There are 14 disability categories covered under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ...

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There are 14 disability categories covered under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA defines a disability as follows: A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematic equations by Mind Map: There are 14 disability categories covered under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA defines a disability as follows: A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematic equations

1. Accommodations for Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

2. Autism

2.1. IDEA definition: a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

2.2. What is Autism?

3. Deaf-Blindness

3.1. IDEA Definition: concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

4. Deafness

4.1. IDEA defintion: a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.

5. Developmental Delay

5.1. IDEA definition: for children from birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B), the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

6. Emotional Disturbance

6.1. IDEA definition: a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

7. Hearing Impaired

7.1. IDEA definition: an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of ‘deafness

8. Intellectual Disability

8.1. IDEA definition: significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

9. Multiple Disabilities

9.1. IDEA Definition: means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness

10. Orthopedic Impairment

10.1. IDEA definition: a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” IDEA specifies that this term “includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly [birth defects], impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

11. Other Health Impairment

11.1. IDEA definition: having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis [a kidney disorder], rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance

12. Specific Learning Disability

12.1. IDEA definition: a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations

13. Speech or Language Impairment

13.1. IDEA definition: a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

14. Traumatic Brain Injury

14.1. IDEA definition: an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

15. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Students on the Autism Spectrum: Give visual instructions, lists and use visual classroom schedules Use consistent classroom routines Watch for signs of anxiety or sensory overload, and designate an area for self-calming Make use of transitions (have a routine for transitions from one activity to another) Organize the room with clear areas or centers where one type of learning activity is performed, and label them with visuals Structure worksheets (highlight rules, provide numbered steps, etc) Teach student how to utilize a daily planner with color coding Examples of Possible Interventions for Students on the Autism Spectrum: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): ABA is defined as the process of applying behavioral principles to change specific behaviors and simultaneously evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention. ABA emphasizes both prevention and remediation of problem behavior. Significant attention is given to the social and physical environment, including the antecedent conditions and consequences that elicit and maintain behavior Social Skills Training Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Medication Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices and tools (especially for those who are non-verbal). Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Visual Supports Computer-aided Instruction Play therapy (n-d). Intervention Strategies for Teaching Students with ASD in Inclusive Classrooms. Retrieved from Doobay, Alissa, PhD. and Lindgren, Scott, PhD. (May 2011). Evidence-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016.

16. ABA Classroom Case Studies

17. Autism is referred to as a spectrum disorder, which means that it presents in very different ways and to greater or lesser degrees in individuals. As is mentioned in the video, What is autism?, some people who are on the autism spectrum may hold demanding jobs and be independent, while others may need intensive care and support throughout their lives.

18. The prevalence of autism is increasing, but nobody really knows why.

19. What are the characteristics of autism? The degree of severity of characteristics differs from person to person, but usually includes the following: Severe delays in language development. Language is slow to develop, if it develops at all. If it does develop, it usually includes peculiar speech patterns or the use of words without attachment to their normal meaning. Those who are able to use language effectively may still use unusual metaphors or speak in a formal and monotone voice. Severe delays in understanding social relationships. The autistic child often avoids eye contact, resists being picked up, and seems to "tune out" the world around him. This results in a lack of cooperative play with peers, an impaired ability to develop friendships, and an inability to understand other people's feelings. Inconsistent Patterns of sensory responses. The child who has autism at times may appear to be deaf and fail to respond to words or other sounds. At other times, the same child may be extremely distressed by an everyday noise such as a vacuum cleaner or a dog's barking. The child also may show an apparent insensitivity to pain and a lack of responsiveness to cold or heat, or may over-react to any of these. Uneven patterns of intellectual functioning. The individual may have peak skills - scattered things done quite well in relation to overall functioning - such as drawing, music, computations in math, or memorization of facts with no regard to importance or lack of it. On the other hand, the majority of autistic persons have varying degrees of mental retardation, with only 20 percent having average or above-average intelligence. This combination of intellectual variations makes autism especially perplexing. Marked restriction of activity and interests. A person who has autism may perform repetitive body movements, such as hand flicking, twisting, spinning, or rocking. This individual may also display repetition by following the same route, the same order of dressing, or the same schedule everyday, etc. If changes occur in these routines, the preoccupied child or adult usually becomes very distressed. Reference:  UNC School of Medicine (1999). Autism Primer: Twenty Questions and Answers by TEACCH and Autism Society of North Carolina. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016.

20. Teaching Strategies for Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: Provide repetition and consistency Demonstrate new tasks, state instructions, and provide examples to illustrate ideas and concepts Avoid figurative language Reinforce lengthening periods of attention to appropriate tasks Probe skill acquisition frequently and provide repeated practice Teach compensatory strategies for increasing memory Be prepared for students' reduced stamina and increased fatigue and provide rest breaks as needed Keep the environment as distraction-free as possible Give the student more time to finish schoolwork and tests Give directions one step at a time. For tasks with many steps, it helps to give the student written directions Show the student how to perform new tasks. Give examples to go with new ideas and concepts Have consistent routines. This helps the student know what to expect. If the routine is going to change, let the student know ahead of time Check to make sure that the student has actually learned the new skill. Give the student lots of opportunities to practice the new skill Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule. This helps the student get organized Realize that the student may tire quickly. Let the student rest as needed Reduce distractions Keep in touch with the student's parents. Share information about how the student is doing at home and at school Be flexible about expectations. Be patient. Maximize the student's chances for success Assistive Technology: calendar boards schedule organizers voice organizers medication reminders Smartphones specialized watches PDA devices speech recognition software screen reading software tinted overlays for reading (this may help with visual processing) academic software packages for students with disabilities Project IDEAL (2013). Traumatic Brain Injury. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016.

21. Children who sustain TBI may experience a complex array of problems, including the following: Medical/Neurological Symptoms: speech, vision, hearing and other sensory impairment, decreased motor coordination, difficulty breathing, dizziness, headaches, impaired balance, loss of intellectual capacities, partial to full paralysis, reduced body strength, seizures, sleep disorders, and speech problems. Cognitive Symptoms: decreased attention, organizational skills, and problem solving ability; difficulty with abstract concepts; memory deficits; perceptual problems; poor concentration, poor judgment; slowed information processing, and poor memory. Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms: aggressive behavior, denial of deficits, depression, difficulty accepting and responding to change, loss of reduction of inhibitions, distractibility, feelings of worthlessness, lack of emotion, low frustration level, helplessness, impulsivity, inappropriate crying or laughing, and irritability. Social Skills Development: difficulties maintaining relationships, inability to restrict socially inappropriate behaviors, inappropriate responses to the environment, insensitivity to others' feelings, limited initiation of social interactions, and social isolation. Any or all of the above impairments may occur to different degrees. The nature of the injury and its attendant problems can range from mild to severe, and the course of recovery is very difficult to predict for any given student. It is important to note that with early and ongoing therapeutic intervention the severity of these symptoms may decrease, but only in varying degrees. Project IDEAL (2013). Traumatic Brain Injury. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016.

22. Students with TBI are too often inappropriately classified as having learning disabilities, emotional disturbance, or mental retardation

23. Subcategories: Autism Asperger Syndrome Rett Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS)

24. Subcategories: Articulation | speech impairments where the child produces sounds incorrectly (e.g., lisp, difficulty articulating certain sounds, such as “l” or “r”); Fluency | speech impairments where a child’s flow of speech is disrupted by sounds, syllables, and words that are repeated, prolonged, or avoided and where there may be silent blocks or inappropriate inhalation, exhalation, or phonation patterns; Voice | speech impairments where the child’s voice has an abnormal quality to its pitch, resonance, or loudness; and Language | language impairments where the child has problems expressing needs, ideas, or information, and/or in understanding what others say. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (January 2011). Speech and Language Impairments Fact Sheet. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016.

25. Interventions/Accommodations: Focus on interactive communication. Use active listening. Incorporate the student’s interests into speech. Ensure that the student has a way to appropriately express their wants and needs. Reinforce communication attempts (e.g. their gestures, partial verbalizations) when the student is non-verbal or emerging verbal. Paraphrase back what the student has said or indicated. Use linguistic scaffolding techniques that involve a series of questions. Have speech therapist present language units to the entire class. Use computers in the classroom for language enhancement. Use tactile and visual cues (e.g., pictures, 3-D objects). Develop a procedure for the student to ask for help. Speak directly to the student. Be a good speech model. Have easy and good interactive communication in classroom. Consult a speech language pathologist concerning your assignments and activities.Be aware that students may require another form of communication. Use a peer-buddy system when appropriate. Devise alternate procedures for an activity with student. Use gestures that support understanding. Model correct speech patterns and avoid correcting speech difficulties. Be patient when student is speaking, since rushing may result in frustration. Reduce unnecessary classroom noise as much as possible. Be near the student when giving instructions and ask the student to repeat the instructions and prompt when necessary. Provide verbal clues often. Provide a quiet spot for the student to work if possible. Speak clearly and deliberately. Provide visual cues - on the board or chart paper. Redirect the student frequently and provide step by step directions - repeating when necessary. Allow students to tape lectures. Allow more time for the student to complete activities. Design tests and presentations that are appropriate for the student (written instead of oral). Divide academic goals into small units, utilizing the same theme. Assistive Technology: Computer Software Augmentative or Alternative Communication (AAC) (2016). Speech or Language Impairment (SLI) Strategies. Retrieved from: on October 12, 2016.

26. Augmentative or Alternative Communication (AAC)

27. CASE STUDIES: Wickham, Katherine J. (2013). Preschoolers with Speech and Language Impairment: Case Studies from a Teacher Delivered Phonological Awareness Program. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016. Link to document:

28. Characteristics of Students with Intellectual Disability Students with intellectual disability may: sit up, crawl, or walk later than other students learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking find it hard to remember things not understand how to pay for things have trouble understanding social rules have trouble seeing the consequences of their actions have trouble solving problems have trouble thinking logically exhibit failure to meet intellectual developmental markers exhibit persistence of infantile behavior lack curiosity have decreased learning ability have an inability to meet educational demands of school American Academy of Special Education Professionals. Chapter 8 - Intellectual Disability. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016.

29. Until 2010, this disability was referred to in IDEA as mental retardation.

30. Interventions and Strategies: Use short and simple sentences to ensure understanding. Repeat instructions or directions frequently. Ask student if further clarification is necessary. Keep distractions and transitions to a minimum. Teach specific skills whenever necessary. Provide an encouraging and supportive learning environment. Use alternative instructional strategies and alternative assessment methods. Explicitly teach organizational skills. Use concrete items and examples to explain new concepts. Do not overwhelm a student with multiple or complex instructions. Be explicit about what it is you want the student to do. Avoid long, complex words, technical words, or jargon. Ask one question at a time and provide adequate time for student to reply. Use heavy visual cues (e.g. objects, pictures, models, or diagrams) to promote understanding. Target functional academics that will best prepare student for independent living and vocational contexts. Provide frequent opportunities for students to learn and socialize with typically developing peers. Involve the student in group activities and clubs. Provide daily social skills instruction. Directly teach social skills, such as turn-taking, social distance, reciprocal conversations, etc. Break down social skills into non-verbal and verbal components. Explains rules / rationales behind social exchanges. (2016). Intellectual Disability Strategies. Retrieved from: on October 12, 2016.

31. Video: Adapting Activities for People with Intellectual Disabilities

32. Interventions and Strategies: Individuals who are deafblind will often need touch in order for them to be sure that their partner shares their focus of attention. Exploring objects should be done in a "nondirective" way, allowing the individual who is deafblind to have control The individual may have very slow response times. Therefore, the teacher should allow time for the student to respond. Symbolic communication can be utilized by individuals who are deafblind. The principal communication systems include: Touch cues Object symbols Sign language Gestures Picture symbols Fingerspelling Signed English Braille American Sign Language Lip-reading speech Pidgin Signed English Tadoma method of speech reading Large print Many of the teaching strategies for individuals with visual impairments and hearing impairments can be used with individuals who are deafblind with modifications made for the communications needs of the individual. Assistive Technology: Computer Adaptations: Braille translation software: converts print into Braille and Braille into print Braille printer: connects to a computer and embosses Braille on paper Screen reader: converts text on a computer screen to audible speech Screen enlargement software: increases the size of text and images on a computer screen Refreshable Braille display: converts text on computer to Braille by an output device connect to the computer Adaptive Devices: Braille notetakers: lightweight electronic note-taking device that can be connected to a printer or a Braille embosser to produce a printed copy Optical character reader: converts printed text into files that can be translated into audible speech or Braille Electronic braillewriter: produces Braille, translates Braille into text or synthetic speech Telecommunication Devices: In order for individuals who are deafblind to communicate using the telephone, they may use a telecommunication device for the deaf (TDD) that includes braille output. A TDD is a small keyboard with a display and modem. To use the TDD the individual must relay information to an operator. Text messaging has recently become a very useful avenue for individuals with hearing impairments to relay messages without using the TDD. Project IDEAL (2013). Deaf-Blindness. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016.

33. Subcategories: neuromotor impairments (cerebral palsy and spinal bifida) degenerative diseases (muscular dystrophy) musculoskeletal disorders (rheumatoid arthritis and limb deficiency)

34. Strategies/Interventions Special Therapies: Occupational therapy, Physical therapy, Speech-Language therapy, Massage therapy, Music therapy Strategies and Accommodations vary greatly for students with orthopedic impairment. Many students with orthopedic impairments will have no cognitive deficiency, so their requirements are mainly to the physical space, and may include: Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly) Students may also need canes, walkers, crutches, wheelchairs, specialized exercise equipment or specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development Assistive Technology: There are many types of assistive technology available to students with orthopedic impairments. These include: speech recognition software screen reading software augmentative and alternative communication devices (such as communication boards) academic software packages for students with disabilities Project IDEAL (2013). Orthopedic Impairments. Retrieved from on October 12, 2016.

35. Assistive Technology for Cerebral Palsy:

36. Case Study: Student with Cerebral Palsy with Intellectual Disability and No Augmentative and Alternative Communication C.A. is in first grade and is having difficulty with reading and writing. She has some difficulty with articulation and often runs out of breath while speaking. She is diagnosed with cerebral palsy, visual impairments, and cognitive impairments. C.A. uses a wheelchair and a walker at school. C.A. has emerging phonemic awareness for the first sound in words starting with consonants. She understands the sound-symbol relationship for all consonants and has emerging knowledge for vowels. She is able to read only two sight words, “I” and “you.” C.A. demonstrates increased reading skills when provided with picture cues for stories as well as when reading books with repetitive lines or when one or two words vary in sentences. She is able to access a standard keyboard, though she types more than one repetition of her letters as well as incorrect letters because she activates keys with the heel of her hand. She is able to produce sentences using a word bank paired with pictures with 10 to 14 words in the bank, with the words color-coded by parts of speech and set up in a subject-verb-object format, when provided with auditory feedback. She showed emerging skills with word prediction, with “predict ahead” turned on and when provided with help to sound out the letters in words. As C.A. has impulsivity issues, she did best when a process for using the computer was reviewed with her. She used visuals of words paired with pictures posted by the computer as well as color-coding for the words in her word/picture bank. She was able to use a standard mouse with an enlarged cursor, and a screen with a white background and a larger-sized text. She was able to find and locate letters on the standard keyboard using a keyguard to increase her accuracy and when the “key repeat” was turned on in the system preferences. C.A. benefited from the use of a portable amplifier in the classroom when speaking in groups to increase her loudness level, as well as from providing the topic when people had difficulty understanding her. She also benefited from supported seating positions whenever doing fine motor tasks, including a wheelchair tray and adapted chairs and tables at the correct height. Connecticut State Department of Education (2014). Case Studies. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

37. Deafblind children may work with an intervenor. What is an intervenor?

38. Interventions, Accommodations and Assistive Technologies There are many special education students who suffer from two or several disabilities concomitantly. Of course the interventions and accommodations for such students will vary widely depending on which disabilities they suffer from. Interventions for students with multiple disabilities will need to be highly individualized, taking into account the nature and degree of the various disabilities present. An IEP for a student with multiple disabilities may draw on education-based interventions available for the different types of disabilities the student is struggling with. For example, a student who is blind and has autism may benefit from some of the interventions appropriate for blind students in combination with those available to students with his or her type and degree of autism. In addition, any assistive technologies available for each of the individual disabilities may be incorporated when possible.

39. Understanding Multiple Disabilities

40. Specific Learning Disabilities include: Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): Also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder, this is a condition that adversely affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed or interpreted by the brain. Individuals with APD do not recognize subtle differences between sounds in words, even when the sounds are loud and clear enough to be heard. They can also find it difficult to tell where sounds are coming from, to make sense of the order of sounds, or to block out competing background noises. Dyscalculia: A specific learning disability that affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts. Individuals with this type of LD may also have poor comprehension of math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing numbers, have difficulty telling time, or have trouble with counting. Dysgraphia: A specific learning disability that affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills. Problems may include illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing as well as thinking and writing at the same time. Dyslexia: A specific learning disability that affects reading and related language-based processing skills. The severity can differ in each individual but can affect reading fluency, decoding, reading comprehension, recall, writing, spelling, and sometimes speech and can exist along with other related disorders. Dyslexia is sometimes referred to as a Language-Based Learning Disability. Language Processing Disorder: A specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) in which there is difficulty attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories. While an APD affects the interpretation of all sounds coming into the brain, a Language Processing Disorder (LPD) relates only to the processing of language. LPD can affect expressive language and/or receptive language. Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities: A disorder which is usually characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and weaker motor, visual-spatial and social skills. Typically, an individual with NLD (or NVLD) has trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language, and may have poor coordination. Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit: A disorder that affects the understanding of information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy. A characteristic seen in people with learning disabilities such as Dysgraphia or Non-verbal LD, it can result in missing subtle differences in shapes or printed letters, losing place frequently, struggles with cutting, holding pencil too tightly, or poor eye/hand coordination. Dyspraxia: A disorder that is characterized by difficulty in muscle control, which causes problems with movement and coordination, language and speech, and can affect learning. Although not a learning disability, dyspraxia often exists along with dyslexia, dyscalculia or ADHD. Learning Disabilities Association of America (2016). Types of Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

41. Visual Impairment Including Blindness

41.1. IDEA definition: An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

42. In addition to interventions appropriate for each specific learning disability, there are some accommodations that could be helpful for students with learning disabilities in general. These may include: Presentation: Provide on audio tape Provide in large print Reduce number of items per page or line Provide a designated reader Present instructions orally Response: Allow for verbal responses Allow for answers to be dictated to a scribe Allow the use of a tape recorder to capture responses Permit responses to be given via computer Permit answers to be recorded directly into test booklet Timing: Allow frequent breaks Extend allotted time for a test Setting: Provide preferential seating Provide special lighting or acoustics Provide a space with minimal distractions Administer a test in small group setting Administer a test in private room or alternative test site Test Scheduling: Administer a test in several timed sessions or over several days Allow subtests to be taken in a different order Administer a test at a specific time of day Other: Provide special test preparation Provide on-task/focusing prompts Provide any reasonable accommodation that a student needs that does not fit under the existing categories National Center for Learning Disabilities (2006). Accommodations for Students with LD. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

43. Example Interventions/Accommodations and Assistive Technology for Students with Dyslexia: Multi sensory Structured Language Teaching: Effective instruction for students with dyslexia is explicit, direct, cumulative, intensive, and focused on the structure of language. This is the idea of structured language instruction. Multisensory learning involves the use of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile pathways simultaneously to enhance memory and learning of written language. Links are consistently made between the visual (language we see), auditory (language we hear), and kinesthetic-tactile (language symbols we feel) pathways in learning to read and spell. Clarify or simplify written instructions Block out extraneous stimuli Have students turn paper vertically for math Encourage use of graphic organizers Simultaneously combine visual and verbal information Highlight essential information Use an audio recording device Provide a copy of lesson notes Use mnemonic instruction Use assignment adjusting or substitution (i.e. oral report instead for written) Assistive Technology: tablets, electronic readers/dictionaries/spellers, text to speech programs, audio books, and more can be very useful tools.

43.1. General problems experienced by people with dyslexia include the following: Learning to speak Learning letters and their sounds Organizing written and spoken language Memorizing number facts Reading quickly enough to comprehend Keeping up with and comprehending longer reading assignments Spelling Learning a foreign language Correctly doing math operations Some specific signs for elementary aged children may include: Difficulty with remembering simple sequences such as counting to 20, naming the days of the week, or reciting the alphabet Difficulty understanding the rhyming of words, such as knowing that fat rhymes with cat Trouble recognizing words that begin with the same sound (for example, that bird, baby”, and big all start with b) Pronunciation difficulties Trouble easily clapping hands to the rhythm of a song

43.2. The International Dyslexia Association (2013). Dyslexia in the Classroom: What Every Teacher Needs to Know. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

44. Specific Information for Students with Dyslexia

45. Case Study for a Dyslexic Student: Grace Grace has a diagnosis of dyslexia. She has trouble with visual scanning, processing, and working memory. She also has difficulties with spelling and sequencing for problem solving. She has strong verbal skills and is artistic abilities. She learns well with color and when her hands are occupied. Grace struggled with note taking because of her difficulties with spelling and visual scanning (looking from the board to her paper). Furthermore, she could not keep up and got "lost" in the lecture (particularly for subjects that were already difficult for her). Grace’s teachers thought that she was not putting forth the effort, because they often saw her daydreaming in class. When the therapist asked Grace about this, she admitted that sometimes she would daydream because she did not know where they were in the lecture. She also desperately wanted to blend in with her peers, so she looked to them to see what she was supposed to be doing. However, when she was permitted to follow along with a book that she could highlight in and make her own doodles and notes in the margins during the lecture, she was able to focus her energy on the teacher and have notes that she could refer back to later with all of the main points highlighted. Using Grace's kinesthetic learning style and preference for color, she was able to participate with her peers, decrease her anxiety in class, and develop a skill that will help her to learn better across the curriculum. Due to her difficulties with sequencing, working memory, and reading, Grace struggled with numerical operations and story problems in math. Her problem solving skills were good when she could leverage her strengths: connecting abstract ideas and thinking at the macro level. Hence, when she could connect a concept to a real life problem, she could inevitably come up with a creative solution and grasp the concept; however, her poor numerical operations skills were still holding her back. The therapist remembered Grace's interest in color and tactile learning style and introduced her to a number of "hands-on" ways of solving the problem: calculating probability with colored marbles, using her fingers for multiplication, and solving equations with objects to represent the variables. In this manner, Grace not only grasped the concept that was presented at the macro-level, but using her love of color and keeping her hands moving she could reliably solve for the answer. Employing colored pencils for numbering steps or placing hash marks in multi-step directions helped Grace stay on point and not skip steps in complex problems. These strategies were incorporated into her 504 Plan and were communicated to her math teacher. University of Michigan (2016). Case Studies. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

46. Dyslexia Support

47. Some types of visual impairment: strabismus, where the eyes look in different directions and do not focus simultaneously on a single point congenital cataracts, where the lens of the eye is cloudy retinopathy of prematurity, which may occur in premature babies when the light-sensitive retina hasn’t developed sufficiently before birth retinitis pigmentosa, a rare inherited disease that slowly destroys the retina coloboma, where a portion of the structure of the eye is missing optic nerve hypoplasia, which is caused by underdeveloped fibers in the optic nerve and which affects depth perception, sensitivity to light, and acuity of vision cortical visual impairment (CVI), which is caused by damage to the part of the brain related to vision, not to the eyes themselves.

48. Accommodations for Students with Visual Impairments: Have students sit closer to the board Provide students with a copy of teacher notes Provide audio tapes of reading material Read notes aloud while writing on the board Allow students to turn in taped rather than written responses Allow student to dictate responses Enlarge books, worksheets, etc. Provide opportunities for hands-on learning Utilize manipulatives Assistive technology: Low-vision devices, braillewriter, slate and stylus, speech access software, large monitor for computer, talking dictionary, alternative computer access (voice recognition) American Foundation for the Blind (2016). Accommodations and Modifications at a Glance: Educational Accommodations for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

49. How New Technology Helps Blind People Explore the World

50. Accommodations for Students with Hearing Impairment regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist the use of amplification systems services of an interpreter for those students who use one or more visual communication modes favorable seating in the class to facilitate speechreading captioned films/videos the assistance of a notetaker who takes written notes so that the student with a hearing loss can fully attend to instruction instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods such as sign language Assistive Technology: Hearing aids/Auditory training devices Alerting devices Captioning Cochlear Implants Computers/Software Project Ideal (2016). Hearing Impairments. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

51. Although Deafness and Hearing Impaired are now included as separate categories under IDEA, the interventions and accommodations for both will be similar, taking into account that Deaf students cannot benefit from interventions or Assistive Technology which is dependent of amplification or residual hearing.

52. Teaching Deaf Students in the Inclusive Classroom

53. Examples of Other Health Impairments: asthma attention deficit disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diabetes epilepsy cardiac conditions hemophilia leukemia rheumatic fever sickle cell anemia nephritis

54. Accommodations and Interventions will vary widely depending on the Health Impairment. A common health impairment in classrooms is ADHD

55. There are three sub-types of ADHD: predominantly inattentive AD/HD predominately hyperactive-impulsive AD/HD combined type AD/HD Students with the predominately inattentive type of AD/HD will exhibit six or more of the following characteristics: Does not pay attention to detail and often makes mistakes across a number of activities Has difficulty maintaining attention during activities Does not complete schoolwork or other assigned activities Has difficulty with organization of activities Avoids activities that require mental effort or concentration Loses materials necessary to complete assignments Easily distracted Forgetful in many activities Students with the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type of AD/HD will exhibit six or more of the following characteristics: Fidgets or squirms in seat Gets up or leaves seat frequently during class Runs about or climbs when inappropriate, and is generally restless Difficulty in engaging in play activities quietly Talks excessively Blurts out answers Has difficulty waiting for their turn Interrupts others Students with the combined type of AD/HD will have some features of both the inattentive type and the hyperactive-impulsive type of AD/HD. This is the largest population of students carrying the AD/HD label. Project Ideal (2016). Other Health Impairments. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

56. Behavioral Interventions for Children with ADHD: Define the appropriate behavior while giving praise Give praise immediately Vary the statements given as praise Be consistent and sincere about praise Selectively ignore inappropriate behavior Remove nuisance items Provide calming manipulatives Allow for “escape valve” outlets (letting ADHD child leave the room for a few minutes) Activity reinforcement Visual cues Proximity control Hand gestures Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support (PBIS) Behavioral contracts and management plans Tangible rewards Token economy systems Self-management systems U.S. Department of Education (2008). Teaching Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.

57. Ask the Expert: ADHD in the Classroom Management Strategies and Student Supports

58. UNESCO prefers to refer to disabilities as "impairments"rather than "disabilities". Their categories include: Hearing Impairments, Visual Impairments, Physical Impairments - Motor and Mobility Impairments, Specific Learning Difficulties, Other Impairments and Disabilities, Social Emotional & Behavioral Difficulties, Deafblindness, and Multiple Impairments.

59. The ICF, or International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health puts all disabilities into two categories: Body Functions or Body Structures

60. Since children with developmental delay typically have delays in all areas of development, there is no one intervention strategy that works best. Interventions should be integrated across developmental domains. Early intervention service providers should work closely with families to embed the integrated strategies in their every day routines and environments to maximize the opportunity to promote development.

61. Subcategories: anxiety disorders bipolar disorder conduct disorders eating disorders obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) psychotic disorders

62. Interventions and Accommodations for Students with Emotional Disturbance: Set up goals aimed at social interactions Use role-playing situations Use seating arrangement to encourage social interaction Set up personalized goals and strategies, so that the child can find success. Early detection and intervention is the best strategy Set clear rules and expectations with visually stimulating material. Clearly post rules Stay consistent in expectations Set limits and Boundaries Use behavior contracts Use a highly structured environment Develop a cue word for the child to note inappropriate behavior Communicate with parents, so similar strategies and expectations are used at home Establish a quiet cool off area Teach self-talk to relieve stress and anxiety Teach and put in place self-monitoring and self-control techniques Provide time for relaxation techniques Be aware of your speech and non-verbal cues when talking to the student Hardy, Gwen (2012). Emotional Behavioral Disorder: Accommodations and Modifications. Retrieved from on October 13, 2016.