Brain Structures

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Brain Structures by Mind Map: Brain Structures

1. Lobes

1.1. Frontal Lobe

1.2. Parietal Lobe

1.3. Occipital Lobe

1.4. Temporal Lobe

2. Subcortical Structures

3. Medulla

3.1. Very deep within brain

3.2. If damaged could die

4. Cerebellum

4.1. contains 30 billion neurons+

5. Hypothalamus

5.1. Feeding, hunger, thirst, and to some extent sleep

6. Cerebral Cortex

6.1. Wrinkled because it's crumpled

6.2. Motor Cortex

6.3. Sensory Cortex

6.4. 80% of our brain is cortex

6.5. The brain is topographical - Whatever is close on the body is close on the brain

6.5.1. But the size of body part does not dictate size on brain

6.5.2. Size is determined by motor vs sensory control

6.5.2.1. Sensory organs - Face & tongue are huge...Motor organs - Shoulder is tiny

6.5.3. Less than 1/4 is "maps"

6.6. 3/4 Of Brain is Reasoning, Language, Moral Thought

6.6.1. As you follow the evolution latter, animals have proportionally less Topographical areas, humans having the least*

7. Hemispheres - Left vs Right

7.1. Not symmetrical

7.2. Some functions are lateralized

7.2.1. Left control right part of body, Right controls left part of body

7.2.1.1. Left visual field goes to right side of brain, & vice versa

7.2.2. Right handed people have language in left hemisphere, math & music on right

7.2.3. Left handed are more complicated

7.2.4. Lateralization is never 100%

7.3. But somethings are duplicated, yet more prevalent in one side than the other

7.4. Connected by Corpus Callosum

7.4.1. Major (but not only) pathway between hemispheres

7.4.2. Permits data received in one side to be processed in both sides

7.4.3. Aids motor coordination for both sides

7.4.4. The brain works as a whole so if the Corpus Callosum is cut the brain halves can learn to work independently...

7.4.4.1. Joe - The man with the severed CC

7.4.4.1.1. If cut each brain does what it sees

7.4.4.1.2. Motor messages can confuse each other, for example we can't draw two pictures with both hands simultaneously

7.4.4.1.3. The experiment shows that language is on the left hemisphere, since Joe could draw what was flash to his right hemisphere but couldn't name it until he drew it and saw it with his left hemisphere.

7.4.4.1.4. The left hemisphere has a desire to explain/reason & recognizes elements (but not faces)

7.4.4.1.5. The right hemisphere can recognize faces

8. The brain has no neuro-receptors so you don't feel anything

8.1. On experiments electrically stimulating parts of the brain could simulate sense (smells, colors, touch, sounds, etc.)

9. But what about the rest of the brain?

9.1. Reason Imaging - CATSCAN, FMRI,PETSCAN

9.1.1. Show which parts of the brain are responsible for what, by seeing which parts are active.

9.2. Studying - Brain damage

9.2.1. Apraxia

9.2.2. Agnosia

9.2.3. Aphasia

9.2.4. Acquired psychopathy