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Chapt. 7: Acids & Bases by Mind Map: Chapt. 7: Acids & Bases
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Chapt. 7: Acids & Bases

The Nature of Acids & Bases



Brønstead & Lowry


Dissolution of an acid in water


Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems

List major species

Look for rxns that go to completion, determine [products]

Define each major species as an acid or base

Pick equilibrium that controls pH


Strong bases dissociate completely in water

Hydroxides of the Group 1A & 2A elements all strong bases

Some bases accept protons but do not contain hydroxide


Acid Strength

Strong & weak Acids

Diprotic acids


Water as an acid & base

Polyprotic Acids

More than one H+ dissociating in steps


Carbonic Acid

Phosphoric Acid

Sulfuric acid

Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration

Applies when [HA]~10^-7 M

Charge balance equation

Same procedure works for strong base solutions

The pH Scale

pH definition

Other log scales

Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration

Dilute solution of a very weak acid

Determine [H+], [OH-], [HA] and [A-]

Re-derive Ka in terms of [H+] & [HA]0

Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions

Identify major species

Focus on chemistry of solution components

Consider sources of H+ from all major species

Acid-Base Properties of Salts

Salt: an ionic compound that breaks into its ionic components when dissolved in water

Salt solutions




Both acidic & basic

Base strength in aqueous solution

Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions

A weak acid dissolved in water is a model for any equilibrium in solution

pH of a mixture of two weak acids of very different strengths

Percent dissociation

Definitions of acid & base predict chemistry

Conjugate base: everything in the acid except the H+ Conjugate acid: everything in the base plus a H+

Stronger the acid, weaker the conjugate base Stronger the base, weaker the conjugate acid

Autoionization of water gives very important Kw=10^-14

Solve A/B problems strategically


Remember autoionization of H2O, determine if it is important

Strong bases dissociate to produce [OH-] ≈ [Base] Weak bases react with water

PP acids dissociate in successive steps, each with a weaker Ka than the previous step

To determine the pH of a salt solution, answer the question: What are the acid-base properties & strength of each component?

For an aqueous solution of an acid/base pair, you can calculate Kb from Ka & Kw or vice versa

To solve problems where H2O contributes H+, use Ka, Kw, material and charge balance