Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Educational Reform

1.1. Characteristics of Highly Effective Teachers:

1.1.1. A "calling" for the profession

1.1.2. Professional knowledge

1.1.3. Personal qualities

1.1.4. With-it-ness

1.1.5. Instructional effectiveness

1.1.6. Good communicator

1.1.7. Street smart

1.1.8. Willing to go the extra mile

1.1.9. Lifelong learner

1.2. Reform in Education 1980’s to 2012

1.2.1. Two Waves of Attack The first was concerned with accountability and achievement. The second was concerned with the processes of the school. Top down management from the federal government.

1.3. Federal Involvement

1.3.1. America 2000

1.3.2. Goals 2000

1.3.3. No Child Left Behind

1.3.4. Race to the Top

1.4. Approaches to Reform

1.4.1. Neoliberal Approach

1.4.2. Societal and Community Approach

1.5. School Based Reforms

1.5.1. School Choice

1.5.2. Charter Schools

1.5.3. Tuition Vouchers

1.5.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

1.5.5. Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

1.6. School-Business Partnerships

1.6.1. Privatization of Schools

1.6.2. School to Work Programs

1.7. Teacher  Education Programs

1.7.1. Three Major Points: More intellectual demands in education programs. Attract and retain competent teachers. Reorganize educational, academic, and professional development.

1.8. Teacher Quality

1.9. The Effective School Movement

1.10. Highly Effective School Characteristics

1.11. Societal, Community, Economic, and Political Reforms

1.11.1. State Takeovers Pros and Cons

1.12. School Finance Reforms

1.12.1. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

1.13. Full Service Schools

1.13.1. Repair and educate the community.

1.14. Connecting School Community and Societal Reforms

1.15. A Theory of Educational Problems and Reforms

1.15.1. Integrative Realm- basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement.

1.15.2. Developmental Realm– focus is on developing the whole child  by having schools become more humane institutions.

1.16. Solutions and Proposals

1.17. Do the best with what you have that is within your control.

2. Educational Inequity

2.1. Unequal Educational Achievement

2.1.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality Functionalist Theorists- support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed. Conflict Theorists- support the idea that student success is affected by their environment. Interactionists Theorists- support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools, and environment.

2.1.2. Other Factors that Influence Student Success are: Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture, and the student. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate, and teacher expectations.

2.1.3. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success.

2.1.4. Student-Centered Explanations Genetic Differences Explanations Cultural Deprivation Explanations Cultural Differences Explanations

2.1.5. School-Centered Explanations School Financing Effective Schools Between School Differences Curriculum and Pedagogic Within School Differences Curriculum and Ability Grouping Gender and Schooling

3. Equality of Opportunity

3.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.

3.2. Americans believe that hard work, thrift, and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

3.3. Calculating Education and Life Outcomes

3.3.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

3.3.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences.

3.4. Social Stratification- Three Systems

3.4.1. Caste Systems- a persons' social level is determined by race or religion.

3.4.2. Estate Systems- a persons' social level is determined by family value and worth.

3.4.3. Class Systems- a persons' worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

3.5. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation.

3.6. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

3.7. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success.

3.8. Class

3.8.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

3.8.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance.

3.9. Race

3.9.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

3.9.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

3.10. Gender

3.10.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

3.10.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries.

3.11. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success.

3.12. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students.

3.13. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA (Education of Handicapped 1975).

3.14. IDEA 1996

3.15. REI- Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming.

3.16. The Coleman Study 1966

3.16.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools.

3.16.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success.

3.17. The Coleman Study 1982

3.17.1. Private school students outperform public school students.

3.17.2. Differences in schools do make a difference.

3.17.3. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

3.18. Coleman Study 2010 Challenges

3.18.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status.

3.18.2. Therefore, schools do make a difference.

3.19. School Segregation

3.19.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing.

3.19.2. Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools.

3.20. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement

3.20.1. College graduates have higher salaries.

3.20.2. The amount of education is directly related to life chances.

3.20.3. Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact.

3.20.4. Education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes.

4. Limits and Promises of Education

4.1. Educational Problems

4.1.1. The Achievement Gaps- based on social class, race, ethnicity, and gender have been the focus of educational policy since the 1960's. These gaps include group differences in achievement based on standardized tests and grades; attainment based on the number of years of schooling, high school and college attendance and graduation, dropout rates, and completion and honors and advanced placement in special education, and investments in education, including state and local funding. President George W. Bush's reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and federal educational policy has attempted to reduce these gaps. President Obama's Race to the Top has continued many of the policies initiated under NCLB. Beginning with the Coleman Report of 1966, educational research has focused on the causes of inequalities of educational achievement, with a variety of factors both inside and outside schools seen as responsible for the gaps. The causes of achievement gaps are due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents, etc.

4.1.2. The Crisis in Urban Education- demographic trends, social stratification, socioeconomic/academic achievement, inequalities in school systems, school choice is an issue, etc.

4.1.3. The Decline in Literacy- basic skills of fundamentals, teaching to the test, pass them on due to age and no place to go, schools become overcrowded, raising academic standards, etc.

4.1.4. Assessment Issues- teaching to the test, authentic/true assessments, etc.

4.2. The Four Elements of Foundations of Education

4.2.1. The History of Education Our purpose then was to read the bible to save our souls (Old Deluder Act 1642). Our purpose now is to transmit culture, prepare for a global economy, prepare for the workforce, become a productive citizen, become a social citizen, pursuit of happiness, pursuit of freedom, pursuit of knowledge, and pursuit of life.

4.2.2. The Philosophy of Education

4.2.3. The Politics of Education The role that special interests groups have are business, labor unions, colleges, world events, and religion.

4.2.4. The Sociology of Education

5. Curriculum & Pedagogy

5.1. Pedagogy and the Transmission of Knowledge

5.1.1. What is taught and how do we teach it? Social, political, societies', and cultural influences, and special interests.

5.1.2. Historically Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation. Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages, and emphasize the influence of Western civilization. Conservatist of the 1980's and 1990's say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. Social efficiency curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum. Social efficiency became the cornerstone of progressivism. Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture. Social Meliorists- reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum. Political influences of the curriculum have determined and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught. Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose schools that support their belief. Curriculum Influences Chart

5.1.3. Other Influences on the Curriculum: Evolutionists, creationists, science and math, Nation at Risk, NCLB, and RTT.

5.1.4. Sociology of the Curriculum Society Influences of the Curriculum Formal Curriculum- what is cognitively taught (subjects). Informal or Hidden Curriculum- taught but not obvious to sight. Null Curriculum- what is not taught but is learned (values of the community). Social order determines the curriculum. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom. Converatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity. Pedagogic Influences of the Curriculum Mimetic and Transformative Approaches to Teaching Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum. Student-centered or teacher-centered Stratification of the Curriculum Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas. Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing.

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. School's/Education's Responsibility

6.1.1. Schooling has historically been in response to the uncertainty that family, church, or community could not provide the necessary tools needed to meet the needs of a literate person in a democratic society.

6.1.2. The school serves as the focal point for addressing societal issues.

6.1.3. There is little consensus on motives for school reform.

6.2. Colonial Era

6.2.1. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647

6.2.2. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

6.2.3. Society was highly stratified (have and have-nots).

6.2.4. Colleges were established before the country was created (Harvard 1636, Yale 1701).

6.2.5. Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, and civics.

6.2.6. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man.

6.2.7. Jefferson supported public education.

6.2.8. Meritocracy provided for higher education.

6.2.9. Grammar schools became present day elementary schools.

6.2.10. Dame schools were created for girls.

6.2.11. Secondary schools were for boys and the elite.

6.2.12. Latin grammar schools (Boston)

6.2.13. Education in the South was mainly intended for upper class (plantation owners).

6.3. Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

6.3.1. The right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and emotionally disturbed.

6.3.2. Jefferson supported public education to further the success of the U.S.

6.3.3. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education (created in 1837 in Massachusetts).

6.3.4. Normal schools were created for teacher education (Massachusetts 1839).

6.3.5. Public education was for public stability and social mobility.

6.4. Public Education

6.4.1. Morrill Act established land grants in each country and state for public education (1862).

6.4.2. Education for women and slaves was limited.

6.4.3. Women were educated for domestic purposes.

6.4.4. Slaves were not educated with the exception of a few Northern states that had special schools for African Americans.

6.4.5. Emma Hart Willard, Troy University, 1821

6.4.6. Mount Holyoke Seminary 1837, women's college had same requirements for women as men.

6.4.7. The first public university to admit women was the University of Iowa in 1856.

6.5. Urbanization and the Progressive Impetus

6.5.1. Industrial revolution caused the need for educated workers. Gap between rich and poor widened.

6.5.2. Cities contained enormous amounts of uneducated people thus dividing the social classes even more.

6.5.3. John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society.

6.5.4. Schools became the focus of social problems such as hygiene, health, and social skills.

6.6. Progressive Movement

6.6.1. Curriculum supports the needs of the child and thus gives knowledge/insight to human history and promotes impetus for change and betterment of society.

6.6.2. John Dewey- Progressivism

6.6.3. Embryonic society is a miniature community.

6.6.4. Dewey's philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools.

6.7. The Committee of Ten, 1893

6.7.1. The Committee of Ten was created by the National Education Association which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliot.

6.7.2. The committee's recommendation for high school in 1918 was health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, and ethical character.

6.7.3. They also established Carnegie Units for graduation and college entrance curriculum.

6.8. Education for All: The Dilemma

6.8.1. Four Themes for High School Purposes for 1875 Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek versus science and math, etc. College entrance requirements due to so many disparities in entrance requirements. High school students should be prepared for life not college. All students should follow the same courses of study regardless of need for further education. The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

6.9. Post World War II 1945-1980

6.9.1. Progressive v. Traditional

6.9.2. Post World War II demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility.

6.9.3. The battle; standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all.

6.9.4. The college student movement for civil rights.

6.9.5. University of Michigan

6.9.6. University of California at Berkeley

6.9.7. San Francisco State University

6.9.8. Kent Statue University

6.10. Cycles of Reform: Progressive v. Traditional

6.10.1. Equality and Equity

6.10.2. Civil Rights Act 1963

6.10.3. Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896

6.10.4. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954

6.10.5. Desegregation was the main focus.

6.10.6. Schools and colleges opened doors for all.

6.10.7. Reforms of the Standards Era- 1980's to present day. Sputnik and the Space Race Influence 1957-1960's Em,phasis on Excellence Mid 1960's emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Act of 1963. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students. Nation at Risk (Reagan) Goals 2000 (Clinton) NCLB (Bush) RTT (Obama) Teaching to the Test to Survive Failing Schools Charter Schools Privatization of Schools

6.11. Three Historical Perspectives of U.S. Education

6.11.1. Democratic- liberal school

6.11.2. Radical- revisionist school

6.11.3. Conservative school

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. What is sociology? Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

7.2. Persell's Model for Analyzing School and Societies Relationship: Societal Levels

7.2.1. The societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

7.2.2. Institutional Level- includes family, schools, churches, business, government, and media.

7.2.3. Interpersonal Level- includes all the processes, symbols interaction within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures, and rituals.

7.2.4. Intrapsychic Level- includes individual thoughts, beliefs, values, and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

7.3. Effective Schools Include: strong leadership, a safe and orderly environment, high expectations that all can learn, continual review of student progress, and a clear mission.

7.4. The Relation Between Schools and Society

7.4.1. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission.

7.4.2. Students are taught the values and beliefs of the society for them to think and act like other members of society.

7.4.3. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which results in how they are successful.

7.4.4. Schools select students for educational mobility.

7.4.5. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement.

7.4.6. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement.

7.5. Theoretical Perspectives

7.5.1. Functional Theories- view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

7.5.2. Conflict Theories- argue that the social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation.

7.5.3. Interactional Theories- observes that functional and conflict theories are very abstract, and emphasize structure and process at a very general (macrosociological) level of analysis.

7.6. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

7.6.1. Knowledge and Attitudes The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement. Differences between schools is not a significant impact. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement.

7.6.2. Employment More education results in better jobs and opportunities.

7.6.3. Education and Mobility Education is the great equalizer in the status race. Where you attend has great impetus. Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment. Competition is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition. Rules are not always fair.

7.6.4. Inside the Schools Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs. Not all students study the same curriculum. Curriculum determines who goes to college. Cultural transmission, selecting channeling of opportunity, and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

7.6.5. Teacher Behavior Teachers may have as many as 1,000 interactions with students on a daily basis. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement. Self-fulling prophecy has a direct impact on student success. The more teachers demand from their students results in higher student self-esteem and success.

7.6.6. Student Peer Groups and Alienation Rebellious students and violence in schools. Nerds, coolness, and athletes. Four Major Types of College Students Includes: Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience. Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. The unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied.

7.6.7. Education and Inequality American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth.

7.6.8. Inadequate Schools Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools.

7.6.9. Tracking Tracking has a direct effect on student expectations and success.

7.6.10. De facto Segregation People segregate themselves into their comfort areas. Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority. Integration does not seem to harm the majority.

7.6.11. Gender Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs. Academics are leveling between the sexes. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

7.6.12. The Current Educational Crisis 1/3 of children are at-risk of failing. 1/4 of preschool children live in poverty. 15 million are reared by single mothers.

8. Philosophy of Education

8.1. What is a philosophical approach to education?

8.1.1. A philosophical approach aids teachers in selecting knowledge for the classroom, ordering their classroom, interacting with students, peers, parents, and administrators, and selecting values for their classroom.

8.1.2. A philosophy aids teachers in understanding who they are and why they do what they do.

8.2. Particular Philosophies of Education

8.2.1. Idealism (Socrates and Plato)- idealists in education encourage students to search for truth and with truth comes responsibility. Role of the Teacher- a role model in the classroom, to provoke thought, and to bring out what is already in their mind. Methods of Instruction- discussion, questioning, and lecture on material not presented in text. Methods of Curriculum- study the great works, all new problems have their roots in the past, study history, great literature, science, math, history, philosophy, and a basic core foundation.

8.2.2. Realism- understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems. Role of the Teacher- present ideas in a clear and consistent manner and enable students to examine from an objective approach. Methods of Instruction- lecture, question and answer, and discussion. Methods of Curriculum- consist of a basic body of knowledge.

8.2.3. Pragmatism- provide students with the knowledge to improve society. Role of the Teacher- facilitator of learning activities. Methods of Instruction- learn individually as well as in groups. Methods of Curriculum- integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum.

8.2.4. Existentialism and Phenomenology- the focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively. Role of the Teacher- the reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship. Methods of Instruction- each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together. Methods of Curriculum- humanities are heavily emphasized. Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world.

8.2.5. Neo-Marxism- schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives. Role of the Teacher- engage students to critically examine the world which is similar to "wide wakeness." Methods of Instruction- question and answer. Methods of Curriculum- socially constructed. Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated.

8.2.6. Postmodernist and Critical Theory- explore differences and possibilities that may seem inherently impossible. Role of the Teacher- an agent of change. Methods of Instruction and Curriculum- democratic processes. Teachers, students, and communities are all involved in the process of education. School and curriculum are agents of change.

9. Politics of Education

9.1. The Purposes of Schooling

9.1.1. What is the purpose of schooling? Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, and values.

9.1.2. Intellectual- cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, and language.

9.1.3. Political- to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism.

9.1.4. Social- to help people be sociable, productive members of society.

9.1.5. Economic- prepare students for their occupation.

9.2. Your Political Perspective.. Where do you stand?

9.2.1. Competition is good.

9.2.2. Every person determines their outcome.

9.2.3. Every person is responsible for their outcome.

9.2.4. Economically free markets best serve people.

9.2.5. Individuals make their own future and determine their own success.

9.2.6. Individuals make society.

9.2.7. Capitalism and free economies must be kept in check.

9.2.8. Governments must intervene to insure equality in education and economies.

9.2.9. Governments must address societal issues.

9.2.10. Economies unregulated cause unfair distribution of wealth and opportunities.

9.2.11. Educational opportunities must equal across the nation, states, and communities.

9.2.12. Government should be able to provide all citizens with a minimally acceptable standard of living.

9.2.13. Capitalism and free economy is the root of the educational problems.

9.2.14. Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation.

9.2.15. Issues must be addressed at the social class level not the individual.

9.3. Political Perspectives

9.3.1. Conservative- looks at social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals and/or groups to survive and looks at human and social evolution as adaptation to changes in the environment.

9.3.2. Liberal- believes that the free market, if left unregulated, is prone to significant abuses, particularly to those groups who are disadvantaged economically and politically.

9.3.3. Radical- does not believe that free market capitalism is the best form of economic organization, but rather believes that democratic socialism is a fairer political-economic system.

9.3.4. Neoliberal- believes that the free market solves social problems better than governmental policy, educational success or failure is the result of individual effort rather than of social and economic factors, state intervention in the educational system is at times necessary to ensure equality of opportunity, race and social class are important factors in the achievement gap and that African-American and Hispanic students and lower income students are more likely to achieve and attain at lower levels than White, Asian and higher income students, etc.

10. Schools as Organizations

10.1. The Structure of U.s. Schools

10.1.1. Goverance Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states. Each state is responsible for education. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970. The U.s. Department of Education has very little power.

10.1.2. Centralization 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion. 1930's there were 128,000 public school districts. 1980's there were slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S. The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

10.1.3. Student Composition in Public Schools 53.5% are white. Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white. 10 states have no minorities. Large states are heavily multiracial. New York City is 85.6% minority. Los Angeles is 91.3 minority. Detroit is 97.4% minority.

10.1.4. Degree of Openness Very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exist. Very democratic process of education. Open to all and very inclusive.

10.1.5. Private Schools There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students. In 1930's there were less than 10,000 private schools. In 2009 there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools. Most private schools are located on the East and West coasts. Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least. In 1980's and 1990's studies indicate private schools were better learning environments. Thus, school choice has a significant credibility.

10.2. International Comparisons

10.2.1. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

10.2.2. Great Britain In 19th Century England the rich had education in private schools. The poor did not get educated. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. The 1944 education created free elementary and secondary education for all. England decentralized the education system which had been fundamentally elitists. Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education by creating parental choice and reorganizing the administrative structure, but with very limited success. The 1988 Education Reform Act created a more centralized curriculum and system of national assessments. Schools are still very stratified socially and economically. Comprehensive high schools which prepared students for the workforce have been eliminated.

10.2.3. France France has a very elitists educational system. Only the very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally. They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite. The top students go to the Grandes Ecoles. The government controls everything down to the classroom. The France system is very competitive.

10.2.4. Former Soviet Union Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need. Being a member of the elite Communist Party had benefits for those children. This special interest created a stratified system. The downfall of the Soviet Union was a result of the inequality that was created. Due to so many nationalities there is very little consensus among the former USSR states.

10.2.5. Japan In the 1880's Japan centralized its educational system. After WWII, Japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes. Education is highly competitive. Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams. A double system of education exist. Students are educated publicly and then pursue the non-formal school or jukus. There are 10,000 jukus in Japan.

10.2.6. Germany German students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers. Hauptschule for lower level blue collar work. Realschule is for the lower level white collar and technical positions. Gymnasium is for the intellectual and high level management positions. The system is therefore highly stratified and competitive. The German system is opposite of the U.S. system which is open to all. Academic achievement is very closely associated with social class.

10.2.7. Finland Finland historically had the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams. Racial and social classes have very few discrepancies across test scores in all areas. All tracking is eliminated. Almost no standardized testing. Emphasis is on formative evaluations. The one standardized test is for college entrance. Finland has a high regard for teachers and has competitive salaries. They have a large amount of autonomy. Teachers have a high degree of job sanctification. Teacher retention and shortages are not issues.

10.3. School Processes and Cultures

10.3.1. Schools are Separate Social Organizations because: They have definitive populations. They have political structures. They represent a multitude of social groups. They are prevailed by the "we feeling." They have their own special culture.

10.3.2. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students.

10.3.3. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching.

10.3.4. Communities are in conflict with administration.

10.3.5. Studies show that the principal establishes the goal levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of discipline.

10.3.6. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum.

10.3.7. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations, and conformity.

10.3.8. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity.

10.3.9. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill, and good will.

10.3.10. "Schools of Tomorrow...Today Project" in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teahcing.

10.3.11. Changing a School: Conflict is a necessary part of change. New behaviors must be learned. Team building must extend to all parts. Process and content are interrelated.

10.4. Teachers, Teaching, and Professionalism

10.4.1. Reality is hard to ignore.

10.4.2. Everyday life is a struggle for survival.

10.4.3. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform.

10.4.4. In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women.

10.4.5. 37% have bachelor's degrees.

10.4.6. 60% have master's degrees.

10.4.7. 1% have doctorates.

10.4.8. Average age is 46.

10.4.9. A shortage of teachers exist.

10.4.10. High school seniors indicate that less than 10% will be a teacher.

10.4.11. Requirements According to NCLB:

10.4.12. A college degree

10.4.13. Full certification

10.4.14. Demonstrable content knowledge in the subject area

10.4.15. Praxis tests are required in most states

10.4.16. Each state has a different test score acceptance level for certification.

10.4.17. The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result.

10.4.18. This multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burnout.

10.4.19. Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills. More of an artist than a technical teacher.

10.4.20. Most effective feedback is from students.

10.4.21. Key to teaching is exercising control.

10.4.22. Control precedes teaching. A classroom must have control to be an effective learning environment.

10.4.23. Turn each day into a special event.

10.4.24. Underqualified teachers

10.4.25. Out of field teachers

10.4.26. Prevalent in poorer schools

10.4.27. Poor administrative decisions

10.4.28. Community pressure

10.4.29. Other disciplines are being allowed to become certified teachers such as Teach for America.

10.4.30. Other professions have more autonomy and professional development.

10.4.31. Teachers are expected to be created autonomous individuals but conditions of employment. Leave very little room for autoomy, thoughtfulness, and expertise.

10.4.32. The Center for Educational Renewal indicated studies show that causes of teacher burnout and shortages are a result of: A debilitating lack of prestige in teacher education. Lack of program coherence. Separation of theory and practice. A stifling regulated conformity. To effect teacher professionalism means shred decision making. Bureaucracy tries to make students conform and expects teachers to create productive individuals. Teacher are at the center of this conflict. Standardized generic education limits teachers creativity and risk-taking.