Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Gov. Bentley signed a law into effect in 2013 designating funds to compensate for "Failing schools" costing Alabama $40 million dollars to educate 150 students

2. History of Education

2.1. Colonial Era

2.1.1. Society was highly stratified Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics. Colleges were established before the country was created

2.1.2. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man. Jefferson supported public education.

2.1.3. Normal schools were created for teacher education. (Mass 1839)

2.1.4. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647 - Everyone is entitled to an education rooted in the Bible Massachusetts School Law of 1647 - Any town with over 50 citizens was to provide a teacher and a school rooted in Christian belief - Meritocracy provided for higher education.  -Dame schools were created for girls. -Secondary schools were for boys and the elite Latin Grammar Schools (Boston).

2.2. reform movement

2.2.1. Jefferson supported public education to further the success of the U.S. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education. (created in 1837 in Mass.) Public education was for public stability and social mobility.

2.3. historical interpretation

2.3.1. - Industrial revolution caused the need for educated workers. Gap between rich and poor widened. Cities contained enormous amounts of uneducated people thus dividing the social classes even more. Schools became the focus of social problems such as hygiene, health and social skills.p.70

2.4. Progressive Movement

2.4.1. John Dewey-Progressivism (Dewey’s philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools.) John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society. p. 70 The Dilemma

2.5. Post World War II 1945-1980

2.5.1. Progressive v. Traditional Post World War II demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility. The battle; standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all. Racial tensions

2.6. Reforms of the Standards Era  1980’s to present day

2.6.1. -1993 IDEA Individual Disabilities Education Act -Lee vs. Macon County - filled in 1966-Lee's son filed a lawsuit because his son was classified as "special needs" unjustly. Settled in 2001 requiring educators to be trained for Response to Instruction classification Nation at Risk (Reagan) Goals 2000 (Clinton) NCLB (Bush) RTT (Obama)

2.7. Three Historical Perspectives of U.S. Education p.83

2.7.1. Conservative School-The individual is responsible for their own success despite outside circumstances Democratic-Liberal School - What is good for Society? Outside circumstances  have a great effect on an individual's success (location / family) and there must be compensation in order to equalize opportunity for all Radical-Revisionist SchoolEverything in society is causing a downfall - Perpetuation of social classes causes division and requires administrative solution-

3. sociology of education

3.1. What is Sociology? Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live

3.1.1. Persell’s Model for Analyzing School and Societies relationship -The societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification. -The institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media. - The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals. -The Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

3.1.2. relationship between school and society -Does sociology help educators to create more effective schools which include; strong leadership, a safe and orderly environment, high expectations that all can learn, continual review of student progress, and a clear mission? Theoretical Perspectives include; Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories. -How does teacher interaction with students determine student success? The single most influential on the student is the teacher Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

3.1.3. effects of schooling on individuals Employment p. 121 More education results in better jobs and opportunities. Rules are not always fair. Where you attend has great impetus. Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment. Education and Inequality p.125 *American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. *The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. *The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth. *Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools? Competition is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition. One third of children are at-risk of failing. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty. Fifteen million are reared by single mothers. How can schools help students to be successful members of society when they start out at such a disadvantage?

4. •Philosophy of Education

4.1. A philosophical approach aids teachers in; -Selecting knowledge for the classroom -Ordering their classroom -Interacting with students, peers , parents and administrators -Selecting values for their classroom. A philosophy aids teachers in understanding; -Who they are and -Why they do what they do.

4.1.1. Idealism - encourage students to search for truth. With truth comes responsibility.- Education is a transformation. Role of the teacher; -a role model in the classroom -To provoke thought -To bring out what is already in their mind Curriculum -Study the great works -All new problems have their roots in the past -Study history -Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy -A basic core foundation

4.1.2. Realism- The material world is real It exist without anyone perceiving The real world exist before ideas exist. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking Syllogism or a system of logical thinking A major premise A minor premise Conclusion Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions. Notable Realists -Thomas Aquinas -Francis Bacon -John Locke (Blank slate or tabula rasa) Goal of Education Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems Role of the teacher Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner Enable students to examine from an objective approach Methods of Instruction Lecture Question and Answer Discussion

4.1.3. Pragmatism- Learning through experience (experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value” The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Ex. Problem – speculative thought – action - results John Dewey George Sanders Pierce William James John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism Progressivism – John Dewey Social Reconstructionism – George Counts, Paulo Fierie

4.1.4. Existentialism & Phenomenology- -Existence precedes essence -We are who we are as a result of our decisions -Perception of the world is based on one’s ability to make sense of it. -. Goal of Education – The focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively. -Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world Role of the Teacher - The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship. Students must become “wide awake” Curriculum – Humanities are heavily emphasized Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world. Methods of Instruction – Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together.

4.1.5. Neo-Marxism- The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class. Neo-Marxist – a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives. Goal of Education – schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives. Role of the Teacher – engage student s to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”. Curriculum – socially constructed Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated.

4.1.6. Post Modernists and Critical Theory- The Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation. Role of the Teacher – an agent of change Curriculum and Instruction p. 196 -Democratic processes -Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education. -Schools and curriculum are agents of change.

5. •Schools as Organizations

5.1. Schools within the US

5.1.1. Governance;  -Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states. Each state is responsible for education.  -The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970. -The U.S. Dept. of Education has very little power. Centralization  -55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion. -1930’s there were 128,000 public school districts. -1980’s there were slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S. -The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856. Student Composition in Public Schools 53.5 % are white Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white Ten states have no minorities Large states are heavily multiracial. New York City is 85.6% minority. Los Angeles is 91.3% minority Detroit is 97.4% minority.

5.2. International Comparisons  In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

5.2.1. Great Britain In 19th Century England the rich had education in privates schools. The poor did not get educated. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. The 1944 Education created free elem. And sec. education for all. England decentralized the education system which had been fundamentally elitists.

5.2.2. France The top students go to the grandes e’coles. The government controls everything down to the classroom. The France system is very competitive. France has a very elitists educational system. Only the very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally. They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite.

5.2.3. Former Soviet Union This special interest created a stratified system. The downfall of the Soviet Union was a result of the inequality that was created. Due to so many nationalities there is very little consensus among the former USSR states Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need. Being a member of the elite Communist Party had benefits for those children.

5.2.4. Japan In the 1880’s Japan centralized its educational system. After WWII, Japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes. Education is highly competitive. Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams. A double system of education exist. Students are educated publicly and then pursue the non-formal school or jukus. There are 10,000 jukus in Japan.

5.2.5. Germany -German students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers. -Hauptschule for lower level blue collar work -Realschule is for lower level white collar and technical positions. -Gymnasium is for the intellectual and high level management positions. -The system is therefore highly stratified and competitive

5.2.6. Finland Finland had historically had the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams. Racial and social classes have very few discrepancies across test scores in all areas. All tracking is eliminated. Almost no standardized testing. Emphasis is on formative evaluations. The one standardized test is for college entrance

5.3. School Processes and Cultures

5.3.1. Changing a school; Conflict is a necessary part of change. New behaviors must be learned. Team building must extend to all parts. Process and content are interrelated. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will. “Schools of Tomorrow…Today Project” in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching. Communities are in conflict with administration. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline.

5.4. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

5.4.1. Reality is hard to ignore. Everyday life is a struggle for survival. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform. In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women Thirty-seven percent have B.S. Sixty percent have Master’s degrees. One percent had doctorates. Average age is 46. A shortage of teachers exists. High school seniors indicate that less than 10% will be a teacher. Requirements according to NCLB A college degree Full certification. Demonstrable content knowledge in the subject area. Praxis tests are require in most states. Each state has a different test score acceptance level for certification. The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result. This  multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn-out. Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills. More of an artist than a technical teacher. Most effective feedback is from students. Key to teaching is exercising control. Control precedes teaching. A classroom must have control to be an effective learning environment. Turn each day into a special event.

6. •Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1.1. What is taught and how do we teach it? Should the wealthy determine the curriculum? Which group as the most power to influence curriculum? P. 286 Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose schools that support their belief. Curriculum Influences Chart p. 287 Who shapes the curriculum and determines what is taught? Should business determine the curriculum? Should religion determine the curriculum? Historically -Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind -Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation -Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization. Social Influences Conservatist of the 1980’s and 1990’s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. P282 Political influences Political Influences of the curriculum have determined and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught. Societies’ influences Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive. Cultural influences Currently, does the curriculum reflect the dominant group of society? Which group is dominant? Have colleges been redirected to teach future teachers according to dominant groups? p. 295 Special interests Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

6.1.2. Other influences on the curriculum Evolutionists Creationists Science and math Nation at Risk NCLB RTT Pedagogic Influences Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum. P. 296 Student centered or teacher centered. P. 298 Stratification of the Curriculum Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing. P. 299

6.1.3. The Effects of the Curriculum Do students actually learn what is taught? P. 300 What is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them. Closing the gap and how? Schooling does have an impact on learning. Effective school characteristics. P 301 Do all students have the same educational experience even though they attend the same classes. How will you teach and what determines how you teach? One word describes or determines your approach. Maturity includes chronological maturity, social maturity, emotional maturity, culturally- valued maturity, political maturity and _____?_____.

7. •Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Ongoing problem in Education

7.2. Do you have the following beliefs?;

7.2.1. -Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead. -Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

8. •Educational Inequality

8.1. Unequal Educational Achievement

8.1.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality -Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed. -Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment. -Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment. Other factors that influence student success are; -Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student. -School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success. Student Centered Explanations p. 421 Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422 Cultural Deprivation Explanations p. 423 Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

8.1.2. School Centered Explanations School Financing p. 428 Effective Schools p. 431 Between School Differences p. 433 Curriculum and Pedagogic Within School Differences p. 434 Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

8.1.3. Gender and Schooling p. 436-438 The BIG Question ? Do Schools Reproduce Inequality? Answer;

9. •Educational Reform

10. Politics of Education

10.1. Purposes of schooling (pg.22)

10.1.1. "the ability to transmit knowledge, skills, and values" Intellectual cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language, ect Political to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism Social to help people be sociable, productive members of society Economic prepare students for their occupation

10.2. Perspectives (pg 23)

10.2.1. What type of society do we wish to have? What constitutes the "good life"? What constitutes a "good person"? Conservative individual is responsible for their own success Liberal rooted in John Dewey Radical Socialism is the best path Neo-Liberal

11. Limits and Promises of education

11.1. "achievement gaps"

11.1.1. what students actually know vs. what they should know

11.1.2. needs assesment

11.2. Crisis in Urban education

11.2.1. Charter schools v. Tenure

11.3. Decline in Literacy

11.3.1. Literate people with no comprehension skills "critical literacy"- the ability to connect knowledge, theory, and research evidence to the everyday experiences of teaching

11.3.2. no functioning basic support

11.4. Assesment issues

11.4.1. True / valid assesment- "teaching to the test" only covering what testing will cover which accredits school for funding "Failing schools" require more funding than available - drain funding from entire system