Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. FAPE- Free Appropriate Public Education-an educational right of children with disabilities in the United States that is guaranteed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Brown VS. Board of Education/ what you have for black students you must have for white students/ major court case

2.1.1. Plessy VS. Ferguson-- This 1896 U.S. Supreme Court case upheld the constitutionality of segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. It stemmed from an 1892 incident in which African-American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a Jim Crow car, breaking a Louisiana law. Rejecting Plessy’s argument that his constitutional rights were violated, the Court ruled that a state law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between whites and blacks did not conflict with the 13th and14th Amendments. Restrictive legislation based on race continued following the Plessy decision, its reasoning not overturned until Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka in 1954.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. The three major sociological perspectives are symbolic interactionism, functionalism and conflict theory. Symbolic interactionism, also known as the symbolic interaction theory, is a perspective that puts a large emphasis and symbolic meaning on the social interactions that humans develop. This theory was introduced by philosopher George Herbert Mead, but can be traced back to Max Weber. It examines the meanings that people impose on objects, events and behaviors. Functionalism, a theory from Emile Durkheim, analyzes how social order is possible and how society remains stable. It states that each part of society functions to provide stability for the whole society. The institutions of society, like the government, are the strongest parts. If a society is disorganized, it must change to stabilize itself. Conflict theory, derived from the works of Karl Marx, studies how power and coercion affect social order. Marx believed that those with the greatest political, economic and social resources would hold the most power in society, according to About.com. These powerful people would maintain social order through domination.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Particular Philosophies- Idealism (Socrates and Plato), Dialectic and “dialectical approach”, “doctrine of reminiscence”

4.2. Role of the teacher- a role model in the classroom, To provoke thought, To bring out what is already in their mind

4.3. Idealism- Discussion, Questioning, Lecture on material not presented in text

4.4. Idealism Curriculum- Study the great works, All new problems have their roots in the past, Study history, Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy, and a basic core foundation

4.5. Realism- material world is real, "the real world exist before ideas exist", Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking, Syllogism or a system of logical thinking

4.5.1. Realists- Thomas Aquinas, Francis Bacon, John Locke

4.5.2. Goal of Education- Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

4.5.3. Role of Teacher- Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner, Enable students to examine from an objective approach

4.5.4. Methods of Instructions- lecture/ question and answer/ discussion/ curriculum- consist of a basic body of knowledge

4.5.5. (Blank slate or tabula rasa)

4.6. Pragmatism- Learning through experience experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value” The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome.

4.6.1. John Dewey George Sanders Pierce William James John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.6.2. EXAMPLE:  speculative thought – action - results

4.6.3. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism Progressivism – John Dewey Social Reconstructionism – George Counts,

4.6.4. The Goal of Education- Provide students with the knowledge to improve society.

4.6.5. Role of the Teacher – facilitator of learning activities

4.6.6. Methods of Instruction – learn individually as well as in groups.

4.6.7. Curriculum – Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum.

4.7. Existentialism & Phenomenology-Existence precedes essence/We are who we are as a result of our decisions/ Perception of the world is based on one’s ability to make sense of it.

4.7.1. Goal of Education – The focus is on the individual, cognitively and effectively.

4.7.2. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world.

4.7.3. Role of the Teacher - The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship.

4.7.4. Students must become “wide awake”

4.7.5. Methods of Instruction – Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together.

4.7.6. Curriculum – Humanities are heavily emphasized Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world.

4.8. Neo-Marxism- The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class.

4.8.1. Neo-Marxist – a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives.

4.8.2. Goal of Education – schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups

4.8.3. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives

4.8.4. Role of the Teacher – engage student s to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”.

4.8.5. Curriculum – socially constructed

4.8.6. Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated.

4.9. Post Modernists and Critical Theory-The Goal of Education is to explore differences  and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible

4.9.1. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation

4.9.2. Role of the Teacher – an agent of change

4.9.3. Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education

4.9.4. Schools and curriculum are agents of change.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. leadership—principals organized their staffs and community assets in support of student learning; improved community ties—the principal and school staff reached out and made school more welcoming for parents and created links to other community institutions; increased professional capacity—a focus on quality professional development and continuous improvement; student-centered learning environment—an environment where students feel safe and supported to engage in ambitious intellectual activity; and instructional guidance—gathering the whole school community around a common vision of curriculum and instruction promoting ambitious academic achievement. Another reform model that increased student achievement is detailed in Improbable Scholars, by University of California Berkeley Professor David Kirp. Although Kirp concentrates on one school district, in Union City, New Jersey, he also references districts implementing a similar model, including Sanger in California. Kirp emphasizes that there are no “silver bullets,” no overnight transformations available in reform that works. It just takes hard work sustained over time by stable school staffs and managers. The essentials of what makes Union City a success are “familiar to any educator with a pulse.” These include: high-quality preschool; “word-soaked” classrooms; true bilingual education; coherent curricula; test scores used to diagnose problems; teachers involved in continuous learning; schools enlisting parents as partners; and, the schools maintain a climate of high expectations, caring, and trust.

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. In an important sense, pedagogy is the overarching concept; it refers broadly to the deliberate process of cultivating development within a given culture and society. From this point of view, pedagogy has three basic components: (1) curriculum, or the content of what is being taught; (2) methodology, or the way in which teaching is done; and (3) techniques for socializing children in the repertoire of cognitive and affective skills required for successful functioning in society that education is designed to promote. Curriculum, or the content of teaching, may be designed to encourage learning processes (memory, attention, observation) and cognitive skills (reasoning, comparing and contrasting, classification), as well as the acquisition of specific information, such as the names of the letters of the alphabet (Wiggins and McTighe, 1998). The teaching strategies or methods used in implementing the curriculum are the arranged interactions of people and materials planned and used by teachers. They include the teacher role, teaching styles, and instructional techniques (Siraj-Blatchford, 1998). The third aspect of pedagogy, which might be thought of as cognitive socialization, refers to the role that teachers in early childhood settings play, through their expectations

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Before we accept Equality of Opportunity as a social ideal we must first ask the most basic question: What is the concept of Equality of Opportunity? When we respond to this question, our response in part must account for what makes something a statement of Equality of Opportunity rather than a statement of some other principle we may care about, such as Equality of Outcome. The most influential philosophical analysis of the opportunity and equality components of the phrase provides us with a simple formula. According to this formula, agent(s) have an opportunity when they have a chance to attain a specified goal(s) without the hindrance of some obstacle(s). Equality of Opportunity obtains when agents have a chance to attain the same goal(s) without the hindrance of the same obstacle(s). Here are some examples of statements of equality of opportunity to illustrate the flexibility of the concept. All Americans should have a chance to attain a college degree without the hindrance of racial discrimination. All whites should have a chance to attain a college degree without the hindrance of gender discrimination. All Americans should have a chance to attain literacy without the hindrance of any obstacle other than severe disability precluding the attainment of literacy. The examples above provide us with statements of Equality of Opportunity, but they differ in their attractiveness as social ideals. This is because they differ in terms of the agents, obstacles and goals they specify. Though the goals are the same in the first two statements they differ in the obstacles that may remain and in the groups that are singled out. So, for instance, in the first statement, poor women may be discriminated against and so have a more difficult time attaining a college degree than wealthy men. In the second statement, non-whites are not guaranteed an equal opportunity, but even among whites socio-economic or religious discrimination are not condemned. These may be extremely powerful obstacles in a society punctuated by religious pluralism and socio-economic inequality. This may be considered a pretty lousy opportunity, but it is an opportunity nonetheless. The third example illustrates how very many obstacles to some goal could be removed, but the value of the opportunity may be diminished merely by the modesty of the goal.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Education may be the key to solving broader American inequality, but we have to solve educational inequality first. Ferguson says there is progress being made, there are encouraging examples to emulate, that an early start is critical, and that a lot of hard work lies ahead. But he also says, "There's nothing more important we can do." "The position of U.S. black students is truly alarming," wrote Fryer, the Henry Lee Professor of Economics, who used the OECD rankings as a metaphor for minority standing educationally. "If they were to be considered a country, they would rank just below Mexico in last place." Harvard Graduate School of Education Dean James E. Ryan, a former public interest lawyer, says geography has immense power in determining educational opportunity in America. As a scholar, he has studied how policies and the law affect learning, and how conditions are often vastly unequal. His book "Five Miles Away, A World Apart" (2010) is a case study of the disparity of opportunity in two Richmond, Virginia, schools, one grimly urban and the other richly suburban. Geography, he says, mirrors achievement levels.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Education Reform Now is an action tank that aims to: (1) reorient education policy as a content as opposed to time or place based right for students and teachers; (2) ensure consistent and mutually reinforcing policies at elementary, secondary, and postsecondary levels; and (3) promote new methods of content delivery and tools of influence on teaching and learning. Americans of all ages – from cradle to grave – deserve full and fair access to quality education opportunities

10. Politics of Education

10.1. Conservative View- belief that the free market or market economy of capitalism is both the most economically productive economic system and the system that is most respectful to human needs

10.2. Liberal View- believes that the free market, if left unregulated, is prone to significant abuses, particularly to those groups who are at a disadvantaged economically and politically- believes that the capitalist market economy is prone to cycles of recession that must be addressed through government intervention

10.3. Radical View- believes that democratic socialism is a fairer political economic system / the radical viewpoint suggests that the capitalist system, its the most productive form of economic organization, also produces fundamental contradictions that ultimately will lead to its transformation into socialism/ believe that the capitalist system is central to US social problems

10.4. Neo-Liberal View-extensive economic liberalization policies such as privatization, fiscal austerity, deregulation, free trade, and reductions in government spending in order to enhance the role of the private sector in the economy.

10.5. Purposes of Schooling pg.22

10.5.1. Intellectual- cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language

10.5.2. Political- to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism

10.5.3. Social- to help people be socialable, productive members of society

10.5.4. Economic- prepare students for their occupation

10.5.5. Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, and values. pg 21-22

11. Limits and Promises

11.1. Achievement Gap- the gap between what you know what what you should know from last year- Difference in students- assessment gap for teacher to understand where her students are-because of test, teaching gaps have widened

11.2. Needs Assessment-  to determine where the school is on testing- test on first day to see where the students are-

11.3. Crisis in Urban Education- think Birmingham city schools\

11.4. Decline of Literacy-understanding in the knowledge/ being able to understand what was discussed in class

11.5. Assessment Issues- Teaching to test/ always have to keep test scores up/ have to keep accreditation up / Accountability Act of 2013 / sends failing schools students to private schools and pays for them/

11.6. Four Elements of Foundations of Education- history/ philosophy/ politics/ sociology- sociology affects who it has an affect on