Positive Classroom Management

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Positive Classroom Management by Mind Map: Positive Classroom Management

1. Within Inclusive Classrooms (Manning & Bucher, 2013)

1.1. Peer Mediated Strategies

1.1.1. Reverse Role Tutoring

1.1.2. Learning Together

1.1.3. Class-Wide Peer Tutoring

1.2. Social Interaction

1.3. Involves family and caregivers

1.4. Behaviour Support Plans

1.5. Collaboration

1.5.1. Co-Teaching

2. Process-Outcome Research

2.1. Findings

2.1.1. Classroom Management Variables

2.1.1.1. Classroom rules

2.1.1.2. Encourage smooth transitions

2.1.1.3. Focus on beginning of the year management activities

2.1.1.4. Efficient use of learning time

2.1.1.5. Monitoring student performance

2.1.1.6. Communicating awareness of classroom behaviour

2.1.2. Instruction Variables

2.1.2.1. Teacher directed learning

2.1.2.2. High levels of ASR

2.1.2.3. Guided Student Practice

2.1.2.3.1. Scaffolding

2.1.2.3.2. Multiple Opportunities for Practice

2.1.2.4. Flexible instruction

2.1.2.5. Cooperative learning

2.1.2.6. Humour and enthusiasm

2.1.2.7. Motivational strategies to foster goal development

2.2. Criticisms

2.2.1. Conceptual

2.2.1.1. Non-portable (specific to classroom)

2.2.1.2. Assumes teaching is linear (if you do this, you will have success)

2.2.1.3. Fails to account for student variables

2.2.2. Methodological

2.2.2.1. Is the behaviour during the observation representative of behaviour the rest of the time

2.2.2.2. Is enough data collected to produce valuable results

2.2.3. Application

2.2.3.1. Potential for misapplication of findings

3. Mindsets

3.1. Growth Mindset

3.1.1. Frameworks

3.1.1.1. Weiner (1974) Attribution Theory

3.1.1.1.1. Resiliency leads to positive mindset

3.1.1.1.2. Motivation to face challenges

3.1.1.1.3. Success is due to effort

3.1.1.2. Deci (1997)

3.1.1.2.1. Student motivation increases when school environment satisfies needs

3.1.1.2.2. Students feel connected, welcomed

3.1.1.2.3. Autonomous, self -determination, respected

3.1.1.2.4. Need to feel compent and accomplished

3.1.2. What characteristics lead to an effective student? How can these characteristics be encouraged in the classroom?

3.1.2.1. Effective Students

3.1.2.1.1. Sense of ownership over work

3.1.2.1.2. Supportive relationship with teacher

3.1.2.1.3. Interact respectfully with peers

3.1.2.1.4. Making mistakes is part of the process

3.1.2.1.5. Realize they are in control

3.1.3. What elements result in effective teaching? What must a teacher change to be effective?

3.1.3.1. Effective Teachers

3.1.3.1.1. Accommodations and fairness

3.1.3.1.2. Provide opportunities to assist others

3.1.3.1.3. Give chances for choice and problem solving

3.1.3.1.4. Involve students in decision making

3.1.3.1.5. Create positive, open relationships with students

3.1.3.1.6. Mistakes are okay!

3.1.3.1.7. Realize life long impact on students

3.1.3.1.8. Empathy

3.1.3.1.9. Appropriate use of discipline

3.1.3.1.10. Specific praise

3.2. Fixed Mindset

3.2.1. Negative Attributions

3.2.1.1. May stem from desire to avoid criticism or humiliation (Brooks, 2002)

3.2.1.2. Interpret success as "lucky"

3.2.1.3. Deciding factors are not in the student's control

4. Supportive Classroom Management Models

4.1. Democratic Teaching and Management (Dreikurs, 1968)

4.1.1. Mistaken Goals

4.1.1.1. Attention Getting

4.1.1.2. Power Seeking

4.1.1.3. Revenge

4.1.1.4. Feelings of Inadequacy

4.1.2. Democratic Teaching

4.1.3. More encouragement, less praise

4.1.4. Logical Consequences

4.2. Cooperative Discipline (Albert, 1995)

4.2.1. Four Causes of Misbehaviour

4.2.1.1. Attention

4.2.1.2. Power

4.2.1.3. Revenge

4.2.1.4. Avoidance of Failure

4.2.2. Influence vs, Control

4.2.3. Encouragement Strategies

4.2.3.1. Capable

4.2.3.2. Connect

4.2.3.3. Contribute

4.2.4. Enlisting Parent Support

4.3. Positive Discipline (Nelson, Lott & Glenn, 1997)

4.3.1. Significant Seven

4.3.1.1. Three Empowering Perceptions

4.3.1.1.1. Personal Capabilities

4.3.1.1.2. Primary Relationships

4.3.1.1.3. Opportunity for Influence

4.3.1.2. Four Essential Skills

4.3.1.2.1. Intrapersonal

4.3.1.2.2. Interpersonal

4.3.1.2.3. Systemic

4.3.1.2.4. Judgment

4.3.2. Barriers and Builders

4.3.2.1. 1. Assuming vs Checking

4.3.2.2. 2. Rescuing vs. Exploring

4.3.2.3. 3. Directing vs. Inviting

4.3.2.4. 4. Expecting vs. Celebrating

4.3.2.5. 5. Adultism vs Respecting

4.3.3. Eight Building Blocks of Class Meetings

4.4. Judicious Discipline (Gathercoal, 2001)

4.4.1. Citizen Approach

4.4.2. Professional Ethics

4.4.3. Judicious Consequences

4.4.4. Respect Student Rights

4.4.5. Behavioural Guidelines

4.5. Discipline with Dignity (Curwin & Mendler)

4.5.1. Principles for Addressing Problem Behaviour

4.5.1.1. 1. Long term effects vs short term efforts

4.5.1.2. 2. Stop doing ineffective things

4.5.1.3. 3. Treating students equally and fairly

4.5.1.4. 4. Enforcing rules that make sense

4.5.1.5. 5. Model what is expected

4.5.1.6. 6. Responsibility before obedience

4.5.1.7. 7. Treat student with dignity

4.5.2. Social Contracts

5. Effective School Consultation

5.1. Collaboration

5.1.1. Appropriate support systems for beginning teachers

5.2. Improving a teacher's skills and repertoire of interventions

5.3. Within-school consultation models versus external professional visits

5.4. Regular performance feedback

6. Problem Behaviour Management

6.1. Noncompliance

6.1.1. "Choosing" to be non-compliant vs. behaviour disorders

6.1.2. How to define Problem Behaviour (Wood, 1979)

6.1.2.1. 1. What/Who is the focus of the problem

6.1.2.2. 2. Define the problem

6.1.2.3. 3. How does the environment impact the student's problem?

6.1.2.4. 4. How does the problem impact the environment?

6.1.3. Exclusion (Romi, Lewis & Salkovsky, 2015)

6.1.3.1. Fine line between behaviour management and social isolation

6.1.3.2. Ensure time in classroom involves praise of on-task and appropriate behaviour

6.1.3.3. Warnings and other methods of punishment before exclusion

6.1.3.4. Follow up discussion after exclusion

6.2. Compliance

6.2.1. Learned Behaviour

6.2.1.1. Multiple opportunities to practice skill with reinforcement

7. Positive Student-Teacher Relationships

7.1. Characteristics of Effective Teacher-Student Relationships (Bender, 2003)

7.1.1. Taking personal interest in students

7.1.2. Establish clear learning goals

7.1.3. Modeling positive behaviours

7.1.4. Create individualized strategies

7.1.5. Show awareness of high need students and meet their needs

7.2. Strategies to build relationships (Rogers & Renard, 1999)

7.2.1. Build empathy

7.2.2. Admire negative attitudes and behaviour (redirect)

7.2.3. Leave the ego at the door

7.3. Promoting Positive Self-Esteem (Demirdag, 2015)

7.3.1. Teachers need to understand basic developmental needs as students grow older

7.3.2. Encourage a sense of belonging; be aware of alientaion

7.3.3. Set high expectations: all students are capable of learning

7.4. Modeling morals and values (Fallona & Richardson, 2006)

7.4.1. Implicit teaching

7.4.1.1. Focucs on moral activities within typical classroom activities (embedded)

7.4.2. Explicit teaching

7.4.2.1. Prescriptive teaching that fosters student morality through intentional activities

8. BURNING QUESTION:                                               What can an educator do to promote a positive classroom environment, that is not reliant on resources, funding or administrative approval to first be in place?

8.1. Promote independence, responsibility and resilience

8.2. Model and teach students to adopt a growth mindset

8.3. Develop a positive relationship with students

8.4. Take time at the beginning of the year to promote clear behavioural expectations and practice transitions

8.5. Incorporate humour, enthusiasm and cooperative strategies in daily learning

8.6. Be sensitive to cultural differences in a classroom

8.7. Incorporate peer mediated strategies of learning

8.8. Develop a rapport with parents, caregivers and community members involved in a student's life

8.9. Share ideas and troubleshoot with other teachers in the school

8.10. Consider greater complexity: be cautious before assigning functions to behaviour

9. Teacher Student Control Continuum (Glickman & Wolfgang, 1980)

9.1. Low teacher control + high student control = non-interventionist

9.1.1. Students primarily responsible for control

9.1.2. Students develop rules with teacher guidance

9.1.3. Focus on thoughts and feelings

9.1.4. Students allowed time to control behaviour

9.1.5. Interventions: non verbal cues, individualized interventions

9.2. Medium student control + medium student control = interactionalists

9.2.1. Shared control

9.2.2. Teacher develops rules with student input

9.2.3. Focus on behaviour followed by feelings

9.2.4. Students allowed some time to control behaviour but teacher protects group rights

9.2.5. Interventions: consequences, class meetings

9.3. High teacher control + low student control = interventionists

9.3.1. Teacher primarily controls

9.3.2. Teacher develops rules

9.3.3. Primary focus on behaviour

9.3.4. Minor emphasis on individual differences

9.3.5. Teacher moves quickly to control behaviour

9.3.6. Interventions: rewards, punishments

9.3.6.1. Token Economy

10. Culturally Responsive Classroom Management

10.1. Recognize one's own cultural lens and biases

10.2. Develop knowledge of student cultural backgrounds

10.2.1. Read literature that reflects identities in the classroom

10.2.2. Family history projects

10.2.3. Home visits and caregiver consultations

10.3. Be aware of the broader social, economic and political contexts

10.3.1. Examine structures and policies as a class

10.3.2. Create a critical/social justice classroom

10.4. Flexibility to use culturally appropriate management strategies

10.4.1. Maps, signs, banners, posters, photos, books

10.4.2. Kindness box

10.4.3. Seat students in clusters to promote peer interactions and group work

10.5. Building caring classroom communities

10.5.1. Initiate out of class conversations with students outside of the classroom

10.5.2. Set a positive tone for students as they enter the class

10.5.3. Show interest in students as individuals