that African American students and white students had fundamentally different schooling experiences. This study was hoped to provide the rationale for federally funding those schools that were primarily attended by minority students.

7.8.3. The findings of this study was that the organizational differences between schools were not particularly important in determining student outcomes when compared to the differences in student-body compositions between schools.

7.9. Coleman Response Round One

7.9.1. Several sociologists examined and reexamined Coleman's data

7.9.2. At Harvard University, Ron Edmonds set about the task of defining those characteristics of schools that made them effective along with other minority scholars He argued strongly that all students could learn and that differences between schools had a significant impact on student learning

7.9.3. Within the sociological community, the debate concerning Coleman's findings produced a number of studies that more or less substantiated what Coleman and his colleagues had found Where an individual goes to school has little effect on his or her cognitive growth or educational mobility

7.10. Coleman Response Round Two

7.10.1. Studies that have compared public and private schools have found that private schools seemed to do better particularly for low-income students

7.10.2. Researchers analyzed differences between public and Catholic school students where Coleman estimated that the annual increment attributable to Catholic schooling was insignificant.

7.10.3. Catholic schools seem to advantage low-income minority students especially in urban areas

7.11. Coleman Response Round Three

7.11.1. Where an individual goes to school is often related to his or her race and socioeconomic background

7.11.2. However, racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class Borman and Dowling argue that school segregation based on race and socioeconomic status and within school interactions dominated by the middle-class values are largely responsible for gaps in student achievement

7.11.3. Their study concludes that education reform must focus on eliminating the high level of segregation that remains in the United States' education system and that schools must bring an end to tracking systems and biases that favor white and middle-class students.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Two Major Sociological Theories of Education

8.1.1. Functionalist Believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals regardless of family background Their vision is a just society where individual talent and hard work based on universal principles of evaluation are more important than ascriptive characteristics based on particularistic method of evaluation Expect that the school process will produce unequal results but these results ought to be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences

8.1.2. Conflict Believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality where the fact that educational outcomes are to a large degree based on family background

8.2. Student-Centered Explanations

8.2.1. In the 1960s, sociologists of education interested in educational inequality often worked from a set of liberal political and policy assumptions about why students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds performed less

8.2.2. A number of research studies in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated that the conventional liberal wisdom was far too simplistic and that solutions were far more complex

8.2.3. This research suggested that there were far more significant differences in academic performance among students in the same school than among students in different schools

8.3. Genetic Differences

8.3.1. The most controversial student-centered explanation is the genetic or biological argument Biological explanations of human behavior are viewed as limited because social scientists believe that environmental and social factors are largely responsible for human behavior In a 1993 study, Hurn provide a detailed and balanced assessment of the IQ controversy He demonstrated through a careful analysis that although there is evidence that a genetic component to human intelligence exists the most signification factor affecting intelligence is social

8.4. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.4.1. The poor have a deprived culture one that lacks the value system of the middle-class culture Based on this etiology, policy makers sought to develop programs aimed not at the schools but rather at the family environment of working-class and nonwhite students Criticism on this theory occurred where they were convener with the relative failure of many of the compensatory education programs that were based on its assumptions

8.5. Cultural Difference Theories

8.5.1. Agree that there are cultural and family differences between working-class and nonwhite students, and white middle-class students Working-class students and nonwhite students may indeed arrive at school with different cultural dispositions and without the skills and attitudes required by the schools This is not due to deficiencies in their home life but rather to being part of an oppressed minority More affluent families give their children access to cultural capital and social capital

8.6. School-Centered Explanations

8.6.1. Although Coleman and Jencks research questioned the conventional wisdom that between-school differences are the key factor in explaining differences in student performance between groups, it did not exclude the possibility that schools have significant effects on students

8.6.2. A completely individualistic explanation states that these differences are the result of individual differences in intelligence or initiative

8.6.3. Suggest that school processes are central to understanding unequal educational performance

8.7. School Financing

8.7.1. Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources The majority of funds come from state and local taxes with local property taxes as a significant source Property taxes are based on the value of property in local communities and therefore is a proportional tax

8.7.2. Since property values are significantly higher in more affluent communities these communities are able to raise significantly more money for schools through this form of taxation than poorer communities with lower property values More affluent communities are able to provide more per-pupil spending than poorer districts This unequal funding has been the subject of considerable legal attack by communities that argue that funding based on local property taxes is discriminatory under the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment

8.8. Gender & Schooling

8.8.1. Carol Gilligan, a psychologist at Harvard's Graduate School of Education has been one of the most influential feminist scholars working in the area of gender differences She argued that women are more likely to adopt a caring orientation in part because they are socialized to do so Women do reason in a different voice and that this female voice is an important component of the human experience which should not be devalued Her work points to the differences and their relation to gender socialization and how society rewards men for "male" behavior and negatively affects women for "female" behavior Feminists agree that schooling often limits the educational opportunities and life chances of women in a number of ways

8.9. Reproducing Inequality

8.9.1. There is a significant difference of opinion as to the role of the school in affecting student performance, with school-centered explanations stressing the role of schools and student-cnetered explanations stressing the importance of what students bring to school. The school-centered and student-centered explanations are not diametrically opposed but rather need to be incorporated into a multidimensional theory of education and inequality There is evidence to support some of the functionalists' hypotheses but there is also more evidence to support conflict theorists' claim that schools help to reproduce inequality Students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds face significantly different problems in their communities due to factors such as racism, poverty, and other societal and institutional processes

8.10. Ability Grouping

8.10.1. The fact that different groups of students in the same schools perform very differently suggests that there may be school characteristics affecting those outcomes At the elementary level, students are divided into reading groups and separate classes based on teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, and sometimes race, gender, etc. At the secondary level, students are divided into groups by ability and curriculum with different groups of students often receiving considerably different types of education within the same school

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Effective Teachers

9.1.1. A talented and dedicated teacher can make a difference

9.1.2. If teachers expect all students to learn and excel, they can and do

9.1.3. It is possible to institutionalize the effective teaching of one teacher into an overall school philosophy

9.1.4. Not all teachers can ameliorate societal and school problems

9.2. Reform from 1980s to 2012

9.2.1. In the 1980s, the major reform shifted from the federal to the state to the local levels

9.2.2. In the 1990s and 2000s, President Clinton's Goals and President Bush's No Child Left Behind placed the federal government back at the forefront of educational policy

9.2.3. From the beginning, the federal government through the Department of Education attempted to balance its ideological belief that education is not a federal governmental matter

9.2.4. The Educational Reform from the 1980s to today consisted of two waves Accountability and Achievement Structure and Processes of the Schools

9.3. Federal Involvement

9.3.1. There were numerous goals set out by the government to improve school reforms since the early 1990s By the year 2000, all children will start school ready to learn By the year 2000, the high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90% By the year 2000, American students will leaves grades 4,8, and 12 having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter By the year 2000, U.S. students will be first in the world in mathematics and science achievement By the year 2000, every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy By the year 2000, every school in America will be free of drugs and violence

9.4. Goals 2000

9.4.1. Was a direct outgrowth of the state-led education reform agenda of the 1980s Increased high school graduation requirements particularly in math and science Instituted statewide testing programs Offering more advanced placement courses Promoting the use of technology in the classroom

9.4.2. The key intellectual element was that the law provides the framework of reform that shaped the educational ethos of the Clinton Administration

9.4.3. The bulk of educational reforms with respect to standards and assessments were initiated at the state level 48 states had tested their students 40 states had standards in all core subjects Many states increase standards for teachers

9.5. No Child Left Behind

9.5.1. A landmark and controversial piece of legislation that had far-reaching consequences for education in the United States Was the centerpiece of President George W. Bush's educational policy It represented a logical extension of a standards movements that tossed the left's critique of U.S. education back on itself NCLB mandates the uniform standards for all students in order to reduce and eventually eliminate the social class and race achievement gap by 2014

9.5.2. Key Components Annual testing School-by-school data on student test performance Set adequate yearly progress goals for each school in every state Schools that don't meet AYP for two years need improvement Must have highly qualified teachers for core academic subjects

9.6. Approaches to Reform

9.6.1. Neo-liberal approach stress the independent power of schools in eliminating the achievement gap for low-income students

9.6.2. The economic and social differences between races and classes affects academic achievement at all levels from prenatal, to early childhood, to overall health, welfare, and living environment

9.6.3. Minority and lower class children have more vision, hearing, and ora health problems than white children which can affect their ability to focus and learn during school

9.6.4. Neighborhood health and environmental factors that influence an individual and the community's ability to be healthy

9.7. School-based Reforms

9.7.1. In the 1980s-1990s, many educational researchers and policy analysts indicated that most public schools were failing in terms of student achievement, discipline and morality Some researchers reasoned that magnet schools and private schools were superior to neighborhood public schools because schools of choice reflected the desires and needs of their constituents and were thus sensitive to change Voucher proponents argued that if families rather than schools were funded it would allow for greater parental choice and participation By voting with their money, parents would reward good schools and punish bad schools

9.7.2. Congressional support for greater school choice was expressed in a bill that was passed by the House of Representatives in the summer of 1990 Provided direct federal support for open enrollment experiments Choice is controversial because it is deeply political and rests on a set of assumptions about educational marketplaces and private schools that are questionable

9.8. Charter Schools

9.8.1. Public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools In return, are held accountable for student performance The charter itself is a performance contract that details the school's mission, program, goals, students served, methods of assessment, and ways to measure success It is paid for with tax dollars no tuition charges and must be open to all students in the school district

9.8.2. Proponents of charter schools have long argued that they provide a more effective and efficient alternative for low-income children especially in urban areas Provide a better education at a lower cost However, reports have shown that such schools did not teach students enough

9.9. Vouchers

9.9.1. Vouchers went directly to families rather than to religious schools and they could be used in either religious or secular private schools The Florida Opportunity Scholarship program has been modified to meet the Court's ruling and now serves low-income and special needs students for the purpose of providing equal education

9.9.2. This program did not violate the constitutional prohibition against public money being used for religious purposes Voucher advocates argue that school choice will have three important educational impacts Will provide low-income parents with the same choices as middle-class parents and lead to increased parental satisfaction with their children's school Given the absence of the large educational bureaucracy of urban school systems, charter and voucher schools will provide a better learning environment for low-income students and result in higher student achievement Urban public schools will be forced to improve or close their doors which will result in higher student achievement

9.10. School-Business Partnerships

9.10.1. Business leaders are becoming increasingly concerned that the nation's schools are not producing the kinds of graduates necessary for revitalization of the U.S. economy In 1982, the Boston Compact was created to help schools refocus their teaching methods School-business partnerships include scholarships for poor students to attend college and programs where businesses adopt a school There is little convincing evidence that such partnerships has significantly improved schools as a means of reform