Earth Science

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Earth Science by Mind Map: Earth Science

1. Volcanoes and Mountains

1.1. Magma Viscosity

1.1.1. the viscosity of the magma or lava increases as the temperature decreases.

1.1.2. more violent eruptions occur where gases cannot escape easily.

1.1.3. viscosity of the magma increases with increasing silica content and decreasing temperature.

1.1.3.1. Basaltic - low

1.1.3.1.1. divergent plate bounderies

1.1.3.1.2. asthenosphere

1.1.3.2. Andesitic - intermidiate

1.1.3.2.1. convergent plate

1.1.3.2.2. lithosphere

1.1.3.3. Rhyolitic - high

1.1.3.3.1. low melting

1.1.3.3.2. partial melting of continental crust

1.2. Products of Volcanic Erruption

1.2.1. Airborne elements

1.2.1.1. Tephra

1.2.1.2. Volcanic gases

1.2.2. Surface Effects

1.2.2.1. Lava Pyroclastic Flows

1.2.2.2. Lahars

1.3. Volcanoes and Volcanic Landforms

1.3.1. Shield Volcanoes

1.3.2. Stratovolcanoes

1.3.2.1. violent erruption

1.3.3. Cinder Cone Volcanoes

1.3.4. Others

1.3.4.1. Calderas

1.3.4.2. Lava Plateaus

1.3.4.3. Geysers

1.3.4.4. Hot Springs

1.3.4.5. Fumeroles

1.3.4.6. Mud Volcanoes

2. Earthquakes

2.1. Faults, Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics

2.1.1. Faults are fractures where two blocks of rocks move past each other.

2.1.2. Epicenter is the location on Earth's surface directly above the earthquake focus.

2.1.3. if the block above the fault moves down, it is a normal fault.

2.1.4. If the block above the fault move up, it is a reverse fault.

2.1.5. Strike is horizontal movements.

2.1.6. the length of time necessary to build up enough stress to cause a fault to break again is known as the recurrence interval.

2.2. Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection

2.2.1. Types of Seismic Waves

2.2.1.1. Surface Waves

2.2.1.1.1. Love Waves

2.2.1.1.2. Rayleigh waves

2.2.1.2. Body Waves

2.2.1.2.1. p-waves - first one to arrive

2.2.1.2.2. s-waves - perpendicular movements

2.3. Measurements of Earthquakes

2.3.1. Magnitude

2.3.1.1. Ritcher's scale

2.3.1.2. Seismograph

2.3.1.3. Seismogram

2.3.2. Intensity

2.3.2.1. Mercalli's Scale

2.3.2.2. Damages

2.3.2.3. How destructive

2.4. Earthquake Hazzards

2.4.1. Ground Shaking

2.4.2. Aftershocks

2.4.3. Landslides

2.4.4. Elevation Changes

2.4.5. Liquefaction

2.4.6. Tsunami

3. Earth in Space

3.1. Old ideas and New Ideas

3.1.1. Heliocentric

3.1.1.1. Sun is the center of the solar system

3.1.2. Geocentric

3.1.2.1. Earth is the center of the solar system

3.1.2.2. Copernicus' idea

3.1.2.3. Galileo Galilei introduced telescope and he prove that the Earth is the center of the solar system. He uses the faces of Venus as a basis.

3.2. Origin of the Universe

3.2.1. Determining the Age and Size of the Universe

3.2.1.1. Brightness and Luminosity

3.2.1.1.1. The brightness of a star depends on the distance to the star and the amount of energy it radiates.

3.2.1.1.2. Cepheid variables - specific class of stars.

3.2.1.1.3. Pulsation period provides a good estimate of the Cepheid luminosity.

3.2.1.1.4. Scientist use the brightness and luminosity to calculate our distance from the star.

3.2.1.1.5. Our universe is expanding.

3.2.1.2. The Doppler Effect

3.2.1.2.1. Apparently changing frequency due to the relative motion of a sound source.

3.2.1.2.2. Violet and blue has the shortest wavelength and red has the longest wavelength.

3.2.1.2.3. Red shift -  star is moving away from us. It is use by astronomers to calculate the distance of the farthest galaxies.

3.2.1.2.4. Blue shift -  star is moving towards us.

3.2.1.2.5. Galaxies are moving away from us, and the farther away the galaxy, the greater the red shift.

3.2.1.3. Measuring Distance in Light Years

3.2.1.3.1. One light year is the distance that light can travel in one year is equivalent to 9,500 billion kilometers.

3.2.1.3.2. It measures distance not time.

3.2.2. Big Bang Theory

3.2.2.1. The universe began with a massive and rapid expansion.

3.2.2.2. The universe is consisted of sub atomic particles and free energy.

3.2.2.3. Cosmic radiation would have been released in all directions.

3.2.2.4. there were gaps and bumps that later formed regions where gravitational attraction pulled together clumps of dust and gas to form galaxies.

3.2.2.5. processes within debris would result in material being pulled together to form massive stars and smaller planets.

3.3. Stars and Planets

3.3.1. How Stars Formed

3.3.1.1. Cloud of dust and gas coalesce, increasing the mass of the cloud and pulling in adjoining material. Eventually, the gravitational pull of these masses produced giant hot balls of glowing gas.

3.3.1.2. Heat energy comes from nuclear fusion of four hydrogen atoms to form a single helium atom.

3.3.1.3. The more massive the star, the shorter its life span.

3.3.1.4. Intermediate fall somewhere in the middle of the size range and last about 10 billion years.

3.3.1.5. Super giants are 70 - 100 times larger than sun, last 10 - 100 billion years.

3.3.1.6. Blue stars are the hottest while red stars are the coolest.

3.3.2. How Planets Formed

3.3.2.1. The planets in our Solar System are believed to have formed from the same spinning disc of dust that formed the Sun. This disc, called the solar nebula, was composed mainly of hydrogen and helium, but also had other elements in smaller proportions.

3.3.2.2. All planets orbit the sun in the same direction, and they all rotate the same direction as expected if they formed from a single, rotating disk of materials.

3.3.2.3. Lighter gases, such as hydrogen and helium, was blasted to the outer, colder parts of the young planetary system to form the icy, rich planets.

3.3.2.4. The heavier elements collected closer to the star to form the rocky-inner planets.

3.4. Characteristics of the Sun

3.4.1. The sun rotates about once a month. it experience differential rotation.

3.4.2. Sunspots are the result of the change of rotation of the sun.

3.4.3. Sunspots are the dark blotches on the sun's outermost layer. The apparent movement of sunspots can be used to measure the periodicity of the sun's rotation.

3.4.4. Action of solar wind

3.4.4.1. space weather is dominated by solar wind, a constant streamed of charged particles accelerated from the sun's outer layers by its magnetic field.

3.4.4.2. Intense streams of charged particles can disrupt Earth's magnetic field, generating electrical currents that result in power surges.

3.4.4.3. Disruption of earth's magnetic field caused by solar wind can also result in spectacular effects such as the dramatic light displays known as aurora in the upper atmosphere.

3.4.5. Solar Power on Earth

3.4.5.1. It provides Solar and Geothermal energy.

3.5. Our Solar System

3.5.1. Types of Planets

3.5.1.1. Terrestrial Planets

3.5.1.1.1. Composed of rocks and can be divided into different compositional layers.

3.5.1.1.2. The cores of terrestrial planets are composed of iron and nickel mixture.

3.5.1.1.3. Their composition is similar to that of metallic meteorites.

3.5.1.1.4. Rocky materials made up the planet's outer layers represented by the crust and mantle.

3.5.1.1.5. Hotter planets

3.5.1.2. Jovian Planets

3.5.1.2.1. The Jovian planets are much  larger than terrestrial planets.

3.5.1.2.2. Composed of gases

3.5.1.2.3. Large, gas, giants.

3.5.1.3. Distribution  of Solar Radiation

3.5.1.3.1. Isolation - the amount of solar radiation received by Earth.

3.5.1.3.2. Temperature contrast are due to the tilt of the earth axis.

3.5.1.3.3. Amount of solar energy reaching Earth's surface depends on the angle the sun's rays strike  Earth.

3.5.1.3.4. Sun is directly overhead at different places during different seasons.

3.6. Earth, the Sun, and the Seasons

3.6.1. Distribution  of Solar Radiatio

3.6.1.1. Isolation - the amount of solar radiation received by Earth.

3.6.1.2. Temperature contrast are due to the tilt of the earth axis.

3.6.1.3. Amount of solar energy reaching Earth's surface depends on the angle the sun's rays strike Earth.

3.7. The Unique Composition of Earth

3.7.1. Core, Mantle, Crust

3.7.1.1. Divided into two parts, a solid inner core and a partially melted inner core.

3.7.1.2. The mantle is a solid from the top of the outer core to the base of the crust.

3.7.1.3. Lithosphere - outermost layer of mantle.

3.7.1.4. Asthenosphere - where rocks melt.

3.7.2. Why is there life on Earth?

3.7.2.1. Liquid water

3.7.2.1.1. It balanced temperature.

3.7.2.1.2. Sustain life

3.7.2.2. Gravity and Protective Atmosphere

3.7.2.2.1. Smaller planets have weaker gravity and thus thinner atmosphere; larger planets have stronger gravity fields and thus more thicker atmosphere.

3.7.2.2.2. Earth is large enough to have accumulated atmosphere that protects the planet.

3.7.2.2.3. Gravity holds Earth's layer of atmospheric close to the planet's surface.

3.7.2.3. Life sustaining gases

3.7.2.4. Strong Magnetic Field

4. Plate Tectonics

4.1. Continental Drift

4.1.1. Matching features

4.1.1.1. Plants and animals

4.1.1.2. Fossils

4.1.1.3. Continuous mountain belts

4.1.1.4. Sequence of rocks.

4.1.2. Wegener's Theory

4.1.2.1. Originally there is only one continent and it is called Pangea

4.1.2.2. It it not accepted before because he did not prove it.

4.2. Evidence from the Seafloor

4.2.1. Seafloor Topography

4.2.1.1. Ridge system is a source of volcanic activity.

4.2.1.2. narrow, deep oceanic ridges

4.2.2. Age of the seafloor

4.2.2.1. Oceanic crust are younger compared to continental crust.

4.2.2.2. Oceanic floor that is nearest to the ridges are the youngest.

4.2.3. Oceanic floor  theory

4.2.3.1. New oceanic lithosphere is being continuously formed along ridge system by magma rising from below, as this occurs, the existing rocks of the seafloor move away from the ridge.

4.3. Plate Tectonics

4.3.1. The Process of Plate Tectonics

4.3.1.1. Interactions of the plates along these boundaries account for the formation of the new lithosphere, mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes and contribute to the gradual movement of continents and the spreading of the sea.

4.3.1.2. Formation of new lithoshere

4.3.1.2.1. decompression melting

4.3.1.3. Earthquake, volcanoes, and the destruction of lithosphere at subduction zones.

4.3.1.3.1. oceanic lithosphere consumed at it descends into the mantle adjacent to trenches at regions termed subduction zones.

4.4. Plate Bounderies

4.4.1. Divergent

4.4.1.1. occur when hot rising mantle rock causes plates to move apart.

4.4.1.1.1. Rift valles

4.4.1.1.2. Ridges(spreading of seafloor)

4.4.2. Convergent

4.4.2.1. Lithosphere are consumed at subduction zones.

4.4.2.1.1. Trenches

4.4.2.1.2. Mountains

4.4.2.1.3. Volcanoes

4.4.2.2. The older plates descends because it is colder and denser.

4.4.2.3. Oceanic-Oceanic

4.4.2.4. Oceanic-Contenental

4.4.2.5. Continental-Continental.

4.4.3. Transfom

4.4.3.1. No Subduction zones

5. Rocks and Minerals

5.1. Minerals

5.1.1. Crystal Form

5.1.2. Cleavage

5.1.3. Hardness

5.1.4. Color

5.1.5. Others

5.1.5.1. Luster

5.1.5.2. Streak

5.2. Rocks

5.2.1. Igneous

5.2.1.1. Texture

5.2.1.2. Color

5.2.1.2.1. light color - silica rich

5.2.1.2.2. dark color - silica poor

5.2.1.3. plutonic and volcanic

5.2.2. Sedimentary

5.2.2.1. Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

5.2.2.1.1. Generation

5.2.2.1.2. Transportation

5.2.2.1.3. Lithification

5.2.2.2. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

5.2.2.2.1. formed when minerals precipitate from a solution as a result of changing physical condition.

5.2.2.3. Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks

5.2.2.3.1. result from the action of living organisms that cause minerals to be extracted from a solution or are composed of the remains of dead organism.

5.2.3. Metamorphic

5.2.3.1. Contact Metamorphism

5.2.3.1.1. occurs when rocks come in contact with a heat source.

5.2.3.2. Regional Metamorphism

5.2.3.2.1. occurs when rocks undergo increased temperature and pressures

6. Geologic Time

6.1. Relative Time

6.1.1. Describing the order of geologic events.

6.1.2. Unconformities

6.1.3. Power of Fossils

6.1.3.1. Index Fossils

6.1.3.1.1. Species that existed for a relatively short period

6.2. Geologic Time

6.2.1. Eons

6.2.1.1. Phanerozoic -  present time

6.2.1.2. Proterozoic -  fossils develop

6.2.1.3. Archean - formation of Earth, first bacteria, oldest known rocks.

6.2.2. Eras

6.2.2.1. Cenozoic

6.2.2.2. Mesozoic

6.2.2.3. Paleozoic

6.2.2.4. Precambrian

6.2.3. Mass extinction - large numbers of species die.

6.2.4. Numerical Time

6.2.4.1. Isotopes

6.2.4.1.1. parent - unstable

6.2.4.1.2. daughter - stable new isotope

6.2.4.2. Radioactive Decay

6.2.4.3. Half-life - the time parent isotope converted to daughter atoms.

7. Weathering and Soils

7.1. Weathering

7.1.1. Physical Weathering

7.1.1.1. Unloading

7.1.1.1.1. Leads to pressure release cracks in the exposed rocks.

7.1.1.1.2. Erosion strips away overlying material

7.1.1.1.3. Decrease in overlying pressure (load) causes underlying rock to expand upward

7.1.1.2. Wedging

7.1.1.2.1. Water enters cracks in surface materials

7.1.1.2.2. Temperature drop causes water to freeze, expand, and force the cracks to expand.

7.1.1.2.3. Process repeats when ice melts, water finds new cracks, freezes again and expands the cracks

7.1.2. Chemical Weatherig

7.1.2.1. Dissolution - Minerals in a rock are dissolved by water

7.1.2.2. Hydrolysis - Hydrogen ions (H+) in water replace other ions in silicate minerals

7.1.2.3. Oxidation

7.1.2.3.1. When hydrogen ions replace other ions in silicates (hydrolysis), the silicates become weaker and more likely to break down.

7.1.2.3.2. Oxygen reacts with iron and other metals to form new mineral compounds

7.1.3. Biological Weathering

7.1.3.1. Macroscopic

7.1.3.1.1. Includes the actions of: plant roots, animal burrows, termites, and other boring organisms

7.1.3.2. Microscopic

7.1.3.2.1. Primarily caused by decomposition of material that converts solid material to gases with or without water

7.1.3.2.2. Works mostly on organic material such as dead plant or animal matter

7.2. Soil - a stratified mixture of regolith that includes enough organic material, water, and air to support plant life

7.2.1. Soil Formation is controlled by rock in the source area, temperature and amount or rain, and biological activity.

7.2.2. Soil Fertility

7.2.2.1. Fertility changes over time depending on leaching and replacement of nutrients by weathering

7.2.2.2. Heavy rainfall can carry away soil nutrients

7.2.3. Soil erosion

8. The Atmosphere

8.1. Layers

8.1.1. Troposphere

8.1.1.1. Shows a decrease in temperature with altitude.

8.1.1.2. Gets its warmth from the  Earth’s surface.

8.1.1.3. Contains our weather systems.

8.1.1.4. Air pollution collects here.

8.1.1.5. The bulk of air and aerosols  reside here.

8.1.2. Stratosphere

8.1.2.1. Shows an increase in temperature with altitude.

8.1.2.2. Over 25 miles thick.

8.1.2.3. Contains ~20% of the atmosphere’s air.

8.1.2.4. This is where ozone resides,  which blocks out harmful  ultraviolet solar radiation.

8.1.2.5. Temperature increase is due to  absorption of solar radiation by  ozone molecules. Higher  kinetic energy (nothing to bump  into).

8.1.2.6. The cool air of the troposphere  cannot rise into the  stratosphere.

8.1.3. Mesosphere

8.1.3.1. Decreasing air temperatures that reach a minimum of - 139°F!

8.1.3.2. Temperature minimum at the mesopause.

8.1.3.3. Temperature decreases due to fewer and fewer ozone molecules to absorb solar UV radiation.

8.1.3.4. Very little oxygen and nitrogen.

8.1.3.5. Sufficient gases to burn up incoming debris.

8.1.3.6. Most near earth objects burn up in this layer.

8.1.4. Thermosphere

8.1.4.1. Increasing air temperature up  to 1,830°F due to solar  radiation!

8.1.4.2. Blocks most of the harmful  cosmic radiation (x-rays,  gamma rays, some UV).

8.1.4.3. Very few gas molecules – heat  energy is actually low.

8.1.4.4. Gases here are ionized

8.1.4.5. Ionized gases cause Auroras

8.2. Role of Water in Atmosphere

8.2.1. Water is constantly cycled through the atmosphere.

8.2.2. The atmosphere contains a small portion of the Earth’s water.

8.2.3. Solid, Liquid, and Gas

8.2.4. Heat is absorbed during  melting, evaporation, or  sublimation (solid to gas).

8.2.5. Heat is released during  freezing, condensation, or  deposition (gas to solid).

8.2.6. They contribute to  weather  phenomena and  redistribution of  heat in the  atmosphere.

8.2.7. Humidity = the amount of moisture in the air.

8.2.7.1. Absolute

8.2.7.2. Relative

8.2.8. Air Pressure, Condensation, and  Precipitation

8.2.8.1. Atmospheric  pressure = the  pressure exerted by  the weight of an  overlying column of  air.

8.2.8.2. Air pressure  declines with  increasing altitude.

8.2.8.3. Air pressure is  influenced by air  density.

8.2.8.4. Air density  measurement of the  mass of atoms and  molecules of gases  per volume of air.

8.2.8.5. Clouds are composed of billions of tiny water droplets  that eventually combine to form rain, snow, or hail.

8.2.8.6. Clouds reach temperature below -5°C, whereby air needs a  little less water vapor to be saturated for ice than for water.

8.2.9. Clouds and Frontal Systems

8.2.9.1. Clouds can have both a cooling  effect (due to reflection of solar  radiation) and a warming effect  (due to absorption by water vapor,  a greenhouse gas) on the Earth’s  surface. At present, we don’t know which effect is stronger.

8.2.9.2. Types of Clouds

8.2.9.2.1. Cirrus

8.2.9.2.2. Cummulus

8.2.9.2.3. Stratus

8.2.9.3. Frontal lifting = two large air masses of different densities meet. Their  boundary is a front. The lighter warm air rises above the colder denser

8.2.9.4. Orographic lifting = air is forced to  rise over an obstruction such as mountains.

8.2.9.5. Convergence lifting = collision of  two air masses of similar temperature  forces some air upward since both air  masses cannot occupy the same space.

9. References: Introduction to Earth Science