Chapt. 10 Spontaneity, Entropy & Free Energy

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Chapt. 10 Spontaneity, Entropy & Free Energy by Mind Map: Chapt. 10 Spontaneity, Entropy & Free Energy

1. Spontaneous Processes

2. The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas

3. Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions

3.1. dSsurr: determined primarily by heat flow dSsys: determined by differences in # of positional randomness of products & reactants

4. Free Energy and Chemical Reactions

4.1. Three Ways to Compute DGrxn

4.1.1. From dHo & dSo

4.1.2. Hess' Law

4.1.3. From dGform

5. Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary

6. Entropy and Physical Changes

7. The Definition of Entropy

8. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

9. Free Energy and Work

10. The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity

10.1. Exothermicity most important at low T

11. Free Energy and Equilibrium

11.1. dGo=-RTlnK

12. Free Energy

12.1. dSuniv=-dG/T

12.2. dG=dH-TdS

13. The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure

13.1. dG=dGo+RTln(Q)

14. The change in the entropy of the universe for a given process is a measure of the driving force behind that process

15. Isothermal expansion of an ideal gas against a vacuum involves no change in energy, work or heatflow

16. Reversible processes yield maximum work & heat

16.1. Reversible Work

16.2. Reversible heat

17. Only when a cyclic process is done in infinite number of steps is the universe the same at the beginning & end of the process.

18. All real processes are thermodynamically irreversible

19. S changes in surroundings usually due to heat flow

19.1. dSsurr=-dH/T

20. ENTROPY BUDGET: dSuniv=dSsys+dSsurr=-dG/T

21. 3rd Law: S of all substances is 0 at 0K

22. T-dependence of K: van't Hoff Equation: Rln(K)=-dH/T+dS

23. Max useful work="free" energy