Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. 2- Politics of Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.2. 1. Intellectual Purpose- of schooling are to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge (e.g., in literature, history, the sciences, ete.); and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

1.3. 2. Political Purpose- of schooling are to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (patriotism); to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order (e.g., in political (democracies); to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order; and to teach children basic laws of society.

1.4. 3. Social Purpose- of schooling are to help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and the church (or synagogue) to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of society. This process, referred to by sociologist as socialization, is a key ingredient to the stability of any society.

1.5. 4. Economic Purpose- of schooling are to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor. The degree to which schools directly prepare students for work varies from society to society, but most schools have at least an indirect role in this process.

1.6. The Role of the School

1.6.1. Conservative View Point- The conservative sees the role of the school as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity. In addition, conservatives believe that schools socialize children into adult roles necessary to the maintenance of the social order. Finally, they see the schools as the one transmitting the cultural traditions through what is taught (the curriculum). Therefore, the conservative preservative views roles of the school as essential to both economic productivity and social stability. Conservative View Summarized -Schools should ensure that all students have the opportunity to compete individually in the educational marketplace and that schools should be meritocratic to the extent that individual effort is rewarded. Based on the belief individuals succeed largely on their own accord, conservatives argue that the role of the school is top provide a place for individual merit to be encouraged and rewarded.

1.7. Expectations of Unequal Educational Performance

1.7.1. Conservative View Point- Individuals or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative , and that achievement is is based on hard work and scarifice. The school system, from this vantage point, is designed to allow individuals the opportunity to succeed. If they do not, it may be because they are, as individuals, deficient in some manner or because they are members of a group that is deficient.

1.8. Definitions of Expectations Conservative View Point.

1.8.1. In their response to liberal and radical demands 1. For greater equality in the 1960's and 1970's. schools systematically lowered academic standards and reduced educational quality. Conservatives often refer to this problem as the decline of standards. 2. For multicultural education (i.e., education that responses to the needs of all cultural groups), schools watered down the traditional curriculum and thus weakened the school's ability to pass on the heritage of American and Western civilizations to children. Conservatives often define this problem as the decline of cultural literacy. 3. For cultural relativism (i.e., that every culture's values and ideas are equally valid), schools lost their traditional role of teaching moral standards and values. Conservatives often refer to this problem as the decline of values or of civilization. 4. for individuality and freedom, schools lost their traditional disciplinary function and often become chaotic. Conservatives often refer to this problem as decline in authority.ciency 5. Because they are state controlled and are immune from laws of a competitive free market, schools are stifled by bureaucrucy and ineffi

2. 3. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Education for all: The Emergence of the Public High School.

2.1.1. I personally think that the emergence of the public high schools is the most influential of all the reforms. Up until the 1890's there were no standards for a national core curriculum for high schools to follow. The high school curriculum had started to branch off in many different directions. Also there was not collaboration between high school curriculum and college entry requirements. To solve this problem the National Education Association formed a committee to help solve common problems between high schools. The NEA also formed a committee on college entry requirements. This Committee said that all high school students study a core of academic subjects. This reform help secondary institutions to find common curriculum for the nation. This in return open the door to a vast number of students to attend college.

2.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

2.2.1. I would say that I agree with the conservative perspective or interpenetration of Dianne Ravitch. The role of the school should be passing on common culture or heritage, and intelligence. The liberal belief that social goals are more important than intellectual has degraded the quality of education. This has broken down the fundamental function of the school which is to "develop the powers of intelligence, and promote western heritage. The progressive reforms of the twentieth century have produced a generation who know little about their western heritage. I do believe that schools should provide equal opportunities to the disadvantaged and immigrants, but not at the loss of quality academic intelligence and cultural heritage, that shapes our beliefs, values, and standards of living.

3. 4. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical perspective Concerning the Relationship between School and Society.

3.2. The Relationship Between School and Society Schools act as agents of cultural and social transmission. A good definition of this theory is " an integration of all known principles, laws, and information pertaining to a specific area of study.

3.2.1. Functionalism Functionalist view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. Emile Durkheim describes functionalism. Education in virtually all societies was of a critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony. Functionalist tend to assume that consensus is the normal state in society and that conflict represents a breakdown of shared values. In a highly integrated, well-functioning society, schools socialize students into the appropriate values, and sort and select students according to their abilities.

3.2.2. Conflict Theory These sociologist believe that social order is not based on some collective agreement , but on the ability to dominate groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation. The glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power. Conflict sociologist do not see the relation between school and society as unproblematical or straight forward. From a conflict point of view school are similarly to social battlefields, where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators, and so on.

3.2.3. Interactional Theory Interactional Theories about the relation of schools and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspective. They attempt to make the common place strange by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students, and students, and between students and teachers. It is exactly what one does not question that is most problematic at a deep level.

3.3. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.4. Americans believe that schools have a significant impact on learning and on social and economic mobility.

3.4.1. Employment Most research has shown that the amount of education is only weakly related to job performance, and has really no affect. School act as the gate-keepers in determining who will get employed in High-status occupation , but schools do not really provide job skills, people learn to do their job by doing it. Education however does have an effect on economic status and income. On average a person with a college degree makes $20,000.00 more, than a person with a high school degree..

3.4.2. Inadequate Schools This is one of the most prevalent problems with the United Sates education system. The quality of the schools differ drastically depending on location, and in condition/atmosphere, curriculum, teachers,, and so on Urban school students don't receive a quality that suburban and private schools do,

3.4.3. Tracking Tracking refers to the placement of students in curricular programs based on students' abilities and inclinations. Most studies have found that often tracking decisions are based on race and class. The working-class students usually ends up on vocational tracks, and middle-class students end up on academic tracks.

3.4.4. Teaching Behavior Teachers can have as many as 1000 interpersonal contacts each day with students in the classroom. The teacher plays the role of many different positions: instructor, disciplinarian, bureaucrat, employer, friend, confidant, educator, and so on. Research shows that teachers expectations for the school year have a direct influence on encouraging and discouraging students to use their full potential. teachers are models for students and, and instructional leaders, teachers set standards for students and influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy. When teachers demand more from their students learned more and felt better about themselves.

3.4.5. De Facto Segregation Another important way that school reinforce (even create) inequalities, is through De Facto Segregation. studies have show that racially mixed school benefits minorities, and they are more likely to graduate from high school.

4. 5. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Student-centered Philosophy of Education

4.1.1. Pragmatism Is philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desires end. Although pragmatics do study the past, they generally are more interested in contemporary issues and in discovering solutions to problems in present-day terms. They are action oriented, experientially grounded, and will generally pose questions su as "What will work to achieve my desired end?" A Progmatic Schema might look Like Problem---> Speculative thought-----> Action---> Results.

4.1.2. Generic Notes Dewey's form of pragmatism---Instrumentalism and experimentalism---- Was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. His ideals were influenced by the theory of evaluation, and eighteenth century optimistic belief in progress. The school is the "Embryonic community" where children can learn skills both experientially, from books, in addition to traditional information, which would enable them to work in a democratic society. Dewey's idea of education is often referred to as progressive, Proposed that educators start with the needs and interest of the child in the classroom, allow the child to participate in planning his or her course of study, employ project method or group learning, and depend heavily on experiential learning. Dewey's Progressive methodology rested on the notion that children were active, organic begins, growing and changing, and thus require a course of study that would reflect their particular stages of development. "Freedom and responsibility for students".

4.1.3. Goal of Education Dewey's Vision of schools was rooted in the social order: he did not see ideas as separate from social conditions. He fervently believed that philosophy had a responsibility to society and that ideas required laboratory testing; hence, he stressed the importance of the school as a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged and restructured, with the goal of providing students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order. Moreover, he believed that school should provide" Conjoint, communicated experience"---- that it should function as preparation for life in a democratic society.

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher In a progressive setting, the teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows; rather, the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study. the teacher also writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum.

4.1.5. Methods of Instruction Children learn both individually and in groups. Dewey believed that children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know. Today, we refer to this method of instruction as the problem-solving method or inquiry method. Books, often written by teachers and students together, were used; field trips and projects that reconstructed some aspect of the child's course of study were also an integral part of learning in Dewey's laboratory school. these methods in turn became the basis for other progressive schools founded in the Deweyan tradition.

4.1.6. Curriculum They follow Dewey's notion of core curriculum or an integrated curriculum. A particular subject matter under investigation by students, such as whales, would yield problems to be solved using, math, science, history, reading, writing, music, art, wood or metal working, cooking and sewing.---- All the academic and vocational disciplines in an integrated , interconnected way. Progressive educators support starting with contemporary problems and working from known to the unknown, or what is now called in social studies education, " the curriculum expanding environments." Progressives educators are not wedded to a fixed curriculum either;rather curriculum changes and as children's interest and needs change.

4.2. Key American Researchers George Sanders Perice, William James, and John Dewy. John Dewey being the one that has shaped the american philosophy of " Pragmatism"and progressive education. the most. Dewey was influenced by Charles Darwin theory of natural selection. He Formed his own philosophy over his years at universities and introduced the terms instrumentalism and experimentalism. Instrumentalism refers to the pragmatic relationship between school and society. Experimentalism refers to the application of ideas to educational practice on experimental basis. Dewey presented and number of different approaches to education. The Two Most Popular: Child-Centered progressivism influnced by Dewey, and Social Reconstructionism and interpretation of Dewey's work by George Counts.

5. 6. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Elements of Change within School Processes and Cultures

5.1.1. Conflict: Previous problems and disagreements must surface. Staff members must be prepared to elicit, manage, and resolve conflicts.

5.1.2. New Behaviors: build communication and trust, new relationships, allowing new leadership to emerge

5.1.3. Team Building: must extend to the entire school, shared decision making

5.2. Major Stakeholders in my Area

5.2.1. State Senators: Richard Shelby(R) and Luther Strange(R)

5.2.2. House of Representatives: Bradley Byrne(R), Martha Roby(R), Mike Rogers(R), Robert Aderholt(R), Mo Brooks(R), Gary Palmer(R), and Terri Sewell(D)

5.2.3. State Superintendent: Michael Sentance

5.2.4. Representative on State School Board:: Mary Scott Hunter (District 08)

5.2.5. Huntsville City School: Superintendent: B.T. (Tom) Drake (Interim) Board Members: Elisa Ferrell. Walker McGinnis. Beth Wilder. Pam Hill.

6. 7. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1. The developmentalist curriculum is related to the needs and interest of the students' rather than the needs of society. This is a philosophically progressive approach to teaching was student centered and was concerned with relating curriculum to the needs and interest of each child at particular developmental stages. Thus, it stressed flexibility in both what was taught, with the emphasis on the development of each student's individual capacities. Moreover, the developmental curriculum stressed the importance of relating schooling to life experiences of the child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful way. The teacher, from this perspective was not a transmitter of knowledge but rather a facilitator of the students growth.

6.2. Dominate Traditions of Teaching

7. 9. Education inequality

7.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

7.1.1. Suggest that working class and non white families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage. Middle-class culture values hard work and initiative, the delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and the importance of schooling as a means of future success. The culture of poverty eschews delayed gratification for immediate reward, rejects hard work and initiative as a means to success, and does not view schooling as the means to social mobility. results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for satisfactory academic achievement.

7.2. School-centered Explanations for Educational Inequality.

7.2.1. School Financing Public Schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. however, the majoirity of funds come from state and local taxes, with local property taxes a significant source. Property taxes are based on the values of property in local communities and therefore is a proportional tax. Since property values are significantly higher in more affluent communities, these are able to raise significantly more money for schools through this form of taxation, than poorer communities with lower property values. Additionally, since families in more affluent communities have higher incomes, they pay proportionately less of their incomes for their higher school taxes.

7.2.2. Effective School Research Characteristics of usually effective schools that help to explain why their students achieve academically. A climate of high expectations for students by teachers and administration, Strong and effective leadership by a principle or school head, Accountability process for students and teachers, monitoring of students learning, A high degree of instructional time on task, where teachers spend a great deal of their time teaching and students spend a great deal of time learning, flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems

7.2.3. Curriculum and Abilty Grouping Research indicates that differences in tracks help to explain the variation in academic achievement of students in different tracks. Some researchers argue that discrepancies in the amount of instruction are responsible for these differences. Others point to differences in the quality of instruction, and still others point to both. It seems clear that differences in the curriculum and pedagogic practices between tracks are partly responsible for the diverse academic achievement of students in different tracks.

7.2.4. curriculum and Pedagogic practices REsearch on the relationship between schooling can elevate or limit student aspirations from their schooling---aspirations that are more often than not translate into educational achievement, college choices, and eventual occupational destinations, weather schooling is the causal factor besides the point that it is part of the process seems evident.

8. 8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Class Students in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences. There are several factors that can influence these class-based experiences. Some examples of how social class affects students weather a students can afford to move on to higher education. studies also show that the number of books in a home is related to the academic achievement. There is a direct correlation between parental income and children's performance on achievement test, as well as placement in ability groups and curriculum track in high school . Children from working-class and underclass families are more likely to underachieve or drop-out, and resist the curriculum of the school.

8.2. Race An individuals race has a direct influence on how much education he or she is likely to achieve. The race is related to educational outcomes is undeniable, although, given the nature of U.S. society, it is extremely difficult to separate race from class, In a society as segregated as that in the united states, it is not surprising that minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students. Explanations as to why minorities underachieve compared to whites vary. But, at on level, the answer is not terribly complex. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites, and their rewards for educational attainment are significantly less.

8.3. Gender Today Females are less likely to drop out of school than males, and are more likely to have higher reading proficiency than males. The same is true for writing. The only area where males out perform females is in mathematics. Males are more likely to score higher on SATs than females. More women are attending post-secondary institution than men. But the post secondary institutions that women attend are often less prestigious than the institutional that men attend.

8.4. Coleman Study 1982 The debate over high school achievement findings has centered on the interpretations attached to the magnitude of the findings. What Coleman and his associates saw as significant, others saw nearly insignificant . For example, Jencks (1985) used Coleman's findings to compute the estimated yearly average achievement gain by public and catholic school students. He estimated that the annual increment attributed to Catholic schooling was tiny. To put it simply, the differences that do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, but in terms of significant differences in learning, the results are negligible. The interpretation was echoed by Alexander and Pallas (1983, p. 122). Where an individual goes to school is often related to her race and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class. Boreman and Dowling, similar to Coleman in his 1966 study argue that race and class are predictors of academic success. However they break from Coleman's 1966 argument that schools don't matter. Instead they argue that school segregation based on race and socioeconomic status and within school interactions dominated by middle-class values are largely responsible gaps in student achievement. that education must focus on eliminating the high level of segregation that remains in the united states' education system and that schools must bring an end to tracking systems, and biases that favor white and middle class students.

9. 10. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. school-business partnerships Since the 1970's corporate and business support for public schools have fallen. over the past decade however a group of foundations and entrepreneurs have contributed significantly to educational reform efforts, most often of the neo-liberal variety. School-business partnerships have attracted considerable media attention, but there is little to no convincing evidence that they have significantly improved schools or that, as a means of reform, School-Business partnerships will address the fundamental problems facing U.S. Education.

9.1.2. School-to-Work Programs In the 1990's school--business partner ships became incorporated into school-to-work programs. Their intent was to extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college bound students regarding skills necessary for successful employment and to stress the implications of work-based learning. While these systems were different from state to state, each was suppose to provide every U.S. Student with the following: 1) relevant education, allowing students to explore different careers and see what skills are required in their working environment. 2) Skills, obtained from structured training and work-based learning experiences, including necessary skills of particular career demonstrated in a working environment. 3) Valued Credentials, establishing industry-standard benchmarks and developing education and training standards that ensure that proper education is received for each career. Three Core Elements: 1) School based learning ( Classroom instruction based on high academic and business defined occupational skill standard. 2) Work-based learning ( Career exploration, work experience, structured training and mentoring at job sites). 3) Connecting Activities (courses integrating classroom and on-the-job instruction, matching students with participating employers, training of mentors, and the building of other bridges between school and work.)

9.2. Societal Reforms

9.2.1. State Intervention School accountability has been a prominent issue on the national education scene. Accountability has taken many forms, often involving state regulation or oversight. It has included state certification of school personnel and of school districts: statewide testing and assessment of pupils: State monitoring of local fiscal management , and educational practices: local districts reporting to the state state dissemination of report cards and other districts and school specific information to the public, and state intervention in the operation of local districts when problems were identified and solutions were determined to be beyond the local capacity.

9.3. Economic Reforms

9.3.1. Full Service and Community Schools Specifically designed to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods, full service schools aim to prevent problems, as well as support them. Whereas this model supports Anyon's argument to repair the larger social and economic problems of society as a means of improving public education, there is no evidence that full-service schools affect students achievement.

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11. Method of Instruction

12. Process and Content Interrelated: the process of change is as important as the reasons for change, the viability of the project will influence future commitments and relationships