IDEA Categories of Disabilities

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IDEA Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: IDEA Categories of Disabilities

1. 1. AUTISM

1.1. Assistive Technologies

1.1.1. Pictures or visual aids that assist in learning vocabulary and abstract concepts

1.1.2. Technologies that incorporate students' special interests in lessons.

1.2. Interventions

1.2.1. Interaction with non-disabled peers, as they provide better models of behavior for autistic children

1.2.2. Learning tasks that allow autistic students to continue working on the same tasks/ projects at home, because consistency is very important to them

1.2.3. Provide "safe spaces" in the classroom where students can retreat when they feel overwhelmed

1.2.4. Use clear and concise, literal language when giving directions

1.2.5. Preferential seating, considering sensory sensitivities that could affect the way a child pays attention and is active in class

1.3. Case Study: Asperger's


2.1. Assistive Technologies

2.1.1. Use of hearing aids and assistive listening devices

2.1.2. Braille programs and braille books

2.1.3. Toys and other objects that can be used as games

2.1.4. Large display scientific calculators

2.2. Interventions

2.2.1. Cooperative learning in small groups

2.2.2. Touch cues and tactile activities, especially for the very deaf-blind

2.2.3. Accommodating classroom and personal space for students with this disability

2.2.4. Mentorship programs, pairing a non-disabled student with a deaf-blind student


3.1. Assistive Technologies

3.1.1. Any number of technology tools that allow students to communicate through typing

3.1.2. Word generating devices that translate words into written language

3.1.3. Speech generating devices that translate written words into speech

3.1.4. Voice recognition software

3.2. Interventions

3.2.1. Sign language

3.2.2. Expressing ideas through gestures and facial expressions

3.2.3. Pictures, drawings, paintings, online images--any number of visual representations of ideas

3.2.4. Closed captioning on videos and movies


4.1. Assistive Technologies

4.1.1. Relaxing music or music of the student's choice to help with instances of emotional disturbance

4.2. Interventions

4.2.1. Preferential seating

4.2.2. Continual positive reinforcement for students with sadness or depression or low self-esteem

4.2.3. A buddy system whereby students work in pairs to support each other on assignments, doing homework on time, and studying together. This could be used for students who struggle with interpersonal relationships, because it helps build trust and empathy


5.1. Assistive Technologies

5.1.1. Graphic organizers

5.1.2. Tracing worksheets to help improve fine motor skills

5.1.3. Apps that increase fine motor skills

5.1.4. A visual schedule for students with cognitive developmental delays

5.2. Interventions

5.2.1. Assist students with cognitive developmental delay directly. Examples include demonstrating how to hold a pencil correctly, write neatly, and ask questions when they're confused

5.2.2. With social developmental delay, reward positive behavior toward peers


6.1. Assistive Technologies

6.1.1. Amplifying devices and personal FM systems

6.1.2. Closed captioning films and videos

6.2. Interventions

6.2.1. Be extra conscious of your tone and pitch as a teacher with students with hearing impairments

6.2.2. Try to decrease noise distractions and other unnecessary noises in the classroom

6.2.3. Favorable seating in the classroom to facilitate lip reading

6.2.4. Assistance from classmates who can take notes for students with hearing impairments


7.1. Assistive Technologies

7.1.1. Anything that presents abstract or complicated material in new ways, often visual and concrete

7.1.2. Anything that breaks information down into small sequential steps that are easier to replicate and follow than the original process

7.2. Interventions

7.2.1. Be as concrete as possible. Provide the student with hand-on materials and experiences

7.2.2. Be clear in your instructions and demonstrate what you want your students to be able to do

7.2.3. Give students many different ways to demonstrate what they know. Sometimes exams and assignments that other students complete with ease can be difficult for students with intellectual disabilities

7.2.4. Having students with intellectual disabilities pair up with stronger students can have a big impact on their learning


8.1. Assistive Technologies

8.1.1. Computers

8.1.2. Augmentative communication systems and communication boards

8.2. Interventions

8.2.1. Make assignments easier by breaking it up into smaller pieces and listing in a step-by-step way the steps to completing the assignment

8.2.2. Extra time to complete assignments and tests, or break tests up over several days

8.2.3. Modified lesson plans and learning outcomes

8.2.4. Using a student/peer tutor

8.2.5. Working one on one with a teacher

8.2.6. Reducing the difficulty or reading level of assignments


9.1. Assistive Technologies

9.1.1. Specially-designed seats and furniture for students with physical disabilities

9.1.2. Laptops, tablets and iPads that allow students with limited arm and hand mobility to write and read easier

9.2. Interventions

9.2.1. Ensuring enough space for the student to sit comfortably and move around like the others in the classroom

9.2.2. Instruction that helps develop motor and gross skills

9.2.3. Recording class discussions and lectures, using PowerPoint, and other programs that allow students to review the material after class

9.2.4. Easy accessibility to classroom and classroom resources. Place resources where everyone can reach them


10.1. Assistive Technologies

10.1.1. Any number of online resources or assignments and videos that assist students with health impairments which cause them to miss school often

10.2. Interventions

10.2.1. Snack time, allowing students to take a break from class to have something small to eat

10.2.2. 5 minute break from class sessions (especially longer classes) to help students with awareness deficiencies

10.3. Case Study: ADHD


11.1. Assistive Technologies

11.1.1. Use of an electronic communication system

11.1.2. text-to-speech applications

11.2. Interventions

11.2.1. Use tactile and visual cues, like pictures and objects

11.2.2. Paraphrase back what the student has said or indicated

11.2.3. Reinforce body language communication skills

11.2.4. Allow such students to use writing more as a form of expressing themselves and demonstrating understanding


12.1. Interventions

12.1.1. Develop a routine so student knows what to expect and can easily anticipate next steps

12.1.2. Use multiple teaching strategies so students with traumatic brain injury know there are different ways to learn the material

12.1.3. Give directions one step at a time

12.1.4. Assistants/aides in the classroom who work directly with such students

12.1.5. Constant positive reinforcement when such students succeed in understanding

12.2. Assistive Technologies

12.2.1. Recording of lectures and class materials for student to review at home

12.2.2. Laptops, computers, tablets with interactive software


13.1. Interventions

13.1.1. Sensorial learning by associating words, sounds, and objects with tactile experiences

13.1.2. Music to help with language acquisition or any number of skills associated with language

13.2. Assistive Technologies

13.2.1. Audio books

13.2.2. The use of large-print books

13.2.3. Braille books for the extremely visually impaired


14.1. Assistive Technologies

14.1.1. Read Naturally, a software that helps with reading disabilities

14.1.2. Voyager Passport for teens who struggle with reading

14.1.3. Chromebook for students with dyslexia

14.1.4. A Rubik's Cube for reducing fidgeting

14.2. Interventions

14.2.1. For reading disabilities, the Orton-Gillingham approach

14.2.2. Partner system. Students split work, each sharing half the responsibility. For example, one summarizes while the other writes

14.2.3. Give more time to finish homework, classwork, and tests

14.3. Case Study: Dyslexia