Types of Assessment

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Types of Assessment by Mind Map: Types of Assessment

1. Diagnostic

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. Diagnostic assessment is an assessment that takes place before beginning a lesson or unit in order to gather data on the students existing knowledge on a particular subject. Also known as a pre-assessment (education.nt.gov.au)

1.2. Purpose

1.2.1. The purpose of diagnostic assessment is to gather information about each student's prior knowledge before beginning instruction (thinkonline)

1.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

1.3.1. Advantages

1.3.1.1. Establishes a baseline for the class by allowing the teacher to have a general scope of where the class is as a whole before instruction begins

1.3.1.2. Allows for better differentiated teaching by allowing the teacher to know exactly where each student was before the lesson began.

1.3.1.3. Allow the teacher to create realistic and attainable goals as well as a frame of reference for later assessments

1.3.1.4. Students and teachers will be able to see and recognize how much a student has grown in a skill over a period of time because the diagnostic test provides information on where the student was before instruction.

1.3.2. Disadvantages

1.3.2.1. Could possibly cause an educator to make an incorrect inference about a child's ability level

1.3.2.2. If not properly used to drive instruction, the diagnostic assessment will simply be a waste of class time

1.3.2.3. If not implemented properly in the classroom with very clear instruction that it's okay if the student doesn't yet know the answers or have the skills being assessed, the student could be discouraged by an assessment that they do very poorly on.

1.4. OF or FOR learning

1.4.1. Diagnostic assessment is designed primarily as an assessment FOR learning because the assessment takes place before instruction and drives instruction rather than waiting to the end after the lesson and instruction are complete.

1.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

1.5.1. 7th grade vocabulary pre-test - all students take an assessment to determine their knowledge of 7th grade need-to-know vocabulary words.

1.6. References

1.6.1. (2012). Department of Education - Diagnostic assessments. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.education.nt.gov.au/parents-community/assessment-reporting/diagnostic-assessments/diagnostic-assessments.

1.6.2. (2013). Diagnostic, Formative & Summative Assessments – What's ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://thinkonline.smarttutor.com/diagnostic-formative-summative-assessments-whats-the-difference/.

1.6.3. (2014). What are the advantages and disadvantages of the different ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from https://www.teachingchannel.org/questions/what-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-the-d.

2. Summative

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Summative assessment is an assessment that evaluates student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark (cmu.edu)

2.2. Purpose

2.2.1. The purpose of summative assessment is to determine to what extent the instructional and learning goals have been met (education.com)

2.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

2.3.1. Advantages

2.3.1.1. Evaluate the effectiveness of educational programs

2.3.1.2. measure progress toward goals

2.3.1.3. assist in making course-placement decisions

2.3.1.4. can allow for the correction of future instruction to better meet needs if interpreted/used appropriately

2.3.2. Disadvantages

2.3.2.1. Can cause very high assessment anxiety in students

2.3.2.2. Provide information about a student's performance too late in the learning process

2.3.2.3. disconnected from actual classroom practice

2.3.2.4. difficult for one test to represent understanding or mastery of the entire subject and/or skill so only parts that are easily measured will be assessed.

2.4. OF or FOR learning

2.4.1. Summative assessment is designed primarily as an assessment OF learning because the assessment takes place at the end of the learning process and evaluates performance rather. It is not primarily designed to drive instruction.

2.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

2.5.1. A multiple choice test after reading a short story that assesses the students ability to comprehend and analyze the main elements of the story

2.6. References

2.6.1. (2010). Formative vs Summative Assessment - Teaching Excellence ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/basics/formative-summative.html.

2.6.2. Johnson, E. (2010). Formative and Summative Assessment | Education.com. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/formative-and-summative-assessment/.

2.6.3. (2014). Summative assessment( advantages vs. disadvantages). Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.slideshare.net/yojevolamargo/summative-assessment-advantages-vs-disadvantages.

3. Portfolio

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. Portfolio assessment is an evaluation of a collection of a student work representing a selection of performance (ed.gov)

3.2. Purpose

3.2.1. The purpose of portfolio assessment is to provide an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts (education.com)

3.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

3.3.1. Advantages

3.3.1.1. supports new instructional approaches that emphasize the student's role in constructing understanding and the teacher's role in promoting understanding.

3.3.1.2. can be used to support cooperative teaming/learning by offering an opportunity for students to share an comment on each other's work.

3.3.1.3. as representations of classroom-based performance, they can be fully integrated into the required curriculum

3.3.1.4. supplement rather than take away from instruction time

3.3.2. Disadvantages

3.3.2.1. requires extra time to plan an assessment system and conduct the assessment

3.3.2.2. developing a systematic and deliberate system is difficult and failure to do so can result in just a random collection of student work

3.3.2.3. scoring portfolios involves extensive subjective evaluation on the part of the teacher

3.4. OF or FOR learning

3.4.1. Portfolio assessment can be used primarily as an assessment OF learning or FOR learning depending on how the teacher implements the portfolio in the classroom. If it is just used as a way to evaluate a collection of works at the conclusion of a lesson or period of time, then it would be being used as an assessment OF learning. However, a portfolio could also be used as a continuous tool for the student to track his or her progress and work with other students to build on their skills and knowledge. In this case, when the portfolio would be driving instruction, it would be being used as an assessment FOR learning.

3.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

3.5.1. Having the students keep a journal where they record their responses to writing prompts throughout the year and at the end of the year both the teacher and the student can see the overall progress of their creative capabilities as well as their mastery of basic writing skills (grammar, spelling, etc.)

3.6. References

3.6.1. (2010). Portfolio Assessment | Education.com. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolio-assessment/.

3.6.2. (2010). Archived: STUDENT PORTFOLIOS: CLASSROOM USES. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/OR/ConsumerGuides/classuse.html.

3.6.3. Defining Portfolio Assessment. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/portfolio.html.

4. Formative

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students' achievement of intended instructional outcomes (ccsso.org)

4.2. Purpose

4.2.1. The purpose of formative assessment tasks and activities is to provide the teacher with a window into students' cognitive processes in order to make adjustments to instruction. Formative assessments allow students to show their thinking and allow teachers a way to see and gauge students' cognitive processes (teal.ed.gov)

4.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

4.3.1. Advantages

4.3.1.1. helps teachers identify the current state of learner's knowledge and skills

4.3.1.2. can take assessment anxiety away from students because they are not graded.

4.3.1.3. allows teachers the opportunity to address issues early on and during lessons rather than waiting until the end of the unit to assess and address. This results in less reteaching at the end.

4.3.2. Disadvantages

4.3.2.1. sacrifice of time to assess during the lesson - can cause the teacher to rush through a lesson resulting in a lack of mastery of skill or knowledge for the student.

4.3.2.2. students may not take the assessment seriously because there is no point or grade value assigned - resulting in incorrect data collected by the teacher during the assessment

4.4. OF or FOR learning

4.4.1. Formative assessment is designed primarily as an assessment FOR learning because the assessment takes place during the learning process and drives further instruction rather than waiting to the end after the lesson and instruction are complete.

4.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

4.5.1. Students are asked to put a thumbs up or thumbs down when asked if they understand the directions.

4.6. References

4.6.1. (2014). formative assessment: examples of practice - Council of ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://ccsso.org/documents/2008/formative_assessment_examples_2008.pdf.

4.6.2. (2012). Fact Sheet: Formative Assessment | Teaching Excellence in ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from https://teal.ed.gov/tealguide/formativeassessment.

4.6.3. (2013). What Are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Formative ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/advantages-disadvantages-formative-assessment-28407.html.

5. High-Stakes

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. High-Stakes assessment is an assessment in which the outcomes are used to make important, often life-altering decisions for students, teachers, schools, and/or districts (education.com)

5.2. Purpose

5.2.1. The purpose of high-stakes assessments is to measure student performance and to hold individual schools and school systems accountable for that performance (apa.org)

5.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

5.3.1. Advantages

5.3.1.1. Holds schools accountable for all children

5.3.1.2. helps pinpoint failing schools

5.3.1.3. allow poorly performing students to have access to amenities such as private tutoring

5.3.1.4. motivates students, teachers, and administrators to work ever harder to boost achievement

5.3.2. Disadvantages

5.3.2.1. in order to be effective, the consequence of low achievement on a high-stakes assessment must be severe (withholding a high school diploma, school closure, etc.)

5.3.2.2. a de-emphasis on skills that cannot be objectively tested: art, music, oral language, etc.

5.3.2.3. test scores can be more likely related to socioeconomic status than to school test preparation or teacher performance.

5.3.2.4. poor, minority, special education, and non-English speaking students in underfunded schools must compete with middle class and wealthy students in well-funded schools on the same tests.

5.4. OF or FOR learning

5.4.1. High-stakes assessment is designed primarily as an assessment OF learning because the assessment takes place at the end of the learning process and evaluates performance. It is not primarily designed to drive instruction.

5.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

5.5.1. Using the Galileo test to determine if a student should be in Advanced Language Arts class, General Language Arts class, or put in an intervention class the following school year.

5.6. Referenes

5.6.1. Johnson, D. (2010). High Stakes Testing | Education.com. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/high-stakes-testing1/.

5.6.2. (2010). Appropriate Use of High-Stakes Testing in Our Nation's ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/brochures/testing.aspx.

6. Authentic

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. Authentic assessment is an assessment that has the following characteristics: (1) direct measurement of skills that relate to long-term educational outcomes such as success in the workplace; (2) tasks that require extensive engagement and complex performance; and (3) an analysis of the processes used to produce the response (education.com)

6.2. Purpose

6.2.1. The purpose of authentic assessment is to evaluate students' abilities in 'real-world' contexts, rather than just rote learning and passive test-taking (teachervision.com)

6.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

6.3.1. Advantages

6.3.1.1. prepares students to do more than memorize information and use algorithms to solve problems

6.3.1.2. students learn how to practice higher-order thinking skills

6.3.1.3. connection to real-life skills (21st century learning)

6.3.1.4. promotes student motivation, engagement, and higher-ordered learning skills by combining teaching, learning, and assessing

6.3.2. Disadvantages

6.3.2.1. subjectivity in scoring/grading

6.3.2.2. cost of administering and scoring

6.3.2.3. sometimes only a narrow range of skills are assessed

6.3.2.4. educators rarely have adequate guidelines to help analyze and score student products.

6.4. OF or FOR learning

6.4.1. Authentic assessment is designed primarily as an assessment FOR learning because the assessment is part of the instruction. Teachers and students share an understanding of the criteria for performance and in some cases, students even contribute to defining the expectations for the task. (education.com)

6.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

6.5.1. Students will be assessed on their ability to effectively communicate and deliver a presentation on a topic of their choice approved by the teacher. Students will be given a rubric on how they will be assessed during the presentation ahead of time. Skills required will include eye contact, voice volume, enunciation, etc.

6.6. References

6.6.1. (2010). Authentic Assessment | Education.com. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/authentic-assessment/.

6.6.2. (2013). Authentic Assessment Overview - TeacherVision.com. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from https://www.teachervision.com/teaching-methods-and-management/educational-testing/4911.html.

7. Self-Assessment

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Self-assessment is an assessment that requires students to reflect on their own work and judge how well they have performed in relation to the assessment criteria (reading.ac.uk)

7.2. Purpose

7.2.1. The purpose of self-assessment is to get an idea of the range of abilities and experience of the class as a whole, not to evaluate individuals (cmu.edu)

7.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

7.3.1. Advantages

7.3.1.1. easy to construct and score

7.3.1.2. low-anxiety for the student

7.3.1.3. provides timely feedback and allows for quick assessment of student learning

7.3.1.4. promotes academic integrity through student self-reporting of learning progress

7.3.1.5. increases student motivation

7.3.2. Disadvantages

7.3.2.1. students may not be able to accurately assess their abilities

7.3.2.2. takes time for students to learn how to do this effectively and correctly

7.3.2.3. students will grade themselves subjectively different than their neighbor will grade himself

7.4. OF or FOR learning

7.4.1. Self-assessment is designed primarily as an assessment FOR learning because the assessment takes place during instruction as a quick way for the teacher to gauge where the students are in order to adapt the lesson to better meet their needs. It is not as effective when used as an assessment OF learning because their are too many subjective factors involved.

7.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

7.5.1. After having students write a short story and then type it on the computer, provide them with time to look at the grading rubric they received at the beginning of the project and evaluate their work. Then give them time to go back and make the changes necessary in order to improve their short story.

7.6. References

7.6.1. (2013). Self-assessment - University of Reading. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from https://www.reading.ac.uk/engageinassessment/peer-and-self-assessment/self-assessment/eia-self-assessment.aspx.

7.6.2. (2009). Self-Assessment Instruments - Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/howto/basics/selfassessment.html.

7.6.3. (2015). CTE - Self-Assessment - Cornell Center for Teaching ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from https://www.cte.cornell.edu/teaching-ideas/assessing-student-learning/self-assessment.html.

8. Peer Assesment

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. Peer assessment is a process through which students and instructors share in the evaluation of student work based on assessment criteria (learningsciences.utexas.edu)

8.2. Purpose

8.2.1. The purpose of peer assessment is for students to act as the "assessor" and to gain an opportunity to better understand assessment criteria. The purpose is also to transfer some ownership of the assessment process to the student, thereby potentially increasing their motivation and engagement (reading.ac.uk)

8.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

8.3.1. Advantages

8.3.1.1. engages students in the learning process

8.3.1.2. motivates students to achieve higher

8.3.1.3. supports the development of critical thinking, interpersonal and other skills

8.3.2. Disadvantages

8.3.2.1. students may undervalue the significance if it does not contribute to the summative grade

8.3.2.2. students may feel that the "expert" opinion of the teacher is more valuable than that of their peer and therefore it is not worth their time

8.3.2.3. can raise social tensions and can be impacted by social relationships between students

8.3.2.4. can set individuals up in competition with each other without careful explanation and preparation

8.4. OF or FOR learning

8.4.1. Peer assessment is primarily designed as an assessment for learning because students are encouraged to learn more deeply, building up their understanding, rather than just their knowledge of the facts, as well as gaining insight into their own approach to an assessment task in comparison to their peers (reading.ac.uk)

8.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

8.5.1. While working on a lesson on short-stories, after the students have self-assessed their work and made changes, have them share their work with a partner who will then spend time going over their short story with the grading rubric and making suggestions on how they could improve their short story to better meet the criteria on the rubric.

8.6. References

8.6.1. (2012). Student Peer Assessment | UNSW Teaching Staff Gateway. Retrieved February 1, 2016, from https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/peer-assessment.

8.6.2. (2013). Peer assessment - University of Reading. Retrieved February 1, 2016, from https://www.reading.ac.uk/engageinassessment/peer-and-self-assessment/peer-assessment/eia-peer-assessment.aspx.

8.6.3. (2015). Peer Assessment | Learning Sciences - Center for Teaching ... Retrieved February 1, 2016, from https://learningsciences.utexas.edu/teaching/assess-learning/feedback/peer-assessment.

9. Performance-Based

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Performance-Based assessment is a way to assess the acquisition AND APPLICATION of knowledge, skills, and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to students (ascd.org)

9.2. Purpose

9.2.1. The purpose of performance-based assessment (in contrast to traditional assessment such as standardized testing) is to assess a better overall representation of student progress including the effectiveness of teacher lesson plans, worksheets and study skills (technology.com)

9.2.2. Another purpose of performance-based assessment is to assess not only if a student knows a fact and/or skill but if that student can implement/use that fact and/or skill (ascd.org)

9.3. Advantages & Disadvantages

9.3.1. Advantages

9.3.1.1. Students are enabled and more responsible for the demonstration of his/her learning.

9.3.1.2. Allows for the acquisition and execution of real-world 21st century skills and not just the accumulation of content knowledge

9.3.1.3. Provides teachers with information about how a student understands and applies knowledge

9.3.1.4. Teachers can integrate performance-based assessments into the instruction process to provide additional learning experiences for students.

9.3.2. Disadvantages

9.3.2.1. Many teachers accurately feel that they don't know enough about how to fairly assess a student's performance.

9.3.2.2. Difficult to implement successfully in large classes with limited teacher resources

9.3.2.3. Moving to this type of performance learning and/or assessment requires an investment of time that will deduct from actual instructional/learning time

9.3.2.4. Grading becomes much more subjective than the objective right or wrong standardized test

9.4. OF or FOR learning

9.4.1. Performance-Based assessment is designed primarily as an assessment FOR learning because the assessment acknowledges the critical importance of the instructional decisions made by students and their teachers working as a team. Students use evidence of their own progress to understand what comes next for them. Also, Performance-Based assessment is a continuous assessment throughout the learning process, not just as the beginning, middle, or end. (ati.pearson.com)

9.5. Example for 7th Grade ELA

9.5.1. Have the students create and maintain a "blog" on the class blog website by adding a post to it once a week. Depending what was taught during the week, the students will have various criteria of what their blog post should be about and how it should be structured.

9.6. References

9.6.1. Performance Based Assessment - Teach-nology. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/alternative_assessment/performance_based/.

9.6.2. (2009). What is Performance-Based Learning and Assessment, and ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/196021/chapters/What_is_Performance-Based_Learning_and_Assessment,_and_Why_is_it_Important%C2%A2.aspx.

9.6.3. Brualdi, A. (2003). Implementing performance assessment in the classroom ... Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=6&n=2.

9.6.4. (2011). Assessment for learning defined. ETS Assessment Training ... Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://ati.pearson.com/downloads/afldefined.pdf.