USA 1919-1941

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USA 1919-1941 by Mind Map: USA 1919-1941

1. US Society 1919-1929

1.1. The Roaring 20s

1.1.1. Entertainment

1.1.1.1. Radio

1.1.1.2. Jazz

1.1.1.3. Sport

1.1.1.4. Cinema

1.1.2. Growing Cities

1.1.2.1. skyscrapers

1.1.2.2. Factories

1.1.3. Morals

1.1.3.1. Women

1.1.3.2. Sex

1.1.3.2.1. major topic

1.1.3.2.2. More publicly talked about

1.1.3.2.3. Selling power for the cinema

1.1.3.2.4. Contraception

1.1.4. The Car

1.1.4.1. Helped cities grow

1.1.4.2. Affordable for ordinary people

1.1.4.2.1. Not as much of a luxury as before

1.1.5. The two sides

1.1.5.1. There were three major success groups in the 1920s

1.1.5.1.1. Bankers

1.1.5.1.2. Businessmen

1.1.5.1.3. Gangsters

1.1.5.2. For farmers and factory workers, unemployment started increasing

1.1.5.3. For women and musicains it meant freedom but for traditional christians this was bad

1.1.5.4. Blacks and immigrants were discriminated against

1.2. Prohibition

1.2.1. January 1920: 'Volstead Act'

1.2.2. Prohibited manufacture, sale and transportation of alcohol

1.2.3. Causes

1.2.3.1. Drink was seen as enemy

1.2.3.2. False statstics were made

1.2.3.3. 'dries' were mainly traditional christians

1.2.3.4. National campaign

1.2.4. Consequences

1.2.4.1. Alcohol consumption fell by 30%

1.2.4.2. Issy and Moe made 4'932 arrests

1.2.4.3. Demand for alcohol increased

1.2.4.4. Bootleggers made millions selling drinks

1.2.4.5. Crime and gangs increased

1.2.5. End

1.2.5.1. Decided it had been a catastrophe

1.2.5.1.1. Hard to control borders

1.2.5.1.2. Lack of agents

1.2.5.1.3. Not many people obeyed

1.2.5.1.4. Increase of gangsters and crime

1.2.5.2. Lasted 4 years

1.3. Gangs

1.3.1. Ruthless business

1.3.1.1. Many were murdered

1.3.1.2. Police were too afraid to make arrests

1.3.1.3. Every man for himself

1.3.2. Beer/Gang wars

1.3.2.1. Public shootings

1.3.3. Al Capone

1.3.3.1. Public figure

1.3.3.1.1. Enjoyed attention and showing off

1.3.3.2. Bribed people

1.3.3.3. Surrounded himself with bodyguards

1.3.3.4. Had 700 men working for him

1.3.3.5. Killed off his rivals

1.3.3.5.1. Killed a total of 227 people in 4 yrs

1.3.3.6. Arrested in 1931 for 11 years

1.3.4. Made $2 billion from sale of alcohol

1.3.5. Typically from immigrant backgrounds

1.3.5.1. Uneducated

1.3.5.2. Cunning and lethal

1.3.5.2.1. Knew how to get what they wanted

1.3.6. Knew how to get away with it

1.3.6.1. Found loopholes

1.3.6.2. Manipulated the right people

1.3.6.2.1. Bribery

1.3.6.2.2. Threats

1.4. Women

1.4.1. Effects of the War

1.4.1.1. They had worked during the war

1.4.1.2. Gave them the experience of independence

1.4.1.3. Showed their ability to work

1.4.2. They were allowed to begin work but for lower wages and only young women until they married

1.4.3. 18th August 1920 they were given equal sufferage

1.4.4. Flappers

1.4.4.1. Fashionable, young and independent

1.4.4.2. Rebelled against traditon

1.4.4.3. smoked, drinked and danced in public

1.4.4.4. Wore short dresses and make up, cut their hair short and let it loose

1.5. Racism

1.5.1. Ku Klux Klan

1.5.1.1. Aim was to stop blacks gaining real freedom

1.5.1.2. Wanted US to be a WASP nation

1.5.1.3. in 1925 it claimed to have over 5 million members

1.5.1.4. Tried frightening blacks into submission

1.5.1.5. Represented fear and prejudice of many Americans

1.5.2. In the South

1.5.2.1. Jim crow laws enforced segregation

1.5.2.1.1. Different factilities and schools

1.5.2.2. By law they could vote but whites would try and stop them. they would threaten jobs,with violence

1.5.2.3. Lynching

1.5.2.3.1. Mobs would kill a black man

1.5.2.3.2. Beat up or tortured their victim then hung them from a tree

1.5.3. In the North

1.5.3.1. Because of south racism many blacks moved north

1.5.3.2. Had no segregation laws

1.5.3.3. Much discrimination in communities

1.5.3.4. Black and white didn't mix

1.5.3.5. had a greater chance at equality then in the south

1.5.4. Sacco and Vanzetti case

1.5.4.1. were arrested and charged with murder

1.5.4.2. There was evidence for and against them

1.5.4.3. It was not investigated properly

1.5.4.4. Trial lasted for 45 days

1.5.4.5. They appealed to several higher courts but failed

1.5.4.6. Jury found them guilty and they were executed by electric chair on august 24th, 1927

1.6. Monkey Trial

1.6.1. urban vs rural

1.6.2. William Jennings Brian led the campaign to ban teachings of the theory of eveolution

1.6.3. John Scopes taught the theory of evolution deliberatley

1.6.3.1. He was arrested and put his case in court

1.6.4. During the trial the judge ruled whatever he didnt like off as irrelevant

1.6.4.1. Law was law and Scopes was guilty and fined

1.6.4.2. DIsplayed widely in the media

2. Roosevelt and The New Deal 1933-1941

2.1. How he won the election

2.1.1. People grew to dislike Hoover

2.1.1.1. FDR blamed them for the depression

2.1.1.2. People thought he did nothing to help

2.1.2. He promised to work with America and restore it

2.1.3. He promised to end prohibition

2.1.4. Confident leader, opptimism

2.2. Hundred Days/ Alphabet agencies

2.2.1. Short Term

2.2.1.1. Beer and Wine revenue - end of prohibiton

2.2.1.2. Civilian Conservation Corps - young men to work on woodlands ran by the army (2/3 of wages sent home)

2.2.1.3. Federal Emergency Relief - builing schools, roads, bridges (unemployed working)

2.2.1.4. Agricultural Adjustment Act - encouraged farmers to grow less

2.2.2. Long Term

2.2.2.1. Emergency banking act - closed all banks and reopened them after inspection

2.2.2.2. Economy act- changed govt. wages to spend more on relief

2.2.2.3. Tennessee Valley Authority- land development

2.2.2.4. Nation Recovery Administration - rules for working condidtions

2.2.2.5. National employment systems act

2.3. Opposition to the New Deal

2.3.1. Not enough

2.3.1.1. many were still poor

2.3.1.2. Huey Long

2.3.1.2.1. gained power to help poor

2.3.1.2.2. treated blacks equal to whites

2.3.1.3. Francis Townsend

2.3.1.3.1. $200 pension for 60+ every month provided they spent it

2.3.1.4. Father Coughlin

2.3.1.4.1. radio program to attack Roosevelt

2.3.2. Too much

2.3.2.1. too complicated

2.3.2.2. shouldn't support trade unions or higher wages

2.3.2.2.1. market should deal with this

2.3.2.3. similar to economic plans of USSR

2.3.2.4. He was behaving like a dictator

2.3.3. Supreme court

2.3.3.1. found the NRA unconstitutional

2.3.3.2. Roosevelt tried to appoint 6 more judges to the supreme court who agreed with him

2.3.3.2.1. people felt he was attacking the court

2.4. 2nd new deal

2.4.1. Relocated people as dust bowl got worse

2.4.2. AAA was unconstitutional

2.4.3. tackled the supreme court

2.4.4. Wagner act - employers must allow workers to join trade unions

2.4.5. Social Security Act - pensions for elderly and widows and disabled . And unemployment inssurance

2.4.6. Works Progress Administration- create jobs for people in a more creative/ rounded way

2.4.7. Resettlement Administration - resettle people who hadn't been helped by the AAA

2.5. How successful was he?

2.5.1. 3 opinions

2.5.1.1. only helped in the short term, WW2 recovered the USA

2.5.1.2. Provided relief for a lot of people however needed boost from WW2

2.5.1.3. Helped America recover largely ,didn't need WW2

2.5.2. Successes

2.5.2.1. Created millions of jobs

2.5.2.2. NRA and New Deal made trade unions more powerful

2.5.2.3. restored faith in America

2.5.2.4. women were achieving prominent positions

2.5.2.5. 200'000 Black americans gained benefits from CCC

2.5.2.6. Improved standard of living

2.5.3. Failures

2.5.3.1. New deal aids were to help manual workers not women

2.5.3.2. confidence in the economy remained low

2.5.3.3. many agencies discriminated against blacks

2.5.3.4. when he cut the new deal budget, the country want back into recession

2.5.3.5. they had been accussed of being communists

2.5.3.6. big businesses were immensely powerful

3. US Economy 1919-1929

3.1. Buying Shares

3.1.1. Stock Market

3.1.2. Companies got money from investors

3.1.2.1. Shareholders

3.1.2.1.1. Got a percentage of companies earnings

3.1.2.1.2. Sold shares for higher price

3.1.2.1.3. Made a profit

3.1.3. Some had to loan money from bank

3.1.3.1. Most would pay back

3.1.3.1.1. DEBT

3.1.3.2. Buying on the margin

3.2. Problems 1920s

3.2.1. Factories were taking work from Farms

3.2.1.1. Farms over produced

3.2.1.2. Cities were expanding

3.2.1.2.1. Taking Farm land

3.3. The BOOM

3.3.1. Causes of the boom

3.3.1.1. WW1

3.3.1.2. Republican Policies

3.3.1.2.1. Very Pro-Business

3.3.1.2.2. Gave space for businesses to expand

3.3.1.2.3. Taxes were lowered

3.3.1.2.4. 'Laissez faire'

3.3.1.2.5. American goods cheaper than foreign

3.3.1.3. Natural Resouces

3.3.1.3.1. Enough to power the industry

3.3.1.3.2. Provide Raw Materials

3.3.1.4. Mass Production

3.3.1.4.1. Goods were produced cheaply in huge quantities

3.3.1.5. New Technologies

3.3.1.5.1. Huge advances in Tech.

3.3.1.5.2. Factories became automated

3.3.1.5.3. New products were devolped

3.3.1.5.4. Better ways of transporting electricity

3.3.1.6. Credit

3.3.1.6.1. Buying products without having money immediatley

3.3.1.6.2. kept up demand for industrial products

3.3.1.6.3. Buying now, paying later

3.3.1.7. Motor Car

3.3.1.7.1. Lots of people were employed

3.3.1.7.2. more cars were selling

3.3.1.7.3. people could travel to and from work

3.3.2. Consequences of the BOOM

3.3.2.1. Farmers over produced

3.3.2.2. Over production

3.3.2.3. Debt

3.3.2.4. Over confidence

3.3.2.4.1. People couldn't afford the essentials

3.3.2.5. Wall Street Crash

3.3.2.6. Man made materials took over

3.3.3. What was the BOOM

3.3.3.1. Strong economic growth in America

3.4. Impact of WW1

3.4.1. Gave the American industry a flying start

3.4.2. Land was not destroyed during the War so they did not have to pay to make ammends

3.4.3. Ran many European markets

3.4.4. Had gained money from exporting goods

3.5. Mass Production

3.5.1. Many products were made in a short period of time

3.5.2. Workers didn't need to work long hours

3.5.3. Shorter shift meant lower wage

3.5.4. Products were sold for cheaper

3.5.5. Assembly line

3.5.5.1. Same job is repeated over and over again

3.5.6. Effects

3.5.6.1. More raw materials needed

3.5.6.2. more people employed

3.5.6.3. over production

3.5.6.4. wages were lower

3.5.6.5. more widespread work

4. The Great Depression 1929- 1933

4.1. Causes

4.1.1. Unemployment was rising

4.1.1.1. Small companies overran by big companies

4.1.1.2. between 1926-8 it rose from 880'000 to 2'080'000

4.1.1.3. Those who belonged to a union were not emplyed

4.1.2. Lack of government control

4.1.2.1. Businesses had their own working hours,wages and conditions

4.1.2.1.1. Workers put up with poor conditions

4.1.2.2. Lots of strikes

4.1.3. Farm good prices falling

4.1.3.1. price of wheat was falling

4.1.3.2. over production since 1919

4.1.3.3. new materials caused cotton and wool to drop

4.1.4. Overproduction

4.1.4.1. demand for goods began to fall

4.1.4.2. stocks full - sales low

4.1.4.3. not as much was exported

4.1.5. Too many loans

4.1.5.1. banks leant money for people to invest

4.1.5.2. America leant money to europe

4.1.5.3. People couldn't repay money

4.1.6. Too many shares on credit

4.1.6.1. Over - confidence in shares

4.1.6.2. People ignored financial warnings

4.1.6.3. Shares were bought with expectation of being able to sell

4.1.6.4. Shares started losing value

4.1.7. Lack of government control

4.1.8. Overproduction

4.2. Wall St Crash

4.2.1. Causes

4.2.1.1. Lack of exportation

4.2.1.2. unfair distribution of wealth

4.2.1.3. over- procuction

4.2.1.4. credit

4.2.1.5. panic

4.2.1.6. selling of so many shares

4.2.1.7. share confidence

4.2.2. Panic started when shares were increasing and prices started falling at uncontrollable rates

4.2.3. Wall St crash lasted 10 days

4.2.4. Millions of shares were being sold a day

4.2.5. Bankers and politicians tried to stop it by buying shares

4.2.5.1. Prices slowly increased

4.2.6. On the last day (29.10.29) over 16m trades were traded, buyers couldn't be found.

4.2.6.1. Shares lost their value

4.2.6.2. Shareholders were hit badly

4.2.7. Effects

4.2.7.1. Increased umemployment

4.2.7.2. Less bank loans

4.2.7.3. Factories cut production

4.2.7.4. Businesses go bankrupt

4.2.7.5. Banks go bankrupt as people withdraw their savings

4.2.7.6. People are unable to repay their debts

4.3. Hoover's Reaction

4.3.1. Abandoned his policy of 'Laissez-faire'

4.3.2. On the Federal food board (1929) he spent 500m in 3 years but all the food was destroyed

4.3.3. He increased traffic on imported good but this caused drops in exports and imports

4.3.4. All other attempts failed or were proven not very helpful

4.3.5. The Bonus March

4.3.5.1. WW1 vetrans wanted aid for their familes

4.3.5.2. They marched to washington to voice for support

4.3.5.3. They built a Hooverville and refused to move until the bonus bill was passed

4.3.5.3.1. Approximately all 40'000 protesters were disaplined

4.3.5.4. Hoover thought 2.3 billion was too much so he sent people home

4.3.5.4.1. 5000 refused to leave

4.3.5.5. Hoover sent in the army with tanks and machine gun detachments,

4.3.5.5.1. > 100 were injured

4.4. Life during depression

4.4.1. Unemployment

4.4.1.1. In 1933, 14m were unemployed

4.4.1.2. Those who had lost their job, rarely found another one

4.4.1.3. Those who successes the most, were hit the hardest

4.4.1.3.1. Production of cars dropped by 80%

4.4.2. Homeless

4.4.2.1. Churches were shelter for homeless

4.4.2.2. People were violently evicted from their homes

4.4.2.3. Some went to the extent of being arrested just to have a bed