Parts II, III, & IV Textbook Readings

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Parts II, III, & IV Textbook Readings by Mind Map: Parts II, III, & IV  Textbook Readings

1. Seven characteristics in the areas of research in The Use of Medical, Legal, and Business Resources

1.1. Criticality in providing the right reference resource

1.2. Knowledge in knowing the specialized and distinctive level of vocabulary.

1.3. Restraint in the dispensing of legal advice

1.4. Ethics must be practiced when it comes to the avoidance of discussing patron issues

1.5. Volume is high when it comes to the demand of medical, legal, and business collections

1.6. Updating must be constant when it comes to loose-leaf print publications

1.7. Expense is observed when it comes to reference budgets in the areas of medical, legal, and business resources.

1.8. Major Health Resources Used

1.8.1. Medical Dictionaries

1.8.2. Medical Encyclopedias

1.8.2.1. General

1.8.2.2. Specialized

1.8.3. Handbooks and Manuals

1.8.3.1. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy

1.8.4. Medical Directories

1.8.4.1. Official ABMS Directory of Board Certified Medical Specialists

1.8.5. Medical Databases and Indexes

1.8.5.1. PubMed, EMBASE, Health and Wellness Resource Center

1.9. Major Business Resources Used

1.9.1. Business Directores

1.9.1.1. A Dictionary of Business and Management

1.9.1.2. Dictionary of Business

1.9.1.3. International Dictionary of Finance

1.9.2. Directories and Hanbooks

1.9.2.1. Thomas Register of American Manufacturers

1.9.3. Investment Guides

1.9.3.1. Value Line Investment Survey

1.9.3.2. Financial Ratings Series

1.9.4. Business Entrepreneurship Aids

1.9.4.1. Market Share Reporter

1.9.5. Business Databases and Indexes

1.9.5.1. Gale's Business and Company ASAP

1.10. Major Legal Resources Used

1.10.1. Legal Dictionaries

1.10.1.1. Black's Law Dictionary

1.10.2. Legal Encyclopedias and Yearbooks

1.10.2.1. West's Encyclopedia of American Law (WEAL)

1.10.2.2. American Law Yearbook

1.10.3. Legal Directories

1.10.3.1. Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory

1.10.4. Legal Databases and Indexes

1.10.4.1. Lexis, Westlaw, and LAWCHEK

2. Major Bibliographic Resources Used

2.1. National Catalogs and Bibliographies provides listings of materials published in a country received through legal deposit.

2.2. In the United States the Library of Congress serves as the national library.

2.3. National Union Catalog (NUC) is a good source of retrospective bibliographic information used to verify earlier editions of earlier authors.

2.4. Library Catalogs can be accessed online to help in the identification and location of books, magazines, newspapers, manuscripts, maps, audiovisuals, and other materials. WorldCat and the New York Public Library are examples of online catalogs.

2.5. Trade Bibliographies are bibliographies produced commercially by publishers, authors, and booksellers to demonstrate what’s in print, out of print, and what will be published. Examples are Books in Print, Fiction Connection, and Non-Fiction Connection.

2.6. Evaluating Bibliographic Resources

2.6.1. The basic criteria used to evaluate any type of bibliography include: accuracy, authority, scope, arrangement, methodology, bibliographical content, and currency.

2.7. Periodicals and Newspapers

2.7.1. Top sources for information about current and domestic and international magazines, journals, and newspapers is Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory which provide bibliographic information, including the ISSN

2.7.2. Magazines for Libraries is recommended for periodicals which is arranged by subject. Another resource recommended for supplement is The Standard Periodical Directory

3. Encyclopedias

3.1. Three major structural elements of the modern encyclopedia

3.1.1. Age appropriateness will cover the elementary school readers, middle-school students and young adults in high school.  These are the primary audiences for this resource

3.1.2. Focus deal with the generalized, or the easy reader encyclopedia to the more specialized volume focused on a single subject with in-depth information;

3.1.3. Scope includes a single-volume with brief entries to online encyclopedias which have an infinite availability of information

3.2. General encyclopedia, which answer everything, include Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Americana, and World Book Encyclopedia.

3.3. Specialized encyclopedias, which answer anything to do with a specific subject, include Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste, The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art, and Dirr’s Encyclopedia of Trees and Shrubs.

4. Ready Reference Sources

4.1. Standard questions to ask.

4.1.1. The "who" questions are typically answered by using telephone directories or by biographical directories. Government directories and almanacs can also help in these kinds of questions,

4.1.2. The "what" questions typically deal about consumer concerns.  Examples used are consumer and citizen guides, college guides, and occupational books.

4.1.3. The "which" questions are interchangeable with "what" questions but tend to have fewer options.  Masterplots is an example of this type of resource where houses major bodies of literature, such as fiction, drama, poetry and short stories.

4.1.4. For "when" questions Chase's Calendar of Events can be used to access the most famous trivial events and holidays.

4.1.5. For the "where" facts the Statesman's Yearbook is an annual source used for all social, political, geographic and economic profiles of all world countries.  Almanacs can also be useful when looking or this information.

5. Words-Dictionaries, Concordances, and Manuals

5.1. Use of Dictionaries

5.1.1. Definitions provide many types of words including, simple, archaic, slang, foreign, literary and technical.

5.1.2. Orthography provide etymology and usage of word.

5.1.3. Dictionaries also act invaluable pronunciation and syllabication guides

5.1.4. The root history of words can be found in dictionaries and therefore, provide etymologies.

5.1.5. Simple grammatical solutions can be obtained through a word class list.

5.1.6. Synonyms are provided in a dictionary.

5.2. Major Dictionaries

5.2.1. General Dictionaries

5.2.1.1. Unabridged dictionaries have over 265,000 entries.  Example is the Oxford English Dictionary.

5.2.1.2. Unabridged dictionaries have over 90,000 words, 4,000 color graphics and detailed usage information.  Example would be The American Heritage Dictionary.

5.2.2. Specialized Word Sources

5.2.2.1. In Learners' Dictionaries"less is more" meaning the dictionary needs be simple, have ease of use, and have frequency of words for daily communication.

5.2.2.2. Visual Dictionaries provide a pictorial of the word.

5.2.2.3. "Gated"Word Dictionaries will usually point to a particular community, class, age group, region, or profession.

5.2.2.4. AAD stands for Acronyms ad Abbreviations Dictionaries very needed in modern times.

5.2.3. Special Constituency Dictionaries

5.2.3.1. Children's Dictionaries

5.2.3.2. Bilingual Dictionaries

5.2.3.3. Subject Dictionaries

5.2.4. Thesauri whose main purpose is to the right find synonym and antonym for all words.

5.3. Concordances offer alphabetical enumeration of major words in a book along with context of the word.

5.4. Manuals

5.4.1. The Chicago Manual of Style,

5.4.2. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

5.4.3. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

6. Databases and Indexes

6.1. Use of Databases and Indexes

6.1.1. Databases are used to find articles in periodicals and newspapers and other resources such as dissertations and book reviews.

6.1.2. Indexes are useful for for retrospective research.

6.2. Major Databases

6.2.1. Multidisciplinary Periodical Database such as EBSCO, ProQuest, and Gale Cengage Learning are the most widely used companies to offer more databases to libraries.

6.3. Newspaper Databases and Indexes provide access to current and past articles in many newspapers.  Newspaper Source Plus (EBSCO).

6.4. Subject Based Indexes are used when researching a subject in depth to find more scholarly material

6.4.1. Science and Technology Dtabases

6.4.2. Education Databases

6.4.3. Social Sciences Databases

6.4.4. Humanities Database

6.4.5. Language and Literature Databases

6.4.6. Music Indexes

6.4.7. Art Databases

6.4.8. Library and Information Science Database

6.4.9. Business and Medical Databases

6.5. Databases for Children and Young Adults

6.5.1. Highlights for Children

6.5.2. National Geographic Kids

6.5.3. Ranger Rick

7. Geography, Countries, and Travel

7.1. Major Geographic Information Resources Used

7.1.1. Gazetteer are text-based sources of information about geographic places and features.

7.1.1.1. Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online

7.1.1.1.1. Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary

7.1.2. Maps and Atlases are a way to visualize the world.

7.1.2.1. Major World Atlases

7.1.2.1.1. National Geographic Atlas of the World

7.1.2.1.2. Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World

7.1.2.2. Medium-Sized Atlases

7.1.2.2.1. Times Concise Atlas of the World

7.1.2.2.2. Hammond World Atlas

7.1.2.3. Desk and Student Atlases

7.1.2.3.1. Goode's World Atlas

7.1.2.4. Thematic Atlases usually have a narrow themes

7.1.2.4.1. Times History of the World

7.1.2.4.2. Atlas of World History

7.1.2.5. Historical Atlases provide information about the past or present,

7.1.2.5.1. Shepherd's Historical Atlas

7.1.2.5.2. Cartographica Extraordinaire: The Historical Map Transformed

7.1.2.6. Road Atlases and Maps

7.1.2.6.1. Rand McNally Road Atlas

7.1.2.6.2. Perry-Castaneda Library

7.1.2.6.3. National Geographic Society

7.1.2.6.4. Google Maps

7.1.3. U.S. Government Publications and Maps

7.1.3.1. U.S. Geological Survey

7.1.3.1.1. Provide geological, topographical, and GIS maps

7.1.3.1.2. EROS (Earth Centered Resources Observation Systems) Data Center

7.1.3.2. U.S. Census Bureau's Maps and Mapping

7.1.3.2.1. Provides maps that help visualize the information in the census.

7.1.3.2.2. Environmental Protection Agency

7.1.3.3. Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress

7.1.4. GIS (Geographic Information System)

7.1.5. Travel Guides

8. Lives of People-Biographical Information Sources

8.1. The Use of Biographical Resources-Provide information about the lives of both living and dead people.

8.1.1. Major Biographical Resources Used

8.1.1.1. Indexes are used to find the biography of a person

8.1.1.1.1. Biography and Genealogy Master Index

8.1.1.2. Biographies of Contemporary People

8.1.1.2.1. Marquis Who's Who Series

8.1.1.2.2. Current Biography

8.1.1.2.3. Newsmakers: The People Behind Today's Headlines

8.1.1.2.4. Biography.com

8.1.1.3. Retrospective Biography

8.1.1.3.1. Dictionary of American Biography (DAB)

8.1.1.3.2. American National Biography

8.1.1.3.3. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

8.1.1.4. Biographical Resources Featuring Ethnic/Cultural Heritage

8.1.1.4.1. Who's Who among African American

8.1.1.4.2. American National Biography

8.1.1.4.3. African American Biographical Database

9. Government Information Sources

9.1. Cover important issues covered in government publications and provides primary source material.

9.1.1. Depository Libraries

9.1.1.1. Regional depository libraries receive all items distributed to the depository system

9.1.1.1.1. The role of depository libraries is being reevaluated because government publications are available online

9.1.1.2. Selective depository libraries receive the materials that meet their needs

9.1.2. Major Government Publication Resources Used

9.1.2.1. Guides to U.S. Government

9.1.2.1.1. Fundamentals of Government Information

9.1.2.1.2. U.S. Government on the Web: Getting the Information You Need

9.1.2.1.3. Core Documents of U.S. Democracy

9.1.2.2. Directories

9.1.2.2.1. U.S. Government Manual provides information on government branches and agencies.

9.1.2.2.2. Congressional Directory

9.1.2.3. Publications by Branch of U.S. Government

9.1.2.3.1. Legislative Branch Publications

9.1.2.3.2. Executive Branch Publications

9.1.2.3.3. Judicial Branch Publications

9.1.2.3.4. Statistical Resources

9.1.2.3.5. Government Publications by Subject

10. Reference Sources for Children and Young Adults

10.1. Types of Reference Service Transactions for Youth in Libraries

10.1.1. Providing necessary information to serve children under 5.

10.1.1.1. Homework Centers are based on the needs of the intended populations they are serving.

10.1.2. Developmentally Appropriate Reference Services

10.1.2.1. This helps in the ongoing professional development of those working with youth in the areas of technologies, hot topics and concerns of youth,.

10.1.3. Reference Services for Youth with Special Needs

10.1.3.1. Librarians should be familiar with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in order to accommodate or assist children with special needs.

10.2. Communication in Reference Service

10.2.1. Communication with children when providing reference services requires librarians to exhibit excellent oral, listening, and writing skills, It is important that the librarian not appear "mean" but helpful.

10.3. Digital Reference Services

10.3.1. Online Searching is a skill librarians can teach children. They need to know the difference between search engines, directories, and databases their limitations and strengths.

10.3.2. Online Safety - Librarians must be aware of the positive and negative uses of social networking sites and their privacy setting and issues, and they should be able to guide both parents and students to instructional resources concerning Internet safety.

10.4. Managing Reference Services for Youth

10.4.1. Policies specific to the provision of youth services and resources include: Safety, Confidentiality,Copyright, Homework help, and Internet use.

11. Selecting and Evaluating Reference Materials

11.1. Identifying, Selecting, and Evaluating New Reference Materials

11.1.1. Sources of Reviews- Reviews help in obtaining information about reference materials.

11.1.1.1. Library Journal, School Library Journal, Choice and Reference and User Services Quarterly

11.1.2. Evaluation Criteria provide guidance and rationale for selection decisions.

11.1.2.1. Criteria Include: Scope, Quality of content, Authority of author and/or publisher, Accuracy of Content, Currency, Ease of Use, including usability, searching capabilities, and response time, Arrangement of material, Appropriateness to the audience/meeting user needs, Format and Cost

11.1.3. Management of Reference Budget-Librarians must learn to manage and maximize the library's reference budget. Budgets are generally set at the beginning of a year.

11.1.4. Weeding the Reference Collection

11.1.4.1. Criteria for weeding reference collections include: The content is no longer up to date; A new edition is available; The reference work is seldom used; The information is duplicated in another reference work; The book is physically damaged.

11.2. Promoting and Marketing Reference Materials to Library Users

11.2.1. Because of electronic resources reference materials have become more widely known.

11.2.1.1. Steps have been taken to make make reference collections among library users.

11.2.1.1.1. First Step: Staff should be made knowledgeable of all e-resources.

11.2.1.1.2. Second Step: For users, the library can feature a "database of the week" or month on the library's website.

12. Assessing and Improving Reference Services

12.1. What to Assess

12.1.1. Reference collection

12.1.2. Reference staff

12.1.3. Reference services

12.2. How to Assess

12.2.1. Th evaluation of reference services gauges the satisfaction of the end user.

12.2.1.1. Suggestion Boxes are easy and affordable.

12.2.1.2. Surveys tap into people's individual preferences.

12.2.1.3. In-House Surveys can be administered by staff as a routine task.

12.2.1.4. Telephone Surveys

12.2.1.5. Mailed Questionnaires

12.2.1.6. E-mail/Online Surveys

12.2.1.7. Interviews

12.2.1.8. Observations is simply the recording of what took place.

12.2.1.8.1. Direct Observation-An activity or service that is monitored and the observations are recorded.

12.2.1.8.2. Hidden Observation-Students are asked to observe and record reference interviews being conducted by librarians but staff is unaware they are being observed.

12.2.1.8.3. Self-Imposed Observations-Examples include: transaction diaries, journals, preset forms, and reference activity notebooks

12.2.1.9. Focus Groups

12.2.1.9.1. Ideal dimensions include: Unbiased, un-self-conscious, and trained facilitators; Six to twelve participants; forty-five to ninety-five minute sessions; six to ten questions; and a minimum of 3 groups for an investigation

12.2.1.10. Case Studies

12.2.1.10.1. Case studies are used for: Multiplicity of assessment instruments; Greater depth of evaluative understanding; Greater reliability and Relative limited replicability

12.3. Acting on Assessments

12.3.1. Quantiify

12.3.1.1. Using statistical analysis of collected data to to use in major funding.

12.3.2. Strategize

12.3.2.1. Using specific questions to clarify assessment needs when choosing both the level and type of assessment technique.

12.3.3. Visualize

12.3.3.1. Using scenarios to act upon certain assessments

12.4. Ongoing Assessments: An Imperative

12.4.1. Assessments affect a decision maker who must decide which of multiple alternatives is the best choice; a manager who must allocate resources to one of reference activity over another. Each reference library will of necessity need to establish what makes their reference environment successful and what to project as its long-range reference needs.

13. Reference 2.0

13.1. What is the 2.0 Universe?

13.1.1. Collaboration refers to cooperative content creation. Such as wikis, microblogs and podcasting.

13.1.2. Social networking which deal with "where people are". Such as Facebook and LinkedIn

13.1.3. Customization which deal with widgets, RSS feeds and mashup initiatives,

13.1.4. Seamlessness is global, transparent platforms that allow for seamlessness between mediums such as in IM and SMS and mobile references.

13.2. Cooperative Content Creation

13.2.1. Reference Wikis

13.2.1.1. Ready Reference

13.2.1.2. Subject Guides

13.2.1.3. Reference Instruction and Manuals

13.2.1.4. Project Management

13.2.2. Reference Blogs, Microblogs, and Podcasts

13.2.2.1. Reference Blogs as Campus Newsletters

13.2.2.2. Reference Blogs as Reader's Advisory

13.2.2.3. Reference Blogs as In-House Communication

13.2.2.4. Reference Blogs as News Bulletins

13.2.2.5. Reference Blogs as Personal Statement

13.2.2.6. Microblogs

13.2.2.7. Podcasts

13.2.3. Customization

13.2.3.1. Widgets Used for Reference

13.2.3.1.1. Search

13.2.3.1.2. Information Organizing

13.2.3.1.3. Collaboration