Student Assessments by Walter Allen

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Student Assessments by Walter Allen by Mind Map: Student Assessments by Walter Allen

1. Diagnostic

1.1. Definition: an examination to identify an individual's specific areas of weakness and strength.

1.2. Purpose: To identify your students’ current knowledge of a subject, their skill sets and capabilities, and to clarify misconceptions before teaching takes place.

1.3. Advantages: Knowing students’ strengths and weaknesses can help you better plan what to teach and how to teach it.

1.4. Disadvantages: Student may not take this type of assessment seriously because the stakes are not high and it won't count towards their grade.

1.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be an assessment OF learning, as it is used to determine what the student has learned thus far.

1.6. Example: SRI (Scholastic Reading Inventory) is a computerized diagnostic test that students take 3 times a year which determines their Lexile range, and indicates if they're reading comprehension is below, at, or above grade level.

2. Formative

2.1. Definition: refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course.

2.2. Purpose: Formative assessments help teachers identify concepts that students are struggling to understand, skills they are having difficulty acquiring, or learning standards they have not yet achieved so that adjustments can be made to lessons, instructional techniques, and academic support.

2.3. Advantages: Formative assessments are not graded, which takes the anxiety away from students. It also detaches the thinking that they must get everything right. Teachers usually check for understanding in the event that students are struggling during the lesson.

2.4. Disadvantages: Teachers may have to sacrifice time to assess during the lesson and fear that they may not even finish the lesson. Teachers then feel the need to rush through a series of units, which causes students to lack mastery once the assessment is given at the end of the unit. Teachers may lack training or professional development on how to use formative assessments

2.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be an assessment FOR learning because teacher has the opportunity to address misconceptions immediately which helps determine the following instructional methods

2.6. Example: Four Corners - This is a great way to encourage dynamic movement while learning multiple-choice questions. Designate each corner of the classroom to represent A, B, C, and D. Students go to the corner that they believe corresponds with the correct answer.

3. Summative

3.1. Definition: refers to the assessment of participants where the focus is on the outcome of a unit or program.

3.2. Purpose: The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark.

3.3. Advantages: They provide motivation for students to study and pay attention in class. Furthermore, the results provide a measurable way of determining the success of the unit plan.

3.4. Disadvantages: Students who do poorly experience low self-esteem. Additionally, summative assessments may cause teachers to teach to the test rather than focusing on the learning process

3.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be an assessment OF learning, as it is used to determine what the student has learned thus far.

3.6. Example: a midterm exam, final exam, final project, senior recital

4. Performance-based

4.1. Definition: a way for students to demonstrate knowledge, skills, and material that they've learned.

4.2. Purpose: To measure skills such as the ability to integrate knowledge across disciplines, contribute to the work of a group, and develop a plan of action when confronted with a new situation.

4.3. Advantages: Engages student in active learning. Encourages time on academics outside of class. Can provide a dimension of depth not available in classroom.

4.4. Disadvantages: Requires careful training of raters. Must be carefully designed if used to document obtainment of student learning outcomes.

4.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be considered an assessment OF learning because it is used to determine if the student can perform or apply what they know.

4.6. Example: Group projects enabling a number of students to work together on a complex problem that requires planning, research, internal discussion, and group presentation.

5. High-stakes

5.1. Definition: Tests are referred to as “high stakes” when significant consequences are tied to the performance of students on the test.

5.2. Purpose: The purpose is to ensure that students are meeting the grade level standard expectations, teachers are delivering high-quality instruction, and school leaders are leading their schools in a upward direction.

5.3. Advantages: Motivational device to push students to take test seriously to avoid repeating a grade. As a parent, you can look at these results to see how well, or poorly, your child's school is performing.

5.4. Disadvantages: Schools labeled as “failing” on the basis of test scores can be threatened with closure. Emphasis on “skill drill and kill” fails to stimulate children’s imagination and limits their natural curiosity.

5.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be an assessment OF learning, as it is used to indicate whether school leaders, teacher, and students met their goals.

5.6. Example: PARCC is an assessment that measures students across districts, cities, and states. This is a big exam that happens once a year.

6. Portfolio

6.1. Definition: This is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts.

6.2. Purpose: The purpose is to offer an alternative or an addition to traditional methods of grading and high stakes exams.

6.3. Advantages: One great benefit of a portfolio assessment is that it is ongoing. It also allows for incremental feedback that helps teachers identify a learner’s problems at an earliest stage.

6.4. Disadvantages: It may be logistically impossible to offer detailed descriptive feedback for every learner in a large class. Also, effective portfolio assessment can be difficult to achieve on a school-wide scale.

6.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be an assessment OF learning, as it is used to indicate what the student has learned so far. Furthermore, instruction is not differentiated on the spot based off this assessment.

6.6. Example: Teacher Alternative Assessment Portfolio- All the items in this type of portfolio are scored, rated, ranked, or evaluated. Teachers can keep individual student portfolios that are solely for the teacher's use as an assessment tool. This is a focused type of portfolio and is a model of the holistic approach to assessment

7. Authentic

7.1. Definition: A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills

7.2. Purpose: The purpose is to see if the student can apply the skills or knowledge. Students need to be able to use the knowledge of content rather than just knowing the content and not being able to use it.

7.3. Advantages: Students are given tasks to perform that have applications in real life rather than just selecting an answer. They are structured around students rather than teachers. Also, give more direct evidence about a student’s knowledge.

7.4. Disadvantages: The stakes are high during authentic assessments and can cause students to have anxiety.

7.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be considered an assessment OF learning because it is used to determine if the student can perform or apply what they know.

7.6. Example: Oral Interviews - Teacher asks students questions about personal background, activities, readings, and interests

8. Self-assessment

8.1. Definition: assessment or evaluation of oneself or one's actions and attitudes, in particular, of one's performance at a job or learning task considered in relation to an objective standard.

8.2. Purpose: Self-evaluation builds on a natural tendency to check out the progress of one‟s own learning.

8.3. Advantages: Encourages students to critically reflect their own learning progress and performance. Encourages students to be more responsible for their own learning. Helps students become autonomous learners.

8.4. Disadvantages: Self assessment can be subjective because students may not be sincere and may even over-evaluate their own performance. Students may not be familiar with the assessment criteria. Time consuming for students.

8.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be an assessment FOR learning because student have the opportunity to learn what was wrong or correct with their thought process at the time of being assessed.

8.6. Example: Students are invited to complete a simple self assessment sheet according to agreed criteria and submit it with a completed assessment. To extend the benefits of the exercise, students can be asked to explain why they evaluate themselves in particular ways. Students can be awarded a percentage for completing the assessment or graded for the quality of their rationale for their self-assessment.

9. Peer-assessment

9.1. Definition: a process that allow peers to grade assignments or tests based on a teacher’s benchmarks.

9.2. Purpose: To save teachers time and improve students' understanding of course materials as well as improve their metacognitive skills.

9.3. Advantages: Encourages students to critically reflect each others' work. Encourages students to be involved in the assessment process. Helps students develop their judgmental skills when they assess the work of other group members.

9.4. Disadvantages: Peer pressure and friendship can influence the reliability of grades given by students. Students may have a tendency to give everyone the same mark. Students may cheat in collaboration for group assignments.

9.5. Rationale: This particular type of assessment would be an assessment FOR learning because students have the opportunity to learn what was wrong or correct with their peers thought process at the time of being assessed. By analyzing another students work, it provides students with new perspectives.

9.6. Example: A simple introduction to the concept of peer feedback is to invite students to exchange lecture notes in the final segment of a class and to discuss perceived gaps and differences in understanding.

10. References

10.1. Unit, T. D., & Ako, W. W. (n.d.). Assessment Matters: Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment. Retrieved February, 2012, from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/tdu/pdf/booklets/9_SelfPeerAssessment.pdf

10.2. C, C. (2010). Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://ar.cetl.hku.hk/self_peer.htm

10.3. Stiggins, R. (2005, September). Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://ati.pearson.com/downloads/afldefined.pdf

10.4. Hidden curriculum (2014, August 26). In S. Abbott (Ed.), The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum

10.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Assessment Methods. (2006, March). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://www.clark.edu/tlc/outcome_assessment/documents/AssessMethods.pdf