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Chapt. 10 Spontaneity, Entropy & Free Energy by Mind Map: Chapt. 10 Spontaneity, Entropy & Free Energy
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Chapt. 10 Spontaneity, Entropy & Free Energy

Spontaneous Processes

The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas

Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions

dSsurr: determined primarily by heat flow dSsys: determined by differences in # of positional randomness of products & reactants

Free Energy and Chemical Reactions

Three Ways to Compute DGrxn

From dHo & dSo

Hess' Law

From dGform

Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary

Entropy and Physical Changes

The Definition of Entropy

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Free Energy and Work

The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity

Exothermicity most important at low T

Free Energy and Equilibrium


Free Energy



The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure


The change in the entropy of the universe for a given process is a measure of the driving force behind that process

Isothermal expansion of an ideal gas against a vacuum involves no change in energy, work or heatflow

Reversible processes yield maximum work & heat

Reversible Work

Reversible heat

Only when a cyclic process is done in infinite number of steps is the universe the same at the beginning & end of the process.

All real processes are thermodynamically irreversible

S changes in surroundings usually due to heat flow


ENTROPY BUDGET: dSuniv=dSsys+dSsurr=-dG/T

3rd Law: S of all substances is 0 at 0K

T-dependence of K: van't Hoff Equation: Rln(K)=-dH/T+dS

Max useful work="free" energy