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Genetics by Mind Map: Genetics
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Genetics

Human Genome Project

Complete copy of the entire set of human gene instructions

2003

Chromosomes

DNA coiled around proteins

Human: 46

23 pairs

First 22 pairs are called autosomes

23rd pair called sex-gender

Genes

Code for specific trait

DNA

Structure

Double Helix, Discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick - 1953, Nucleotide = Phosphate, base and sugar, Base, Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), Adenine (A), Guanine (G)

Replication

Enzymes (protein) break up the DNA cell and helps form identical DNA cells

Cell Division

Mitosis - Somatic (body) cells, Stages:, Interphase: where DNA gets photocopied (starts of as mother cell), Prophase: Centrioles produce spindle fibers (like spaghetti), sister chromatids (2 sets), nuclear membrane dissolves, Metaphase: Chromatids line up on metaphase plate (middle), spindle fibers connect to centromere, centrioles go to opposite poles (like north and south pole), Anaphase: Spindle fibers pull chromatids apart and move to the ends of cells, Telophase: Nucleus forms (ends as daughter cells), chromosomes decondense, Cytokinesis: Division of cytoplasm

Gamete Production: Meiosis (Reproductive cells), Meiosis I, Interphase I: Chromosomes duplicate, Prophase I: Homologous chromosomes pair and exchange segments/switch and crossover (Synapsis - pairing of homologs to form tetrads/4 pairs of chromosomes), Metaphase: Tetrads line up in the middle, Pairs of homologous chromosomes split up (becomes sister chromatids again), Telophase & Cytokinesis: Two haploid (half of the original information) cells form; chromosomes still double, Meiosis II, Prophase II: Spindle fibers form again, Metaphase II: Sister chromatids (23) line up in the middle, Anaphase: Sister chromatids separate = 23 chromosomes, Telophase II: Haploid daughter cells forming, Sister chromatids finally separate; four haploid daughter cells result, containing single chromosomes

Haploid (n): 1 set of chromosomes in gametes

Diploid (2n): 2 sets of chromosomes. One from each parent