CHEMISTRY

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CHEMISTRY by Mind Map: CHEMISTRY

1. Atom

1.1. Smallest part of an element that has all the element's properties

1.2. Different elements have different properties

1.3. John Dalton

1.3.1. All matter is made up of small, invisible particles called atoms

1.3.2. All the atoms of an element are identical in properties such as size and mass

1.3.3. Atoms of different elements have different properties

1.3.4. Atoms of different elements can combine in specific ways to form new substances

1.4. J.J Thompson

1.4.1. Used Cathode Ray Tubes

1.4.2. Was able to cause non-radioactive atoms to produce streams of negatively charged particles

1.4.3. Electrons are present in atoms

1.4.4. Sphere is positive due to Thompson knowing that atoms, which have no overall charge, must contain positive charges

1.5. Ernest Rutherford

1.5.1. Nucleus is located at the centre of the atom

1.5.2. Tiny positively charged part of the atom

1.6. James Chadwick

1.6.1. Discovered that neutral particles and positively charged particles

1.6.2. Neutral particles called neutrons carries no electrical charge

1.7. Neils Bohr

1.7.1. The electrons surround the nucleus in specific energy levels called shells

1.7.2. Discovered that electrons jump between these shells by gaining or losing energy

1.7.3. Each shell can only contain a specific number of electrons

1.7.3.1. Maximum in the 1st shell = 2

1.7.3.2. Maximum in the shells that exist after the first one = 8

1.8. Modern

1.8.1. Current model of the atom is called the QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL

1.8.2. Electrons exist in the specific energy levels but they surround the positively charges nucleus

1.9. Summary of the Atoms

1.9.1. Name

1.9.1.1. Symbol

1.9.1.1.1. Relative Mass

1.9.2. Proton

1.9.2.1. P

1.9.2.1.1. 1836

1.9.3. Neutron

1.9.3.1. N

1.9.3.1.1. 1837

1.9.4. Electron

1.9.4.1. E

1.9.4.1.1. 1

2. Ionic Compounds

2.1. Substances made up of at least one metal and one non-metal

2.1.1. The metal will form a positive ion

2.1.2. Non-metal will form a negative ion

2.2. Properties

2.2.1. High melting points

2.2.2. Form crystals, which are very regular arrangements of particles

2.2.3. Dissolves in water to form solutions that conduct electricity

2.2.4. Solids at room temperature

2.3. Naming

2.3.1. First element (metal) stays the same

2.3.2. Second element (non-metal) has its ending changed to "ide"

2.3.2.1. Chlorine = Chloride

2.3.2.2. Sulphur = Sulphide

2.4. Formulas

2.4.1. Examine the compound's name and identify the ions and charges

2.4.1.1. Iron Oxide

2.4.1.2. Fe2+  O2-

2.4.2. Determine the number of each ion needed to balance the charges

2.4.2.1. Fe2+  O2-

2.4.3. Note the ratio of positive to negative ions and write the formula

2.4.3.1. FeO

3. Matter

3.1. Anything that has mass and volume

3.1.1. Mass

3.1.1.1. The quantity of matter in an object

3.1.2. Volume

3.1.2.1. How much space it takes up

3.2. Changes of State (Solid, Liquid, Gas)

3.2.1. Melting Point

3.2.1.1. The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid

3.2.2. Freezing Point

3.2.2.1. The temperature at which liquid turns into a solid

3.2.3. Boiling Point

3.2.3.1. Liquid turns to gas

3.3. Particle Theory

3.3.1. All matter is composed of very tiny objects called particles

3.3.2. All particles have spaces between them

3.3.2.1. Distances between the particles change for different states of matter

3.3.3. Particles present in matter are always in motion

3.3.3.1. They may be vibrating back and forth, as in solid, or moving in all directions, as a gas, or in liquid, stay together but slide past one another

3.3.4. The particles in substance attract each other

3.3.4.1. Amount of attraction is different for different kinds of particles.

3.3.5. Comparasion

3.3.5.1. Distance

3.3.5.1.1. Gas = Very far apart

3.3.5.1.2. Liquid  = Far Apart

3.3.5.1.3. Solid = Close together

3.3.5.2. Attraction Forces

3.3.5.2.1. Gas = Very weak force

3.3.5.2.2. Liquid = Weak force

3.3.5.2.3. Solid = Strong force

3.4. Can be classified as a PURE SUBSTANCE or a MIXTURE

3.4.1. Pure Substance

3.4.1.1. A pure substance is made up of one kind of matter

3.4.1.1.1. Element

3.4.1.1.2. Compound

3.4.2. Mixture

3.4.2.1. A combination of different types of matter or pure substances

3.4.2.1.1. Heterogeneous

3.4.2.1.2. Homogenous

4. Molecular Compounds

4.1. Substances created by combining non-metals only

4.2. Atoms share electrons to complete electron shells

4.2.1. Water molecule contains 2 hydrogen atoms sharing their electrons with one oxygen molecule

4.3. Physical Properties

4.3.1. Can be solids, liquids or gases at room temperature

4.3.2. Usually good insulators, but poor conductors of electricity

4.3.3. Have relatively low boiling points

4.4. Naming

4.4.1. First element stays the same

4.4.2. Prefix to the first name is aded to indicate the amounts of atoms

4.4.2.1. Mono

4.4.2.2. Di

4.4.2.3. Tri

4.4.2.4. Tetra

4.4.2.5. Pent

4.4.3. Second element has its ending changed to "ide"

4.4.4. Prefix to second name to show the amount of atoms

4.5. Formula

4.5.1. Identify the symbol of first element

4.5.2. Identify symbol of second element

4.5.3. Add subscripts to each elements telling how many there are of each

4.5.3.1. The small number on the bottom right of the symbol

4.6. Atoms are held together by connections called bonds

4.6.1. Bonds represent electrons that are shared between atoms

4.7. Hazards And Benefits

4.7.1. Being associated with high amounts of mercury, it can cause mercury poisoning which  has effects on the nervous system and muscles

4.7.1.1. Symptoms include rashes, numbness, tremors, slurred speech, and tooth loss

4.7.1.2. Reproductive systems and birth defects

4.7.2. Can manage the use of hazardous chemicals by:

4.7.2.1. Understanding the properties of substances and how to use them properly

4.7.2.2. Designing innovative equipments and processes

4.7.2.3. Putting personal safety and environmental protection as a first priority

4.7.2.4. Enforcing effective regulations

5. Physical And Chemical

5.1. Physical And Chemical Properties

5.1.1. Colour & Lustre

5.1.1.1. The light a substance reflects gives it colour and lustre (shine)

5.1.2. Conductivity

5.1.2.1. The ability of a substance to conduct heat or electricity

5.1.3. Density

5.1.3.1. The amount of mass in a given volume of a substance

5.1.4. Ductility

5.1.4.1. Any solid that can be stretched into a long wire, ductile

5.1.5. Hardness

5.1.5.1. A substance's ability to resist being scratched

5.1.5.2. Usually measured on the Mohs hardness scale from 1-10

5.1.6. Malleability

5.1.6.1. A substance that can be pounded or rolled into sheets, malleable

5.1.7. Viscosity

5.1.7.1. The resistance of fluid to flow

5.1.8. Transparency

5.1.8.1. Allowing the transmission of light through a substance, transparent

5.1.9. Combustibility

5.1.9.1. The ability of a substance to react quickly with oxygen to produce heat and light

5.2. Properties and Change

5.2.1. Chemical Property

5.2.1.1. Describes the ability of a substance to change into a NEW substance(s)

5.2.1.2. To observe a chemical property, a reaction has to occur

5.2.2. Physical Change

5.2.2.1. The substances involved remain the SAME substances, even though they may be a change of state or form

5.2.2.2. Easy to reverse

5.2.3. Chemical Change

5.2.3.1. Colour

5.2.3.2. Odour

5.2.3.3. Temperature

5.2.3.4. Production of light

5.2.3.5. Formation of a new solid inside a liquid

5.2.3.6. Production of gas

6. Elements

6.1. Alloy

6.1.1. A mixture of two or more metals

6.1.1.1. Gold

6.1.1.2. Silver

6.2. Properties

6.2.1. Metal

6.2.1.1. Excellent Conductors of heat and electricity

6.2.1.2. Malleable

6.2.1.3. Ductile

6.2.2. Non- Metals

6.2.2.1. Do not resemble Metals

6.2.3. Metalloids

6.2.3.1. Metallic and non

6.2.3.2. Conducts electricity but not well

6.2.3.2.1. Semiconductors

7. Periodic Table

7.1. Information found

7.2. Period is a horizontal row

7.2.1. As you go across a period, the number of valence electrons increases by one

7.3. Group is a vertical column

7.3.1. As you go down a group, the number of valence electrons are the same in each group