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Adult Education & Rhetoric and Composition: Comparative Timelines by Mind Map: Adult Education &
           Rhetoric and
Composition: Comparative
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Adult Education & Rhetoric and Composition: Comparative Timelines

Here is a list of resources consulted and and referenced in this timeline, plus some further readings.  Feel free to add to this list any additional useful texts. Berlin, James A. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987. Print. Berlin, James A. Writing Instruction in Nineteenth-century American Colleges. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984. Print. "CIFER | Composition: History & Theory." Ohio University English Department. Ed. Mara Holt. 2009. Web. 1 Nov. 2010. . Crowley, Sharon. Composition in the University: Historical and Polemical Essays. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1998. Print. Donahue, Patricia, and Gretchen Flesher. Moon. Local Histories: Reading the Archives of Composition. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh, 2007. Print. Elias, John L., and Sharan B. Merriam. Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education. Malabar, FL: Krieger Pub., 2005. Print. Feinberg, Walter. Reason and Rhetoric: the Intellectual Foundations of 20th Century Liberal Educational Policy. New York: Wiley, 1975. Print. Gillett, Margaret. Readings in the History of Education. Toronto: McGraw-Hill of Canada, 1969. Print. Glenn, Cheryl, Margaret Lyday, and Wendy B. Sharer. Rhetorical Education in America. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama, 2004. Print. Hiemstra, Roger. "An Annotated Chronology on the History of Adult Education." Roger Hiemstra's Web Page. June 1995. Web. 1 Nov. 2010. . Knowles, Malcolm Shepherd. A History of the Adult Education Movement in the United States. Huntington, NY: Krieger, 1977. Print. Lee, Robert Ellis. Continuing Education for Adults through the American Public Library, 1833-1964. Chicago: American Library Association, 1966. Print. Logan, Shirley W. Liberating Language: Sites of Rhetorical Education in Nineteenth Century Black America. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2008. Print. Long, Huey B. Continuing Education of Adults in Colonial America. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Publications in Continuing Education, 1976. Print. Longworth, Norman. Lifelong Learning in Action: Transforming Education in the 21st Century. London: Kogan Page, 2003. Print. Masters, Thomas M. Practicing Writing: the Postwar Discourse of Freshman English. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, 2004. Print. Merriam, Sharan B., and Ralph Grover. Brockett. The Profession and Practice of Adult Education: an Introduction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007. Print. Portman, David N. The Universities and the Public: a History of Higher Adult Education in the United States. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1978. Print. Roth, Robert M. A Conspectus to the Self-study Project of University College, the University of Chicago. [Chicago]: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964. Print. Stubblefield, Harold W., and Patrick Keane. Adult Education in the American Experience: from the Colonial Period to the Present. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994. Print. Verner, Coolie. Pole's History of Adult Schools: a Facsimile of the 1816 Edition with an Introduction and Bibliographical Notes. Washington: Adult Education Association, 1967. Print.    


Adult Education

1727 Benjamin Franklin - The Junto or 'Leather Apron' discussion groups for adults (Hiemstra), 1826 Josiah Holbrook - beginning of lyceum movement, lecture/study groups, influential for creation of public schools. (Hiemstra), 1862 Morrill Act, 1890 funded, 1891 - William Rainey Harper - 1st president of University of Chicago (Roth) 1892 Establishes U of Chicago Extension Division, 1926 American Association Adult Education organized (Hiemstra) -- Eduard Lindema, The Meaning of Adult Education, 1937 Robert M. Hutchins becomes president of University of Chicago - 1944 "rescues" University College, 1951 Formation of the Fund for Adult Education, the Adult Education Association, 1957-9, Self-Study @ University College, 1960s The Economic Opportunity Act, Higher Education Act, Adult Education Act

Philosophical Influences

Liberalism, Progressive --- John Dewey, Behaviorism, Humanism, Critical Radical --- Paulo Freire, Constructivist, Analytical, Post-Modern

Rhetoric & Composition

"Current-Traditional" mode, focus on classical rhetoric, imitation, recitation, 1912 College English Journal first Published, Composition taught through "Handbooks" That focused on exercises more than classical models (Connors), New Rhetoric begins to challenge New Criticism (close analysis of texts) , less focus on "correctness" and more attention to production of writing than analysis, 1949 - Kenneth Burke @ University of Chicago (Beasley) National Council of Teachers of English founds Conference on College Composition and Communication, 1950 The journal College Composition and Communication "did much to lay the foundations for the modern discipline of composition studies. ", Expressivism, Cognitive/Process, 1974 resolution by the CCCC on students' right to their own languages. (Bedford), The 1980s: Social and Historical Approaches to Rhetoric In the 1980s, composition scholars focused on the social nature of writing - (Bedford)