Music Section I

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Music Section I by Mind Map: Music Section I

1. Form, Genre, and Style

1.1. Form describes how music is organized on a larger time scale. Form is the architecture of music

1.1.1. Tension and release give form to music by helping to shape a melody. Tension can also be created through increased or decreased tempo, or increased rhythmic activity Tension is created through dissonance and resolution

1.1.2. A phrase is a cohesive musical thought which helps to shape form A theme is a set of phrases that make a melody

1.2. Genre: a category, usually named and recognized by a specific set of conventions

1.3. Style: a particular set of techniques or conventions used by an individual or group

2. Sound and Music

2.1. Sound organized in time

2.2. In recent decades, globalization has made the boundaries between cultures increasingly permeable

3. Composed and Non-Composed Music

3.1. Indian compositions are not written out in scores

3.2. Compositions are handed down through generations by memory

3.3. Due to the way music is learned, the core composition may be only a line or two, which is followed by repetitions and variations

3.3.1. Variations may be pre-composed (memorized ahead or time), or improvised

3.3.2. A piece of music that is composed from beginning to end is called through-composed

4. Properties of a Musical Sound

4.1. Pitch: the highness or lowness of a sound

4.1.1. Indian classical music uses the "Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni" solfege

4.1.2. The Western solfege system is used to list the alphabetical names of keys "Do Re Mi Fa So La Ti Do"

4.1.3. Half steps and whole steps are the basic intervals on any scale

4.1.4. A whole step is the distance between every other key

4.1.5. The distance between any to adjacent keys on a keyboard is a half step

4.2. Rhythm: The way music is organized in time

4.2.1. Rhythm is syncopated when accented or emphasized notes fall on weak beats, or in between beats

4.2.2. The downbeat is one way that rhythm is grouped

4.2.3. Tempo: the speed or pace of a beat

4.2.4. Beat: the steady pulse that underlines most music

4.3. Harmony

4.3.1. India's traditional music is considered a melodic system

4.3.2. Harmony occurs when cords are used systematically in a piece

4.3.3. A chord is made up of three or more pitches, which are sounded simultaneously

4.4. Other Vocabulary

4.4.1. Ornamentation: localized embellishments on a melody (in Indian music, is can be difficult to discern this from the main melody)

4.4.2. Dynamics: The loudness or softness of a sound

4.4.3. Instrumentation: the instrument of combination of instruments used

4.4.4. Timbre: The quality, character, or color of a musical sound

4.4.5. Monophony: when there is a single melodic line

4.4.6. Texture: the number of things going on in a piece at once

4.4.7. Tonic pitch: The home or fundamental pitch on which a scale is based

5. Sound Waves

5.1. Sound is described as a wave of energy

5.1.1. It has both an amplitude and a frequency

5.1.2. Amplitude is how loud or soft a tone is

5.1.3. Frequency affects the pitch of a sound

6. Instruments as Sound Sources

6.1. Curt Sachs and Erich von Hornbostel grouped instruments into four categories in the late 19th century

6.1.1. Chordophones (violins, harps, guitars, etc) have one or more strings that are plucked bowed, or struck

6.1.2. Idiophones (bells, woodblocks, etc), vibrate when struck

6.1.3. Membranophones have a skin or other membrane stretched across some type of frame

6.1.4. Aerophones (horns and flutes) produce sound by vibrating a column of air

6.2. Prior to Sachs and Hornbostel, Western orchestral instruments were grouped into strings, brass, woodwinds, percussion, and sometimes keyboard instruments

7. North and South India

7.1. Geography

7.1.1. The city of Mumbai is the capital of the Maharashtra state

7.1.2. The Vindhya Range crosses much of central India

7.1.3. The Ganga River empties into the Bay of Bengal

7.1.4. The Ganges River flows from the Himalayas and creates the fertile Indo-Gangetic system

7.1.5. The Indus River flows from the Himalayas through Pakistan

7.1.6. India's northern border us the Himalayas

7.2. The central government, based in New Delhi, is a parliamentary system

7.3. 92 states

7.4. India's population is 1.2 billion people

8. South Asia

8.1. The Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan were partitioned in 1947

8.2. The national boundaries we now know were drawn in the 12th century

8.3. South Asia includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan

9. Hinduism and Music

9.1. Some people trace origins of formal music in India to the chants of priests performing rituals called the Vedas

9.2. Hinduism is the worship of deities who appear in many forms

9.3. Hindus make up 80% of the population in India

10. Islam and Music in India

10.1. 13% of India's population identifies as Muslim

10.2. Islam came to India with Arab traders by sea, and overland from Iran, Turkey, and Central Asia

11. Formal Music of the Courts

11.1. South India system became known as Carnatic

11.2. The North Indian system became known as Hindustani

11.3. Tala: Rhythmic cycles

11.4. Raga: melodies

12. Media

12.1. India's Film Industry

12.1.1. Bollywood is the term for the Hindu language film industry

12.1.2. The first India made feature film was Raja Harishchandra, based on the Mahabharata

12.2. Internet

12.2.1. In 2013, there was reported to be around 200 million internet users in India

12.2.2. Internet services were launched in India in the mid 1990s

12.3. Television

12.3.1. Urban television ownership is reported at 75%

12.3.2. The National Television Service has broadcast since the 1970s, but government channels were the only ones available until 1990.

12.4. Radio

12.4.1. The Indian government began to lease airtime to private radio broadcasters in 1990s

12.4.2. India's national broadcast organization All In Radio was centered in New Delhi

12.5. Recording

12.5.1. Industry boomed in the 1980s with the invention of the casette

12.5.2. Fred Gaisberg of the British Gramophone recorded professional singers in Kolkata in 1902