Genetics

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Genetics by Mind Map: Genetics

1. Human Genome Project

1.1. Complete copy of the entire set of human gene instructions

1.2. 2003

2. Chromosomes

2.1. DNA coiled around proteins

2.2. Human: 46

2.3. 23 pairs

2.3.1. First 22 pairs are called autosomes

2.3.2. 23rd pair called sex-gender

3. Genes

3.1. Code for specific trait

4. DNA

4.1. Structure

4.1.1. Double Helix

4.1.1.1. Discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick - 1953

4.1.1.2. Nucleotide = Phosphate, base and sugar

4.1.1.2.1. Base

4.2. Replication

4.2.1. Enzymes (protein) break up the DNA cell and helps form identical DNA cells

4.3. Cell Division

4.3.1. Mitosis - Somatic (body) cells

4.3.1.1. Stages:

4.3.1.1.1. Interphase: where DNA gets photocopied (starts of as mother cell)

4.3.1.1.2. Prophase: Centrioles produce spindle fibers (like spaghetti), sister chromatids (2 sets), nuclear membrane dissolves

4.3.1.1.3. Metaphase: Chromatids line up on metaphase plate (middle), spindle fibers connect to centromere, centrioles go to opposite poles (like north and south pole)

4.3.1.1.4. Anaphase: Spindle fibers pull chromatids apart and move to the ends of cells

4.3.1.1.5. Telophase: Nucleus forms (ends as daughter cells), chromosomes decondense

4.3.1.1.6. Cytokinesis: Division of cytoplasm

4.3.2. Gamete Production: Meiosis (Reproductive cells)

4.3.2.1. Meiosis I

4.3.2.1.1. Interphase I: Chromosomes duplicate

4.3.2.1.2. Prophase I: Homologous chromosomes pair and exchange segments/switch and crossover (Synapsis - pairing of homologs to form tetrads/4 pairs of chromosomes)

4.3.2.1.3. Metaphase: Tetrads line up in the middle

4.3.2.1.4. Pairs of homologous chromosomes split up (becomes sister chromatids again)

4.3.2.1.5. Telophase & Cytokinesis: Two haploid (half of the original information) cells form; chromosomes still double

4.3.2.2. Meiosis II

4.3.2.2.1. Prophase II: Spindle fibers form again

4.3.2.2.2. Metaphase II: Sister chromatids (23) line up in the middle

4.3.2.2.3. Anaphase: Sister chromatids separate = 23 chromosomes

4.3.2.2.4. Telophase II: Haploid daughter cells forming

4.3.2.2.5. Sister chromatids finally separate; four haploid daughter cells result, containing single chromosomes

4.3.3. Haploid (n): 1 set of chromosomes in gametes

4.3.4. Diploid (2n): 2 sets of chromosomes. One from each parent