Foundation of Education

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Foundation of Education by Mind Map: Foundation of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Schooling

1.1.1. Intellectual cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language

1.1.2. Political in indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism

1.1.3. Social to help people be social able, productive members

1.1.4. Economic prepare student for their occupation

1.1.5. What is the purpose of  schooling? Society ability to transmit knowledge, skills, values.

1.1.6. What type of society do we have ?

1.1.7. What is the "good life"?

1.1.8. What is a "good person"?

1.2. Why are you the way you are?

1.2.1. You are what you are because of the way you were raised

1.2.2. You were influenced by the people you were around the school ect.

1.3. Political Perspective

1.3.1. Is competition good? In some ways competition is good

1.3.2. The conservative, liberal, and radical perspectives all look at educational issues and problems from distinctly different, although at times overlapping, vantage points. Although there are areas of agreement, they each have distinctly different views on education and its role in U.S. society.

1.3.3. Every person determines their own outcome Every person is responsible for their outcome

1.3.4. Individuals make their own future and determine their own success

1.3.5. Individuals make society Individuals make society better but it is determined by their own views

1.4. Your Political Perspective

1.4.1. Where you stand Capitalism and free economies must be kept in check. Governments must intervene to insure equality in education and economies. Governments must address societal issues. We have racial and societal issues, rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer socioeconomic issues Economies unregulated cause unfair distribution of wealth and opportunities. Stock market crash 2004 Educational opportunities must be equal across the nation, states and communities. Government should be able to provide all citizens with a minimally acceptable standard of living Evey child has a right to a "good" education Do I want to teach in a private or public school? Capitalism and free economy is the root of the educational problems. Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation. Issues must be address at the social class level not the individual

1.5. The Main Political Perspectives

1.5.1. Conservative Republic Party but they do not own it. Also democratic. Looks at social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals and/or groups to survive, and looks at human and social evolution as adaptation to changes in the environment.

1.5.2. Liberal Based on the economic theories of (John Maynard Keynes), believes that the capitalist market economy is prone to cycles of recession that must be addressed through government. concerned primarily with balancing the economic productivity of capitalism with the social  and economic needs of the majority of people in the United States. Look at groups

1.5.3. Radical Blame everybody Does not believe that free market capitalism is the best form of economic organization, but rather believes that democratic socialism is a fairer   political-economic system. What is essential to the radical perspective is the belief that social problems such as poverty and the educational problems of the poorest citizens are endemic to capitalism and cannot be solved under the present economic system. Inequality under capitalism Problems are caused by the students of U.S. society. Looks at structure (capitalists fault)

1.5.4. Neo-Liberal The role of the school Explanations of unequal educational performances Definition of educational problems Educational policy and reform The American Dream

2. Sociological Perspectives

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. What is a philosophical approach to education?

3.1.1. A philosophical approach aids teachers in; Selecting knowledge for the classroom Ordering their classroom Interacting with students, peers , parents and administrators Selecting values for their classroom.

3.1.2. A philosophy aids teachers in understanding; Who they are and Why they do what they do

3.2. Particular Philosophies

3.2.1. Idealism (Socrates and Plato) Dialectic and “dialectical approach” “doctrine of reminiscence”

3.2.2. Idealist in education encourage students to search for truth. With truth comes responsibility. Education is a transformation. Role of the teacher;

3.3. Idealism

3.3.1. Methods of Instruction Discussion Questioning Lecture on material not presented in text

3.3.2. Curriculum Study the great works. All new problems have their roots in the past. Study history. Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy. A basic core foundation.

3.4. Realism

3.4.1. The material world is real It exist without anyone perceiving The real world exist before ideas exist. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking

3.4.2. A major premise A minor premise Conclusion Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions.

3.4.3. Notable Realists Thomas Aquinas Francis Bacon John Locke (Blank slate or tabula rasa)

3.4.4. Goal of Education Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

3.4.5. Role of the teacher Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner Enable students to examine from an objective approach

3.4.6. Methods of Instruction Lecture Question and Answer Discussion

3.4.7. Curriculum Consist of a basic body of knowledge

3.5. Pragmatism

3.5.1. John Dewey

3.5.2. George Sanders Pierce

3.5.3. William James

3.5.4. John Locke

3.5.5. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

3.5.6. Learning through experience (experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value”

3.5.7. The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry.

3.5.8. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome.

3.5.9. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism

3.5.10. Progressivism – John Dewey

3.5.11. Social Reconstructionism – George Counts,

3.5.12. The Goal of Education Provide students with the knowledge to improve society

3.5.13. Role of the Teacher facilitator of learning activities

3.5.14. Methods of Instruction learn individually as well as in groups.

3.5.15. Curriculum Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum.

3.6. Existentialism & Phenomenology

3.6.1. Existence precedes essence

3.6.2. We are who we are as a result of our decisions

3.6.3. Perception of the world is based on one’s ability to make sense of it.

3.6.4. Goal of Education – The focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively.

3.6.5. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world.

3.6.6. Role of the Teacher - The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship.

3.6.7. Students must become “wide awake”

3.6.8. Methods of Instruction – Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together.

3.6.9. Curriculum – Humanities are heavily emphasized Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world.

3.7. Neo-Marxism

3.7.1. The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class.

3.7.2. Neo-Marxist – a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives.

3.7.3. Goal of Education – schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups.

3.7.4. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives.

3.7.5. Role of the Teacher – engage student s to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”.

3.7.6. Curriculum – socially constructed

3.7.7. Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated.

3.8. Post Modernists and Critical Theory

3.8.1. The Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible.

3.8.2. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation.

3.8.3. Role of the Teacher – an agent of change

3.8.4. Curriculum and Instruction p. 196

3.8.5. Democratic processes

3.8.6. Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education.

3.8.7. Schools and curriculum are agents of change.

4. Schools as Organizations

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

5.1.1. What is taught and how do we teach it? Social Influences Political influences Societies’ influences Cultural influences Special interests

5.1.2. Historically Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization. Conservatist of the 1980’s and 1990’s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. P282 Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

5.1.3. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

5.1.4. Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture.

5.1.5. Should the curriculum be flexible to meet all needs or should it be meeting the needs of a diverse population?

5.1.6. Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

5.1.7. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society.

5.1.8. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum. P.285

5.1.9. Political Influences of the curriculum have determined and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught.

5.2. Sociology of the curriculum

5.3. Influences on the Curriculum

5.3.1. Should religion determine the curriculum?

5.3.2. Should the wealthy determine the curriculum?

5.3.3. Should business determine the curriculum?

5.3.4. Which group as the most power to influence curriculum? P. 286

5.3.5. Who shapes the curriculum and determines what is taught?

5.3.6. Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose schools that support their belief.

5.3.7. Curriculum Influences Chart p. 287

5.3.8. Other influences of curriculum Science and math Nation at Risk Creationists Evolutionists NCLB RTT

5.3.9. Social order determines the curriculum p. 292 Society influences the curriculum Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community) A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order. P. 293 Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom.p.294 Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity. Currently, does the curriculum reflect the dominant group of society?

5.3.10. Which group is dominant? Have colleges been redirected to teach future teachers according to dominant groups? p. 295

5.3.11. Pedagogic Influences Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum. P. 296 Student centered or teacher centered. P. 298 Stratification of the Curriculum Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing. P. 299

5.3.12. The Effects of the Curriculum Do students actually learn what is taught? P. 300 What is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them. Closing the gap and how? Schooling does have an impact on learning. Effective school characteristics. P 301 Do all students have the same educational experience even though they attend the same classes.

5.3.13. How will you teach and what determines how you teach? One word describes or determines your approach.

5.3.14. Maturity includes chronological maturity, social maturity, emotional maturity, culturally- valued maturity, political maturity and _____?_____.

6. Equality of Opportunity

7. Educational Inequality

8. Educational Reform

9. Limits of Promises

9.1. Achievement Gap> Difference in what students should know and what they actually know.

9.1.1. Needs Assessment

10. History of Education

10.1. Brown vs. Board of Education

10.1.1. Major court decision

10.1.2. Decision to have African American and Whites in the same school.

10.2. Colonial Era

10.2.1. Religious Purposes

10.2.2. Each town has to have schools for children to learn to read and understand the bible

10.2.3. Bible was their curriculum

10.2.4. Massachusetts 1636

10.2.5. Colleges established before our country was created (ex. Harvard 1636, Yale 1701).

10.2.6. Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics  .

10.2.7. Jefferson supported public education.

10.2.8. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man.

10.2.9. Meritocracy provided for higher education.

10.2.10. Grammar Schools became present day elementary schools.

10.2.11. Dame schools were created for girls.

10.2.12. Secondary schools were for boys and the elite

10.2.13. Latin Grammar Schools (Boston).

10.2.14. Education in the South was mainly intended for upper class (plantation owners)

10.3. Public Education

10.3.1. Morrill Act est. Land grants in each country and state for public education. (1862)

10.3.2. Women and slaves education was limited

10.3.3. Women were mostly or only educated for domestic purposes University of Iowa in 1856 was the first university to admit women. Mount Holyoke Seminary 1837, women's college had same requirements for women as for men.

10.3.4. Slaves were not educated expect for a select few of northern states that had special schools for African Americans. Emma Hart Willard, Tory University, 1821.

10.4. Urbanization and the Progressive Impetus

10.4.1. Industrial revolution caused a need for educated workers. Gap between rich and poor widened.

10.4.2. Social classes divided even more with the cities containing enormous about of uneducated people.

10.4.3. The father of modern education, John Dewey emphasized the needs of the individual to e\create a better society.

10.4.4. Schools became the focus of social problems such as hygiene, health and social skills.

10.5. Progressive Movement

10.5.1. Curriculum supports the needs of the child and thus gives knowledge/ insight to human history and promotes impetus for change and betterment of society.

10.5.2. John Dewey-Progressivism Dewey's philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools.

10.5.3. Embryonic Society- miniature community.

10.6. Cycles of Reform Progressive v. Traditional

10.6.1. Equality and Equity

10.6.2. Civil Rights Act 1963

10.6.3. Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896

10.6.4. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954

10.6.5. Desegregation was the main focus.

10.6.6. Schools and colleges opened doors for all.

10.7. Reform of the Standards Era 1980's to present day Cycles of Reform

10.7.1. Sputnik and the Space race influence

10.7.2. 1957-1960's emphasis on excellence

10.7.3. Mid 1960's emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Acts 1963

10.7.4. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

10.7.5. Nation at Risk (Reagan)

10.7.6. Goals 2000 (Clinton)

10.7.7. NCLB (Bush) No Child Left Behind Some teachers had to quit teaching because were not certified NCLB

10.7.8. RTT (Obama) Race to the Top

10.7.9. Teaching to the Test to Survive Failing Schools Charter Schools Privatization of Schools

10.8. Three Historical Perspectives of U.S.

10.8.1. Democratic- Liberal Schools

10.8.2. Radical- Revisionist School

10.8.3. Conservative schools

11. The Sociology of Education

11.1. What is Sociology

11.1.1. Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

11.2. Persell's Model For Analyzing and Societies Relationship

11.2.1. The societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

11.2.2. The institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media.

11.2.3. The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals.

11.2.4. The Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

11.3. The Uses of Sociology for Teachers

11.3.1. Can schools create a more functional and equitable society?

11.3.2. What is the relationship between schools and society?

11.3.3. Does sociology help educators to create more effective schools which include; strong leadership, a safe and orderly environment, high expectations that all can learn, continual review of student progress, and a clear mission?

11.3.4. How does teacher interaction with students determine student success?

11.4. The Relation Between Schools and Society

11.4.1. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission.

11.4.2. Students are taught the values and beliefs of the society for them to think and act like other members of society.

11.4.3. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which results in how they are successful.

11.4.4. Schools select students for educational mobility.

11.4.5. Theoretical Perspectives include; Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories.

11.4.6. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

11.4.7. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend.

11.4.8. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement.

11.4.9. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement.

11.4.10. Interactional theorist suggest that schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage.

11.5. Effects of Schooling On Individuals

11.5.1. Employment More education results in better jobs and opportunities.

11.5.2. Education and Mobility Education is the great equalizer in the status race. Where you attend has great impetus. Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment. Competition is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition. Rules are not always fair

11.5.3. Inside the Schools Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs. Not all students study the same curriculum Curriculum determines who goes to college. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

11.5.4. Teacher Behavior Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

11.5.5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation Rebellious students and violence in schools Nerds, coolness and athletes Four major types of college students includes; Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience. Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. The Unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied

11.5.6. Education and Inequality American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. Updated : The top 20% in the U.S. possess 90% of the wealth. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth. Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools?

11.5.7. Inadequate Schools Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools

11.5.8. Tracking Tracking has a direct effect on student expectations and success.

11.5.9. De Facto Segregation People segregate themselves into their comfort areas. Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority. Integration does not seem to harm the majority.

11.5.10. Gender Biases Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs. Academics are leveling between the sexes. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

11.5.11. The Current Educational Crisis One Third of children are at-risk of falling. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty. Fifteen million are reared by single mothers. How can schools help students to be successful members of society when they start out at such a disadvantage.

11.6. Age of Reform                                        The Rise of the Common School

11.6.1. The right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and emotionally disturbed.

11.6.2. Jefferson supported public education to further the success of the U.S.

11.6.3. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education. (created in 1837 in Mass.)

11.6.4. Normal schools were created for teacher education. (Mass 1839)

11.6.5. Public education was for public stability and social mobility.

12. Role of the Teacher

12.1. Realism

12.1.1. Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner. Enable students to examine from an objective approach.

12.2. Pragmatism

12.2.1. facilitator of learning activities

12.3. Post Modernists and Critical Theory

12.3.1. Agent of change

12.4. Neo-Marxism

12.4.1. Engage students to critically examine the world which is similar to "wide weakness"

12.5. Existentialism & Phenomenology

12.5.1. The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship.

12.5.2. Students must become "wide awake"

13. Schools as Organizations

13.1. The Structure of U.S. Schools

13.1.1. Centralization 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion. 1930’s there were 128,000 public school districts. !980’s there were slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S. The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

13.1.2. Governance Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states. Each state is responsible for education. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970. The U.S. Dept. of Education has very little power.

13.1.3. Student Composition in Public Schools 53.5 % are white Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white Ten states have no minorities Large states are heavily multiracial. New York City is 85.6% minority. Los Angeles is 91.3% minority Detroit is 97.4% minority.

13.1.4. Degree of Openness Very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exist. Very democratic process of education. Open to all and very inclusive.

13.1.5. Private Schools There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students. In 1930’s there were less than 10,000 private schools In 2009 there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools. Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts. Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least. In 1980’s and 1990’s studies indicate private schools were better learning environments. Thus, school choice has a significant credibilty.

13.2. International Comparisons

13.2.1. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

13.2.2. Great Britain In 19th Century England the rich had education in privates schools. The poor did not get educated. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. The 1944 Education created free elem. And sec. education for all. England decentralized the education system which had been fundamentally elitists. Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education by created parental choice and reorganizing the administrative structure, but with very limited success. The 1988 Education Reform Act created a more centralized curriculum and systtem of national assessments. Schools are still very stratified socially and economically. Comprehensive high schools which prepared students for the workforce have been eliminated.

13.2.3. France France has a very elitists educational system. Only the very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally. They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite. The top students go to the grandes e’coles. The government controls everything down to the classroom. The France system is very competitive.

13.2.4. Former Soviet Union Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need. Being a member of the elite Communist Party had benefits for those children. This special interest created a stratified system. The downfall of the Soviet Union was a result of the inequality that was created. Due to so many nationalities there is very little consensus among the former USSR states.

13.2.5. Japan In the 1880’s Japan centralized its educational system. After WWII, Japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes. Education is highly competitive. Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams. A double system of education exist. Students are educated publicly and then pursue the non-formal school or jukus. There are 10,000 jukus in Japan.

13.2.6. Germany German students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers. Hauptschule for lower level blue collar work Realschule is for lower level white collar and technical positions. Gymnasium is for the intellectual and high level management positions. The system is therefore highly stratified and competitive. The German system is opposite of the U.S. system which is open to all. Academic achievement is very closely associated with social class.

13.2.7. Finland Finland had historically had the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams. Racial and social classes have very few discrepancies across test scores in all areas. All tracking is eliminated. Almost no standardized testing. Emphasis is on formative evaluations. The one standardized test is for college entrance. Finland has a high regard for teachers and has competitive salaries. They have a large amount of autonomy. Teachers have a high degree of job satisfaction. Teacher retention and shortages are not issues.

13.3. School Processes and Cultures

13.3.1. Schools are separate social organizations because;

13.3.2. They have definitive populations,

13.3.3. They have political structures.

13.3.4. They represent a multitude of social groups.

13.3.5. They are prevailed by the “we feeling”.

13.3.6. They have their own special culture.

13.3.7. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students.

13.3.8. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching.

13.3.9. Communities are in conflict with administration.

13.3.10. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline.

13.3.11. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum.

13.3.12. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity.

13.3.13. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity.

13.3.14. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will.

13.3.15. “Schools of Tomorrow…Today Project” in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching.

13.3.16. Changing a school;

13.3.17. Conflict is a necessary part of change.

13.3.18. New behaviors must be learned.

13.3.19. Team building must extend to all parts.

13.3.20. Process and content are interrelated.

13.4. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

13.4.1. Reality is hard to ignore.

13.4.2. Everyday life is a struggle for survival.

13.4.3. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform.

13.4.4. In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women.

13.4.5. Thirty-seven percent have B.S.

13.4.6. Sixty percent have Master’s degrees.

13.4.7. One percent had doctorates.

13.4.8. Average age is 46.

13.4.9. A shortage of teachers exists.

13.4.10. High school seniors indicate that less than 10% will be a teacher.

13.4.11. Requirements according to NCLB

13.4.12. A college degree

13.4.13. Full certification.

13.4.14. Demonstrable content knowledge in the subject area.

13.4.15. Praxis tests are require in most states.

13.4.16. Each state has a different test score acceptance level for certification.

13.4.17. The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result.

13.4.18. This multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn-out.

13.4.19. Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills. More of an artist than a technical teacher.

13.4.20. Most effective feedback is from students.

13.4.21. Key to teaching is exercising control.

13.4.22. Control precedes teaching. A classroom must have control to be an effective learning environment.

13.4.23. Turn each day into a special event.

13.4.24. Underqualified teachers

13.4.25. Out of filed teachers

13.4.26. Prevalent in poorer schools.

13.4.27. Poor administrative decisions.

13.4.28. Community pressure.

13.4.29. Other disciplines are being allowed to become certified teachers such as Teach for America.

13.4.30. Other professions have more autonomy and professional development.

13.4.31. Teachers are expected to be created autonomous individuals but conditions of employment. Leave very little room for autonomy, thoughtfulness and expertise.

13.4.32. The Center for Educational Renewal indicated studies show that causes of teacher burnout and shortages are a result of;

13.4.33. A debilitating lack of prestige in teacher education,

13.4.34. Lack of program coherence

13.4.35. Separation of theory and practice.

13.4.36. A stifling regulated conformity.

14. Equality of Opportunity

14.1. Calculating education and life outcomes

14.1.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

14.1.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences. P. 339

14.2. Social stratification – three systems

14.2.1. Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion.

14.2.2. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth.

14.2.3. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340

14.2.4. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation.

14.2.5. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

14.2.6. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. P. 340

14.3. Class

14.3.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

14.3.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. P. 342

14.4. Race

14.4.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

14.4.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. P. 343

14.5. Gender

14.5.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

14.5.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. P. 343

14.6. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success.

14.7. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students. P. 357

14.7.1. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975.

14.7.2. IDEA 1996

14.7.3. REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming. P. 364

14.8. School Differences and Educational Outcomes

14.8.1. Do differences in schools contribute to student success?

14.8.2. Does where you live determine your educational success? P. 366

14.9. The Coleman Study 1966

14.9.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. P. 367

14.9.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. P. 367

14.9.3. Private school students outperform public school students.

14.9.4. Differences in schools do make a difference.

14.9.5. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students. P. 368

14.10. Coleman Study 2010 Challenges

14.10.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status. P. 369

14.10.2. Therefore, schools do make a diference.

14.11. School Segregation

14.11.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing.

14.11.2. Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools. P. 372-373

14.12. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement

14.12.1. College graduates have higher salaries. P.375

14.12.2. The amount of education is directly related to life chances.

14.12.3. Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact. P. 377

15. Unequal Educational Achievement

15.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

15.1.1. Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

15.1.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

15.1.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

15.2. Other factors that influence student success are;

15.2.1. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

15.2.2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

15.3. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success.

15.4. Student Centered Explanations p. 421

15.4.1. Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422

15.4.2. Cultural Deprivation Explanations p. 423

15.4.3. Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

15.5. School Centered Explanations

15.5.1. School Financing p. 428

15.5.2. Effective Schools p. 431

15.5.3. Between School Differences p. 433

15.5.4. Curriculum and Pedagogic

15.5.5. Within School Differences p. 434

15.5.6. Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

16. Educational Reform and School Improvement

16.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

16.1.1. A ‘Calling’ for the profession

16.1.2. Professional knowledge

16.1.3. Personal qualities

16.1.4. With-it-ness

16.1.5. Instructional Effectiveness

16.1.6. Good communicator

16.1.7. Street smart

16.1.8. Willing to go the extra mile

16.1.9. Lifelong learner

16.2. Reform in education 1980’s to 2012 p. 512 Two Waves of Attack;

16.2.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.

16.2.2. The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

16.2.3. Top down management from the federal government. P.513

16.3. Federal Involvement

16.3.1. America 2000 p. 514

16.3.2. Goals 2000 p. 515

16.3.3. No Child Left Behind p. 517

16.3.4. Race To The Top p. 518

16.4. Approaches to Reform p. 519

16.4.1. Neo Liberal Approach

16.4.2. Societal And Community Approach

16.5. Three Major Points;

16.6. School Based Reforms p. 520

16.6.1. School Choice

16.6.2. Charter Schools

16.6.3. Tuition Vouchers

16.6.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

16.6.5. Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

16.6.6. School-Business Partnerships p. 526- 527

16.6.7. Privatization of Schools

16.6.8. School to Work Programs

16.7. Teacher Education Programs p. 528 Three Major Points

16.7.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

16.7.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

16.7.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development

16.7.4. Plan p. 5320

16.7.5. Teacher Quality p. 531

16.7.6. The Effective School Movement p. 531

16.7.7. Plan on p. 532

16.7.8. Highly Effective School Characteristics p. 533

16.8. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms p. 535

16.8.1. State Takeovers Pros and Cons p. 536

16.9. School Finance Reforms p. 538

16.9.1. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

16.10. Full Service Schools p. 539

16.10.1. Repair and educate the community

16.11. Connecting School Community and Societal Reforms p. 540

16.11.1. A Theory of Educational Problems and Reforms p. 541

16.11.2. Solutions and Proposals p. 543 – 545

16.11.3. Integrative Realm p. 542 - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement.

16.11.4. Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

16.12. Conclusion:

16.13. Do the best with what you have that is within your control.

17. Legal Issues in Education

17.1. Teacher Negligence of Duties

17.1.1. Contributory negligence is neglecting your and others’ safety.

17.1.2. Comparative negligence is having equal contributions to an injury.

17.1.3. Assumption of risk is having known that an activity could cause injury.

17.1.4. Supervise students at all times. Do not take any thing for granted. “I was just out of the room for a second”. This statement has been the demise and costly for many educators.

17.2. Reporting Child Abuse

17.2.1. Teachers are obligated to report suspected child abuse either mental or physical. Suggested guidelines to follow; Report the suspected abuse to the guidance counselor, principal or DHR. Document the action you have taken. (Document time, date, name of student, suspected abuse or symptoms and to whom you reported. Follow-up on the situation.

17.3. Harassment (sexual or other forms of harassment)

17.3.1. Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) U.S. Supreme Court.

17.3.2. Vance v. Spencer County Public Schools 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (2000).

17.3.3. • Educators can be held liable if they show an indifference to a student’s or teacher’s complaint.

17.4. Students Cheating on Tests (5th and 14th Amendment)

17.4.1. Due Process (procedural and substantive) 1. Procedural due process is notice, hearing and explanation. 2. Substantive due process is “what is fair” not capricious or arbitrary Suggested guidelines to follow; Allow the student to finish the test or assignment. Confront the student after class or take them to the principal immediately. Do not grade that test or assignment. Arrange for another test or assignment if you consider this a viable option.* Never take up a test or assignment and give a “0” without allowing the student to explain. “Snatch and File 13” Recently, a school board reversed a teacher’s and principal’s decision to give students a “0” for plagiarism. Both teacher and principal resigned because of the circumstances.

17.5. Corporal Punishment (8th, 5th or 14th Amendment)

17.5.1. Ingraham v. Wright (1977) is the Supreme Court decision that allows for corporal punishment in schools.

17.5.2. Hinson v. Holt, Court of Civil Appeals of AL. (1998).

17.5.3. Baker v. Owen (1975) ruled that parents could not dictate to school officials not to paddle their child. Some schools acknowledge these requests, but do not guarantee their child will not be paddled.

17.5.4. Suggested guidelines to follow; Always follow board policy Use another form of punishment if available. Have a professional witness (another teacher). Use a reasonable paddle. The principal should determine size restrictions of a paddle. Document all action taken. Never paddle when angry or in doubt of a student’s guilt.

17.5.5. School officials are usually protected if school board policy is followed; however, a person’s character and good name are “up for grabs” by any unscrupulous person.

17.6. Search and Seizure (4th Amendment)

17.6.1. T.L.O. v. New Jersey (1985) is the Supreme Court decision that all cases are tested against. T.L.O was suspended for cigarettes and her purse was searched for other contraband. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the school.

17.6.2. Thomas v. Roberts, 2001 (11th Cir. August 15, 2001).

17.6.3. Principals and teachers have the power to search based on reasonable suspicion. Police must have probable cause.

17.6.4. Suggested guidelines; Do not search a student or locker without a witness. Have reliable information before searching. Do not search the entire class indiscriminately. Do not conduct a strip search (imminent danger must be present). When in doubt, refer to the principal.

17.7. IDEA (Special Education and Section 504)

17.7.1. Identify your students who are receiving services by contacting your counselor, principal or special education teacher.

17.7.2. Each teacher is responsible for knowing which students receive services.

17.7.3. Follow the IEP, 504 Plan, BIP or BBSST recommendations.

17.8. Freedom of Expression - First Amendment

17.8.1. Tinker v. Des Moines – Students does not leave their rights at the school house door.

17.8.2. School Law Bulletin, Quinlan Publishing Co. Boston, MA.

17.8.3. Oakstone Publishing, Birmingham, AL.