Getting to Know Student Assessments by N.Gianella

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Getting to Know Student Assessments by N.Gianella by Mind Map: Getting to Know Student Assessments by N.Gianella

1. Diagnostic

1.1. Definition:

1.1.1. "To ascertain, prior to instruction, each student's strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills."

1.2. Purpose:

1.2.1. Gives the teacher an insight on what the student needs to be retaught, relearn, and what the teacher should do to help this students acquire the skills that are lacking.

1.3. Advantage:

1.3.1. Gives teacher information about what the students knows and improves teacher effectiveness.

1.4. Disadvantage:

1.4.1. It only gives the teacher a glimpse of what the student may or may not know. It is not an assessment that can prove what exactly the student knows or doesn't know.  There are many variables that can influence how well the student does on the tests such as the students motivation to do well, the time of day, or a student could bubble the correct answers simply by luck or the student may just be a good test taker.

1.5. Design:

1.5.1. For Learning - this assessment checks how much the student already knows.

1.6. Example:

1.6.1. Grade: 1st Subject: ELA Giving a pre-test such as TRC or DIBELS assessment.

2. Formative

2.1. Definition:

2.1.1. "Variety of methods toeachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course."

2.2. Purpose:

2.2.1. To help teachers learn about concepts, skills, or ideas that students are struggling to understand.

2.3. Advantage:

2.3.1. It helps a teacher's instructional strategy because this assessment provides in-the-moment notice of how students are learning and if they are understanding the objective.

2.4. Disadvantage:

2.4.1. It may not provide a full picture of the entire classroom if the teacher only uses the turn-and-talk strategy  because not every student will want to speak about what they discussed.  Additionally, reteaching the skill in the moment once the teacher has learned if students are understanding the concept is critical when using this assessment.

2.5. Design:

2.5.1. For Learning - this assessment checks if students are learning the concepts, skills, or ideas targeted for the lesson.

2.6. Example:

2.6.1. Grade: 2nd Subject: ELA Giving students an exit ticket before students leave class or using the think-pair-share strategy as a teacher is teaching the lesson.

3. Summative

3.1. Definition:

3.1.1. "Used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year."

3.2. Purpose:

3.2.1. Teachers use it to learn if students have learned what was expected towards the end of a unit or course. It serves as an evaluation of each learner individually.

3.3. Advantage:

3.3.1. This kind of assessment is high stakes because it is often factored into the student's grades. It provides learning information on the student and if the student has learned the skills and information needed to move to the next grade, for example.

3.4. Disadvantage:

3.4.1. Because it is often given at the end of a course or at the end of the year, students may be not in a learning mode. They may not put their full effort into it because they are too excited and distracted by vacations or the end of the year.

3.5. Design:

3.5.1. Of Learning - this assessment checks the level of achievement in what were the learning expectations for the student.

3.6. Example:

3.6.1. Grade: 5th Subject: Math Students are given a final exam that includes all that was learned in the 4th semester.

4. Performance-Based

4.1. Definition:

4.1.1. "Performance-based learning and assessment represent a set of strategies for the acquisition and application of knowledge, skills, and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to students."

4.2. Purpose:

4.2.1. This assessment provides the student an opportunity to apply what they learned in the unit using the real world for its application.

4.3. Advantage:

4.3.1. This assessment challenges students to use higher order thinking skills and they are given opportunities to create. The teacher learns and sees how the student has learned the content and can now apply it to a real world situation.

4.4. Disadvantage:

4.4.1. This assessment is open-ended and there is more freedom for the student to apply their learning; however, grading for the teacher may be subjective because there are no straight forward right or wrong answers. Some students may feel that they are being penalized for having an opposing view point, which resulted in a lower grade. It is recommended for teachers to provide a clear rubric for students to follow and for teachers to use when grading.

4.5. Design:

4.5.1. Of Learning - This assessment is given towards the end of a unit or lesson for students to have the opportunity to apply what they have learned.

4.6. Example:

4.6.1. Grade: 7th Subject: English Students are given a scenario and they choose their role. Student have to write a magazine article or a newspaper article informing the public about this situation and possible solutions to the problem.

5. High-Stakes

5.1. Definition:

5.1.1. "Any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers."

5.2. Purpose:

5.2.1. One of the ways this assessment is used is to determine if students should be promoted to the next grade. It is also used by schools to determine if the student learned what was expected, if the teacher is effectively teaching, and if the government should continue to give funds to the school (this was highly criticized under the No Child Left Behind Act because under performing schools would be penalized for testing poorly, which removed many opportunities in the arts and sports for students). This assessment tied students test results to federal funding for the school.

5.3. Advantage:

5.3.1. This assessment may promote teacher and student accountability for their learning.

5.4. Disadvantage:

5.4.1. This assessment could penalize schools for low testing scores, which will have a direct effect on students, it may promote low morale, low self-esteem in young students, and teachers may feel that they have to "teach to the test." Additionally, students with special needs many not be able to show their learning because of how the test is designed.

5.5. Design:

5.5.1. Of Learning - This assessment is normally given at the end of the unit or year.

5.6. Example:

5.6.1. Grade: 4th Subject: ELA Students in DC Public Schools take the PARCC standardized test. Students also take ANET, which is given at the end of each unit.

6. Portfolio

6.1. Definition:

6.1.1. This assessment is "is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts."

6.2. Purpose:

6.2.1. This assessment's purpose is to document the student's progress and learning through out the year.

6.3. Advantage:

6.3.1. This assessment allows a visual representation of the students progress towards mastery. To have this during teacher parent conferences if very beneficial to show parents how the student started and where they are now. A portfolio is also beneficial to use as evidence during an IEP or RTI meeting.

6.4. Disadvantage:

6.4.1. This assessment may be subjective when evaluating the student's work, it may be difficult to manage all student portfolios because they may become bulky, and conferences with each parent showing the portfolio could potentially be lengthy and could take away time from planning or instructional activities.

6.5. Design:

6.5.1. For Learning - This assessment shows the student's progress of learning.

6.6. Example:

6.6.1. Grade:  3rd Subject: ELA Teacher creates a portfolio that displays students writing assignments, art work, completed tests, projects, certificates, and awards.

7. Authentic

7.1. Definition:

7.1.1. "Authentic assessment is an evaluation process that involves multiple forms of performance measurement reflecting the student’s learning, achievement, motivation, and attitudes on instructionally-relevant activities."

7.2. Purpose:

7.2.1. This assessment gives the teacher another way of assessing if the student has learned the goals for the unit in a manner that requires the student to apply what they have learned.

7.3. Advantage:

7.3.1. It allows students who are not good test takers to show their knowledge through their creativity. Students use other means to show that they can apply what they have learned. It also challenges students to higher order thinking skills and problem solving.

7.4. Disadvantage:

7.4.1. If rubric is not written clearly, teachers may not be objective when grading.

7.5. Design:

7.5.1. For Learning - This assessment is normally given towards the end of a unit or year that will show if the student can apply what they have learned.

7.6. Example:

7.6.1. Grade: 5th Subject: Science Students work in teams to create a project or exhibition that involves multimedia production and written presentations in display.

8. Self-Assessment

8.1. Definition:

8.1.1. Student evaluates themselves and learns of their strengths and weakness.

8.2. Purpose:

8.2.1. This type of assessment the student evaluates themselves and in the process of doing so they learn what areas were not developed enough, what answers were wrong, and students can take note of what they need to restudy.

8.3. Advantage:

8.3.1. Students get to revise their own work, learn of skill gaps that they need to target, become accountable for their learning because they are now checking to see how they performed, and it promotes self-reflection.

8.4. Disadvantage:

8.4.1. This assessment could give the teacher more work if this is the only form of assessment used in class because the teacher would need to review each test to see if students are evaluating themselves correctly and honestly. Teaching students how to self-assess may also take on more time that the teacher may not have.

8.5. Design:

8.5.1. For Learning or As Learning - this assessment allows students to assess themselves and further their own learning. This also helps them identify their own strengths and areas of need.

8.6. Example:

8.6.1. Grade: 3rd Subject: Math Students self-asses their test and give themselves a grade by using a grading rubric.

9. Peer-Assessment

9.1. Definition:

9.1.1. "Students taking responsibility for assessing the work of their peers against set assessment criteria. They can therefore be engaged in providing feedback to their peers."

9.2. Purpose:

9.2.1. This assessment invites the student to think deeper about the material and student becomes  better able to understand the assessment criteria, which can give them ideas and insight for their own work.

9.3. Advantages:

9.3.1. This assessment promotes active learning in the student who is assessing their peer. It also makes the student responsible for their own learning and can teach them assessment skills, and it will motivate students to engage in the course more deeply.

9.4. Disadvantages:

9.4.1. Making sure students are being honest and detailed when giving the grade. Students may be giving everyone the same grades. If students are not taught how to peer assess, they may not know how to kindly give feedback without being rude towards another peer.

9.5. Design:

9.5.1. Of Learning or As Learning - This assessment is used to see if students have learned the content at the end of a unit or lesson.

9.6. Example:

9.6.1. Grade: 6th Subject: Social Studies Students are given a peers writing assignment that asked students to write a three paragraph essay about what freedom means to them and why. Each student is given a rubric with categories and the corresponding number, 4 being the highest grade. Student will provide feedback on their peer's essay and a grade.

10. References

10.1. Dumit, N. Y. (2012). Diagnostic/formative/summative assessment. Retrieved from: The glossary of education reform (n.d.) Retrieved from: Nevin, L (n.d.). Assessment for, of, and as learning. Retrieved from: Teachers guide to performance-based learning and assessment. Retrieved from:,_and_Why_is_it_Important¢.aspx Project appleseed (n.d.) Testing, testing. Retrieved from:!assessment/cwvf Pearson, A (n.d.) Disadvantages of high stakes testing in elementary schools. Retrieved from: Fernsten, L (2009). Portfolio assessment. Retrieved from: Scherba de valenzuela, J. Defining portfolio assessment. Retrieved from: Callison, D (1998). Authentic assessment. Retrieved from: Stanford University. Student self-assessment. Retrieved from: University of Reading (n.d.) Peer assessment. Retrieved from: Cornell University (n.d.). Peer assessment. Retrieved from: