Module 6: Student Assessment Unit 1: Types and Purposes of Assessment By: James R. Welch

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Module 6: Student Assessment Unit 1: Types and Purposes of Assessment By: James R. Welch by Mind Map: Module 6: Student Assessment Unit 1:  Types and Purposes of Assessment By: James R. Welch

1. Diagnostic Assessment

1.1. Definition: Similar to formative assessments and are intended to improve the learner's experience and their level of achievement. (Principles, n.d.)

1.2. Purpose: Diagnostic assessments look backwards rather than forwards. It assesses what the learner already knows and the difficulties that the learner might have. (Principles, n.d.)

1.3. Advantages: This helps with diagnosing students with learning disabilities. It is often used before teaching or when a problem arises. (Principles, n.d.)

1.4. Disadvantages: Diagnostic assessment can be time consuming to administer and sometimes the results can be inconclusive. (Principles, n.d.)

1.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? This is an assessment for learning.

1.6. Example:

2. Formative Assessment

2.1. Definition: A formative assessment is extremely important part of teaching and learning. It does not contribute to the final mark a student earns; instead it contributes to the learning by the teacher providing feedback. (Principles, n.d.)

2.2. Purpose: Effective formative feedback will affect what the student and teacher does next without harming the grade of the student. The teacher indicates what is good and why it is good and also what is not so good and why it is not so good. (Principles, n.d.)

2.3. Advantages: Provides students with important feedback to assist in learning without affecting their grade. It also allows teachers to see what they need to spend more time on in terms of preparing and teaching. (Principles, n.d.)

2.4. Disadvantages: It can be very time consuming for a teacher to provide written comments to several assessments, especially essays and lab reports.

2.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? I see formative assessments as both.

2.6. Example:

3. Summative Assessment

3.1. Definition: A summative assessment demonstrates how much a learner has success in meeting the assessment criteria and is used to gauge the intended learning outcomes of what is being taught. These assessments contribute to the final grade. (Principles, n.d.)

3.2. Purpose: These assessments are normally used at the end of a unit of teaching. They can be used to quantify achievement, rewards achievement or to provide data for selection towards the next step in someone's education. (Principles, n.d.)

3.3. Advantages: Summative assessments can provide information that has formative or diagnostic value. (Principles, n.d.)

3.4. Disadvantages: Does not always show what a students know. These assessments can be stressful and this stress can affect how well a student does on them. Some students are naturally better at taking assessments than others. (Principles, n.d.)

3.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? This is an assessment of learning.

3.6. Example:

4. Performance-Based Assessment

4.1. Definition: Performance-based assessments represent a set of strategies for the acquisition and application of knowledge, skills and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to students. (Membership, n.d.)

4.2. Purpose: Performance-based assessments achieve a balanced approach by extending traditional fact-and-skill instruction and is not curriculum design. (Membership, n.d.)

4.3. Advantages: Teachers do not have to give up units of study or favorite activities in a performance-based classroom. Authentic tasks are already in the curriculum and teachers can develop tasks based on what works for them. Assignments are more meaningful for the students. (Membership, n.d.)

4.4. Disadvantages: Can be time consuming for the teacher to mark.

4.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? Assessment for Learning.

4.6. Example:

5. High Stakes Assessment

5.1. Definition: Is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability. (High, 2013)

5.2. Purpose: Federal, State or local government agencies and school administrators can ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers. (High, 2013)

5.3. Advantages: Test scores are used for accolades, advancement or compensation for teachers if students perform well. (High, 2013)

5.4. Disadvantages: These tests can be incredibly stressful for students and the results can be used in a punitive way towards educators and schools.

5.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? This is an assessment of learning.

5.6. Example:

6. Portfolio Assessment

6.1. Definition: Are collections of academic work that are compiled by students and assessed by teachers in consistent ways. (Assessment, 2013)

6.2. Purpose: Portfolio-based assessments are usually used to evaluate the acquisition of diverse knowledge and skills over a period of time. (Assessment, 2013)

6.3. Advantages: Portfolio materials can be collected in physical and digital format and are often used to evaluate whether students have met learning standards. (Assessment, 2013)

6.4. Disadvantages: Very time consuming and students often have difficulty keeping their work organized and tidy.

6.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? This is an assessment of learning.

6.6. Example:

7. Authentic Assessment

7.1. Definition: Authentic assessments usually require a student to complete a complex task, such as a writing assignment or a long-term project. (Assessment, 2013)

7.2. Purpose: Educators use authentic assessments since they are more meaningful evaluations of learning achievement. (Assessment, 2013)

7.3. Advantages: More purposeful assessment than taking a written test. (Assessment, 2013)

7.4. Disadvantages: It can be hard to create an authentic assessment for a large classroom of students with different interests.

7.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? This is an assessment of learning.

7.6. Example:

8. Self-Assessment

8.1. Definition: Students assess themselves and take greater responsibility for their learning. (Accessibility, n.d.)

8.2. Purpose: Through this type of assessment students can learn from their mistakes, identify their strengths and weaknesses and learn to target their learning accordingly. (Accessibility, n.d.)

8.3. Advantages: Getting students to become more active in their learning can help to alter the perception of learning as being a passive process where students listen to the teacher to absorb information and repeat it. Students who participate in their learning are more likely to remember. (Accessibility, n.d.)

8.4. Disadvantages: Students with learning disabilities do not always prosper with this type of assessment.

8.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? This would be an assessment for learning.

8.6. Example:

9. Peer-Assessment

9.1. Definition: Peer assessment involves students taking responsibility for assessing their peers and the work they produce. (Accessibility, n.d.)

9.2. Purpose: The purpose is to engage students in providing feedback to their peers and is a powerful way for students to act as the assessor and to gain an opportunity to better understand the assessment criteria. (Accessibility, n.d.)

9.3. Advantages: It encourages students to learn more deeply when they assess a peer. It helps in building their understanding rather than just remembering facts. (Accessibility, n.d.)

9.4. Disadvantages: Not all students feel comfortable assessing a peer. This can be really problematic when a student with a disability is paired with someone without a disability. (Accessibility, n.d.)

9.5. Assessment of Learning or For Learning? This is an assessment for learning.

9.6. Example:

10. Work Cited: