Healthcare Policies of U.S. Political Parties Mindmap Jason McDaniel HCI 550 Healthcare Policy an...

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Healthcare Policies of U.S. Political Parties Mindmap Jason McDaniel HCI 550 Healthcare Policy and Innovation January 31, 2016 Julia Gilliatt, MA Tami Longo, RN, MHI, NE-BC Caryn Unterschuetz, MHI, RN-BC by Mind Map: Healthcare Policies of U.S. Political Parties Mindmap Jason McDaniel HCI 550 Healthcare Policy and Innovation January 31, 2016 Julia Gilliatt, MA  Tami Longo, RN, MHI, NE-BC Caryn Unterschuetz, MHI, RN-BC

1. Republican

1.1. Public Healthcare Policies

1.1.1. Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act

1.1.1.1. EMTALA was passed as part of a larger budget bill called the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, or COBRA

1.1.1.2. Passed in 1986 by a Democratic House and a Republican Senate and signed by Ronald Reagan

1.1.1.3. Required any hospital participating in Medicare to provide emergency care to anyone who needs it, including illegal immigrants, regardless of ability to pay.

1.1.1.4. Stakeholders

1.1.1.4.1. Proponents: The House and Senate, President Reagan

1.1.1.4.2. Opponents: American Hospital Association (AHA)

1.1.1.5. Financing

1.1.1.5.1. EMTALA is an unfunded mandate

1.1.2. Americans with Disabilities Act

1.1.2.1. "The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodation, communications, and governmental activities." (Department of Labor)

1.1.2.2. Stakeholders

1.1.2.2.1. Bipartisan support. Signed and passed by President George Bush in 1990

1.1.2.3. Financing

1.1.2.3.1. The ADA is an unfunded mandate

1.1.3. Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act

1.1.3.1. Authorizes Medicare coverage of outpatient prescription drugs

1.1.3.2. Signed December 8, 2003, by President George W. Bush

1.1.3.3. Created Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)

1.1.3.4. Stakeholders

1.1.3.4.1. Proponents: President George W. Bush, Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-Tenn.), Medicare beneficiaries

1.1.3.5. Financing

1.1.3.5.1. "The drug assistance and other provisions of the law are projected to cost taxpayers at least $395 billion, and possibly as much as $534 billion" (Oliver, 2004)

1.2. Private Healthcare Policies

1.2.1. Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973

1.2.1.1. Signed by president Nixon on December 29, 1973

1.2.1.2. "Major purpose is to stimulate interest by consumers and providers in the HMO concept and to make health care delivery under this form available and accessible in the health care market." (SSA)

1.2.1.3. Participants must select a primary care physician from a list of approved providers to act as a "gatekeeper"

1.2.1.4. Stakeholders

1.2.1.4.1. Proponents: President Richard Nixon, Senator Edward Kennedy, Representative Harley O. Staggers, Advocates of universal coverage

1.2.1.5. Financing

1.2.1.5.1. Dependent on the type of HMO plan.

1.2.2. The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA)

1.2.2.1. Passed by congress and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan

1.2.2.2. COBRA requires continuation coverage to be offered to covered employees, their spouses, former spouses, and dependent children when group health coverage would otherwise be lost due to certain specific events. (DOL)

1.2.2.3. Stakeholders

1.2.2.3.1. Business owners

1.2.2.3.2. Both full and part-time employees that have experienced a "qualifying event

1.2.2.4. Financing

1.2.2.4.1. Group health plan can require beneficiaries to pay for COBRA continuation coverage.

2. Democratic

2.1. Public Healthcare Policies

2.1.1. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

2.1.1.1. "On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed the Affordable Care Act. The law put in place comprehensive health insurance reforms that put consumers back in charge of their health care." (DHHS)

2.1.1.2. Benefits for women: Covering preventative services and lowering costs

2.1.1.3. Young Adult Coverage: Coverage available for dependents up to 26 years of age

2.1.1.4. Strengthens Medicare: Yearly wellness visits and in some cases free preventative services

2.1.1.5. Holding insurance companies accountable: Must justify any premium increase of 10% or more

2.1.1.6. Stakeholders

2.1.1.6.1. Proponents: President Obama, democratic leadership, uninsured

2.1.1.6.2. Opponents: Republicans, small business owners, insurance companies

2.1.1.7. Financing

2.1.1.7.1. Cuts to government spending, accounts for $741 billion of the health law's financing. It's mostly changes to how the government pays the doctors and hospitals who provide care to Medicaid and Medicare patients. (Kliff, 2012)

2.1.1.7.2. $318 billion is generated by having those who earn a gross income over $200,000 pay 3.8 percent of investment income toward Medicare's hospital insurance (Kliff, 2012)

2.1.2. Clinton Healthcare plan of 1993 "Health Security Act"

2.1.2.1. "Every aspect of the health care system would be affected by the legislation. Hundreds of pages of tightly written paragraphs detail sweeping government control of the health insurance industry" (Moffit, 1993)

2.1.2.2. A National Health Board

2.1.2.2.1. The Clinton Plan creates a new, presidentially appointed agency that will have general oversight over the American health care system

2.1.2.3. Regional Health alliances

2.1.2.3.1. "The Plan creates a new state-based system of health insurance cooperatives that will control the availability of health plans, enforce health budgets, enroll employers and employees in the new system, collect premiums, and generally enforce the national insurance rules and regulations." (Moffit, 1993)

2.1.2.4. "It called for universal coverage, with all employers required to contribute toward the costs of insurance premiums for their workers." (Boonprakrong)

2.1.2.5. Through regional purchasing pools, the government would strictly regulate insurance practices.

2.1.2.6. Stakeholders

2.1.2.6.1. President Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton,

2.1.2.7. Financing

2.1.2.7.1. The Clinton Plan requires all employers to provide at least the standard package and to pay at least 80 percent of the cost of the government's standard health benefits package.

2.1.3. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

2.1.3.1. Medicare and Medicaid were enacted as Title XVIII and Title XIX of the Social Security Act in 1965

2.1.3.2. Extended coverage to Americans over the age of 1965

2.1.3.3. Provides health care services to low-income children deprived of parental support, and individuals with disabilities

2.1.3.4. Stakeholders

2.1.3.4.1. Proponents: Lyndon Johnson, Americans over 65. Passed with bipartisan support in both the House and Senate

2.1.3.5. Financing

2.1.3.5.1. In 2011, Medicare covered 48.7 million people. Total expenditures in 2011 were $549.1 billion. This money comes from the Medicare Trust Funds. (CMS)

2.2. Private Healthcare Policies

2.2.1. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

2.2.1.1. Healthcare Exchanges

2.2.1.1.1. Health insurance issuers generally would be prohibited from denying coverage to people because of a pre-existing condition or any other factor.

2.2.1.1.2. Health insurance issuers in the individual and small group markets would only be allowed to vary premiums based on age, tobacco use, family size, and geography. (Obamacare Facts)

2.2.1.1.3. These protections would prohibit issuers from refusing to renew coverage because an individual or employee becomes sick or has a pre-existing condition. (Obamacare Facts)

2.2.1.1.4. Stakeholders

2.2.1.1.5. Financing

3. Conclusion

4. References