modal verbs

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modal verbs by Mind Map: modal verbs

1. modal auxiliaries+simple form of verb

1.1. had better

1.1.1. advisability

1.1.2. examples you had better be your umbrella with you today.

1.2. can

1.2.1. informal polite requests can you pass the sugar? yes,be glad to

1.2.2. ability present can he swim ? yes, he can no,he can't past i could swim when i was young,but now i can't.

1.2.3. informal permission future you can use my phone tomorrow

1.2.4. impossibility (negative only) futuer that can't be availabel past that can't have  been available

1.3. could

1.3.1. polite requests could you pass me the sugar? yes,of course

1.3.2. past ability could he swim when he was 5 years old? yes,he could no, he could not

1.3.3. suggestion (affirmative only ) present i need help in English grammar. you could talk to your teacher. past you could have talked to your teacher.

1.3.4. certainty present where is Rana ? she could be at home. past she could have been at home.

1.3.5. impossibility ( negative only) present that couldn't be true past that couldn't have  been true

1.4. may

1.4.1. polite requests used only with I,WE may i borrow your pen? yes, you may no, you may not

1.4.2. formal permission you may leave the class .

1.4.3. certainty present where is Bayan? she may be at the library past she may have been at the library

1.5. might

1.5.1. polite requests might me i borrow your book ? yes,of course no, you might not

1.5.2. certainty present wher is Marya ? she might be at the school past she might have been at the school

1.6. ought to

1.6.1. advisability present i ought to study tonight. past i ought to have studied last night,but i didn't

1.6.2. expectation future she ought to do well on the test tomorrow . past she ought to done well on the test.

1.7. shall

1.7.1. future i shall go to the party.

1.7.2. only with we or I

1.7.3. polite question to make a suggestion shall i open the door? yes, of course no, the wither is not good.

1.8. should

1.8.1. examples you should study hard. should i study hard ? yes,you should no, you shouldn't

1.8.2. advisability

1.9. will

1.9.1. polite requests will you bring my cote? sure i would like to bring it ,but i am busy

1.9.2. willingness the bell's ringing. i'll open the door

1.9.3. certainty she will be here at 6:00

1.10. must

1.10.1. necessity present all student must study for the exam. past i had to go to the party yesterday.

1.10.2. prohipition (negative) you must not smoke in the plane.

1.10.3. certainty present tamadhur is not in class .she must be sick. past tamadhur must have been sick yesterday.

1.11. would

1.11.1. polite requests asking permission would you mind if i closed the AC? yes, i  would mind no ,not at all asking some one to do something would you mind closing the door? sure yes ,i would mind

1.11.2. preeference present i would rather go to the bark than stay home. past i would rather have gone to the bark .

1.11.3. repeated action in the past when i as a child,i would visit my grandparents every weekend .

1.11.4. polite for 'want'(with like) present i would like a cake,please.

1.11.5. unfulfilled wish past i would have liked an apples,but there were none in the home.

2. phrasal modals +infinitive

2.1. be able to

2.1.1. ability

2.1.2. examples present i am able to clean the room. future i will be able to clean the room. past i was able to clean the room .

2.2. be going to

2.2.1. prediction future i am going to be here at 7 :00 pm .

2.2.2. definite plan future i am going to clean my home

2.2.3. unfulfilled intention past i was going to my home ,but i didn't have time

2.3. be supposed to

2.3.1. expectation the party is supposed to begin at 8:00

2.3.2. unfulfilled expectation the party was supposed to begin at 8:00 ,but it began at 9:00.

2.4. have to

2.4.1. necessity present i have to study for the exam today. past i had to study for the exam yesterday.

2.4.2. lack of necessity present i don't have to study for the exam today. past i didn't have to study for the exam yesterday.

2.5. have got to

2.5.1. necessity present i have go to go to class today. past i had to go to class yesterday.

3. express

3.1. necessary

3.2. advisable

3.3. permissible

3.4. possible