Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Schooling

1.1.1. Intellectual-cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language

1.1.2. political- to indoctrinate people into a  particular order of participation

1.1.3. Social- to help people to be sociable, productive, members of society

1.1.4. economic- prepare students for their occupation p.22

1.2. Political perspective

1.2.1. Every person determines their outcome

1.2.2. Every person is responsible for their outcome

1.2.3. Economically free markets best serve people

1.2.4. Individuals make their own future and determine their own success

1.2.5. Individuals make society

1.2.6. Governments must intervene to insure equality in education and economies

1.2.7. Government must address societal issues

1.2.8. F.A.P.E. Free and appropriate public education

1.2.8.1. Equal schooling access for all in the U.S.

1.2.9. Government should be able to provide all citizens with a minimally acceptable standard of living

1.2.10. Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation.

1.2.11. Issues must be addressed at the social class level, not the individual.

1.3. 3 main political perspectives:

1.3.1. conservative

1.3.2. liberal

1.3.3. radical

1.3.4. neo-liberal

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Schools Responsibility

2.1.1. meets needs of a literate persona in democratic society

2.1.2. focal point for societal issues

2.1.3. little consensus on the motives for school reform

2.2. Colonial Era

2.2.1. Colleges were established before the country was created

2.2.2. Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics.

2.2.3. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man.

2.2.3.1. Idea: Not everyone is meant to go to college

2.2.4. Jefferson supported public education

2.2.5. Old Deluder Satan Law- every town must provide a school so that all children will learn to read the bible

2.2.5.1. Massachusetts School Law- every town must have a school and a building

2.3. School types

2.3.1. Meritocracy- higher education

2.3.2. Grammar schools- elementary schools

2.3.3. Dame schools- girls

2.3.4. Secondary- boys and elite

2.3.5. Latin Grammar Schools- Boston

2.3.6. Southern education- only for upper class

2.4. Age of Reform:Common School

2.4.1. Horace Mann- first board of education

2.4.2. Normal schools-teacher education

2.4.3. Public education for public stability and mobility

2.5. Public School

2.5.1. Merrill Act: land grants for public education

2.5.2. Education for women and slaves was limited

2.5.3. Women educated for domestic purposes

2.5.4. Slaves uneducated

2.6. Women

2.6.1. Mount Holyoke Seminary: women's college had same requirements as mens

2.6.2. University of Iowa: first public university for women

2.6.3. Right to vote: only for men

2.7. Urbanization

2.7.1. Industrial Revolution: need for educated workers

2.7.2. enormous amounts of uneducated people

2.7.3. John Dewey- Progressivism

2.7.4. Schools began to focus on hygiene, health, social skills

2.7.5. Gives child the knowledge to change society

2.7.6. Embryonic Society- miniature community

2.7.7. Dewey's philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools

2.8. Committee of Ten

2.8.1. 1. Health

2.8.2. 2. Command of fundamental processes

2.8.3. 3. Worthy home membership

2.8.4. 4. Vocation

2.8.5. 5. Citizenship

2.8.6. 6. Worthy use of leisure

2.8.7. 7. Ethical character

2.9. The Dilemma

2.9.1. Latin, Greek vs. Science Math

2.9.2. College requirements

2.9.3. High school: prepare for life or college?

2.9.4. All students: same course of study?

2.9.5. Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

2.10. Post World War ll

2.10.1. Progressive vs. Traditional

2.10.2. focused on social mobilty

2.10.3. standards of educations v. education opportunity for all

2.10.4. college student movements for civil rights

2.11. Reforms or the Standard Era

2.11.1. Sputnik

2.11.2. emphasis on excellence

2.11.3. individual needs

2.11.4. provided for special needs students

2.11.5. Educational Reforms in presidents

2.11.5.1. Nation at Risk (Reagan)

2.11.5.1.1. Focus put back on Science and Math

2.11.5.1.2. Wanted to do away with the U.S. Department of Education-because education is given to the states

2.11.5.2. Goals 2000 (Clinton)

2.11.5.2.1. Every student by the year 2000 should be on reading level

2.11.5.3. NCLB (Bush)

2.11.5.3.1. No child left behind

2.11.5.4. RTT (Obama)

2.11.5.4.1. Race to the top

2.11.6. Elementary\Secondary Education Act- special needs students

2.11.6.1. IDEA

2.11.7. Lee v. Makin??- are you certified?

2.11.7.1. child had a behavior problem and they put him in special ed.

2.11.7.2. Father sued because he did not technically qualifiy

2.11.7.3. 2001- court case was finally settled- all Alabama teachers must be certified

2.12. Three Historical Perspectives

2.12.1. Democratic- Liberal School

2.12.1.1. The majority rules, what is good for society as a whole

2.12.1.2. Sometimes external influences influence your success

2.12.1.3. All schools and students should all have equal ability to be successful

2.12.2. Radical- Revisionist School

2.12.3. Conservative School

2.12.3.1. You are responsible for your own success

2.12.3.2. You make good grades because it makes you a well rounded individual

2.13. Crucial Moments:

2.13.1. Plessy v. Ferguson- same, but seperate

2.13.2. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions

3.2. Persell's Model

3.2.1. Societal level

3.2.1.1. political and economic systems

3.2.2. Institutional level

3.2.2.1. family, schools, churches, business, government and media

3.2.3. interpersonal level

3.2.3.1. process and symbol

3.2.4. Intraphsychic

3.3. The uses of sociology for teachers

3.3.1. Can schools create a more functional and equitable society?

3.3.2. What is the relationship between school and society?

3.3.3. Effective schools:

3.3.3.1. effective leadership

3.3.3.2. safe and orderly environment

3.3.3.3. high expectations

3.3.3.4. continual review of student progress

3.3.3.5. clear mission

3.3.4. How does teacher interaction with students determine student success?

3.3.4.1. one of the main keys to success

3.4. Values and beliefs of the school

3.4.1. Theoretical Perspectives Include:

3.4.1.1. Functionalists

3.4.1.2. Conflict Theorists

3.4.1.3. Interactional Theorists

3.4.2. Functional groups influence lesser groups

3.5. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend.

3.5.1. College degrees are mainly status symbols

3.5.2. Where you go to school can determine your success more than your achievement

3.5.3. Interactional theorist: suggest that middle class schools are at a disadvantage

3.5.4. The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement

3.6. Student Peer Groups

3.6.1. Why do students misbehave? Attention

3.6.2. College students

3.6.2.1. Intellectuals

3.6.2.2. Strivers

3.6.2.3. Careerists

3.6.2.4. Unconnected

3.7. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 90 percent of the wealth

3.8. Current educational crisis:

3.8.1. poverty

3.8.2. single mothers

3.8.3. one third at risk of failing

4. Limits and Promises

4.1. Achievement Gaps What students know as opposed to what they should know

4.1.1. Who is responsible? parents

4.1.1.1. Needs assessment to see where students are

4.2. Crisis in Urban Education

4.2.1. Brown v. Board of Education

4.2.1.1. challenged Plessy v. Ferguson

4.2.2. Plessy v. Ferguson

4.2.2.1. Separate but equal educational facilities

4.2.3. Major gap in education according to school location and taxes supplied to them

4.3. Decline in Literacy

4.3.1. Sometimes, people can read, but comprehension creates a problem

4.4. Assessment Issues

4.4.1. Teachers constantly under pressure to raise test scores

4.4.2. Accountability Act 2013: three months later tried to revoke the act

4.5. Sociology in Education: Education has an affect on who it can effect

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Particular Philosophies

5.1.1. Idealism

5.1.1.1. dialectic approach

5.1.2. Realism

5.1.2.1. material world is real

5.1.2.2. logical thinking

5.1.2.2.1. major premise

5.1.2.2.2. minor premise

5.1.2.2.3. conclusion

5.1.2.2.4. facts lead to conclusion

5.1.2.3. tabula rasa-blank slate

5.1.2.3.1. John Locke

5.1.2.4. Role of teacher

5.1.2.4.1. present ideas in a clear and concise way

5.1.2.4.2. enable students to examine from an objective approach

5.1.3. Pragmatism

5.1.3.1. People

5.1.3.1.1. John Dewey

5.1.3.1.2. George Sanders Pierce

5.1.3.1.3. William James

5.1.3.1.4. John Locke

5.1.3.1.5. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

5.1.3.1.6. George Counts

5.1.3.2. Learn through experience

5.1.3.2.1. "practical approach"

5.1.3.2.2. scientific inquiry

5.1.3.3. Curriculum

5.1.3.3.1. Integrated core subjects

5.1.3.3.2. teaching across the curriculum

5.1.4. Existentialism and Phenomenology

5.1.4.1. Existence precedes essence

5.1.4.2. We are who we are as a result of our decisions

5.1.4.3. Goal of Education- The focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively.

5.1.4.4. Role of Teacher

5.1.4.4.1. The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students.

5.1.5. Neo Marxism

5.1.5.1. a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives.

5.1.5.1.1. Goal of Education

5.1.5.2. perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class

5.1.5.3. curriculum-socially constructed

5.1.5.3.1. teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated

5.1.6. Post Modernists and Critical Theory

5.1.6.1. explore differences and explore possibilities

5.1.6.2. working together

5.1.6.3. Role of Teacher- agent of change

5.1.6.3.1. give students the option-how they want to learn

5.1.6.3.2. teachers, students, communities all have a part

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Which do you believe ?

6.1.1. public education: social vehicle for minimizing wealth and class

6.1.2. America: a bit of luck and hard work will determine who goes ahead

6.2. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

6.2.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristics and societies

6.2.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences

6.3. The Coleman Study

6.3.1. Private schools outperform public

6.3.2. schools related to race and background

6.4. Social Stratification:

6.4.1. caste: a persons social level is determined by race or religion

6.4.2. estate systems: a person's social level is determined by family value and worth

6.4.3. class systems: a person's worth is determined by their ability to overcome

6.4.3.1. lower class in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation

6.4.3.2. education=achievement and social class and financial success

6.4.4. race

6.4.4.1. minorities do not receive the same opportunities as white Americans

6.4.5. gender

6.4.5.1. significant gains have been made

6.4.5.2. disparities still exist

6.4.6. PL 94-142- first pulic law for mentally challenged

6.4.6.1. IDEA 1996- encompasses section 504 and special ed.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Theories

7.1.1. Functionalist Theorist-student success is determined by own hard work

7.1.2. Conflict theorist- student success based on environment

7.2. Student affecting factors

7.2.1. teachers

7.2.2. community

7.2.3. family

7.2.4. peer groups

8. Educational Reform

8.1. highly effective teachers

8.1.1. a calling

8.1.2. professional knowledge

8.1.3. personal qualities

8.1.4. with it ness

8.1.5. instructional effectiveness

8.1.6. communication

8.1.7. street smart

8.1.8. extra mile

8.1.9. lifelong learner

8.2. reform in education

8.2.1. first accountability and achievement issues

8.2.2. second: processes of the school

8.3. teacher education program

8.3.1. intellectual demands in education

8.3.2. retain cometence

8.3.3. reorganize

8.3.4. plan

8.4. CONCLUSION:Do the best with what you have that is WITHIN YOUR CONTROL

9. Schools as Organizations

9.1. School Accountability Act-you can choose where your child goes to school, based on whether or not it is a failing school. Ex. Failing school kids can now go to private schools for free

9.2. Country school systems

9.2.1. Great Britain-poor did not get educated

9.2.1.1. national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church

9.2.1.2. Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education

9.2.1.3. Education Reform Act- centralized curriculum and system of national assessments

9.2.2. Former soviet Union

9.2.2.1. inequality

9.2.2.2. Being a member of the elite Communist Party had benefits for those children.

9.2.3. France- elitist school system

9.2.3.1. Only very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally

9.2.3.2. schools for the poor and schools for the elite

9.2.3.3. government controls the schools

9.2.4. Japan

9.2.4.1. focused on the economic purpose to drive down educational purposes

9.2.4.2. Education is highly competitive

9.2.5. Finland

9.2.5.1. historically had the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams

9.2.5.2. emphasis on formative evaluation

9.2.5.3. high regard for teacher

9.2.5.3.1. teacher can teach with much freedom

9.3. School Processes and Cultures

9.3.1. definitive populations

9.3.2. political structures

9.3.3. they represent a multitude of social groups

9.3.4. communities in conflict with administration

9.4. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

9.4.1. John Goodlad

9.4.1.1. teachers must have a major part in reform

9.4.1.2. A Place Called School

9.4.2. Thirty seven percent have B.S.

9.4.2.1. sixty percent have Master's degrees

9.4.2.2. one percent have PhD

9.4.3. The nature of teaching requires many and its very demanding as a result

10. Curriculum and Pedagogy

10.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

10.1.1. Influences:

10.1.1.1. Social Influences

10.1.1.2. Political Influences

10.1.1.3. Societal Influences

10.1.1.4. Cultural Influences

10.1.1.5. Special Influences

10.2. Hitorical:

10.2.1. Idealists: great works of man kind

10.2.2. Conservatives: return to a humanist foundation

10.2.2.1. we should teach fundamentally basic to a common culture

10.2.2.2. say that social efficiency has diluted curriculum and loses the monogamy of one common culture

10.2.2.3. Conservatives argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our values

10.2.3. Social Efficiency Curriculum:

10.2.3.1. reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive

10.2.3.2. Different needs for different people

10.2.3.3. cornerstone of progressivism

10.2.4. Social meliorists-reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

10.2.4.1. communities reflect what is important to them as a society

10.3. Questions curriculum raises:

10.3.1. What shapes curriculum?

10.3.2. Who determines what is taught?

10.3.3. Should business determine curriculum?

10.3.4. Should religion determine curriculum?

10.3.5. Should the wealthy determine curriculum?

10.3.5.1. Other influences on curriculum:

10.3.5.1.1. evolutionists

10.3.5.1.2. creationists

10.3.5.1.3. science and math

10.3.5.1.4. nation at risk

10.3.5.1.5. NCLB

10.3.5.1.6. RTT

10.4. stratification of the curriculum:

10.4.1. students choose between advanced and vocational diplomas

10.4.2. Tracking begins in elementary school

10.5. Effects of curriculum:

10.5.1. Do students actually learn what is taught?

10.5.2. learning gap formed

10.5.3. Schooling does have an impact on learning

10.5.4. do all students have the same schooling experience?

10.6. What affects how you will teach the curriculum?

10.6.1. MATURITY

10.6.1.1. chronological

10.6.1.2. social

10.6.1.3. emotional

10.6.1.4. culturally

10.6.1.5. values

10.6.1.6. political