IDEA Disability Categories, Accommodations, and Interventions.

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IDEA Disability Categories, Accommodations, and Interventions. by Mind Map: IDEA Disability Categories, Accommodations, and Interventions.

1. Autism

1.1. "Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance"(CPIR, 2012).

1.1.1. Assistive Technologies for Autism: using a smart phone or tablet PC with apps for helping to read, communicate, or just for the sake of calming down. Apps should be chosen based on the individual needs of the student. Autism Speaks offers an app library to help here http://www.autismspeaks.org/autism-apps (Autism Speaks (2012).

1.1.2. Accommodations for Autism: Students on the Autism Spectrum are expected to participate in statewide and divisionwide testing by law. However, students with an IEP can receive accommodations in the form of extra time, a change of space, equipment (such as using technology for communication), and alternative forms of presentation of materials (such as visuals instead of only text) (VDE, 2010).

2. Deaf-Blindness

2.1. "Deaf-blindness means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness"(CPIR, 2012).

2.1.1. Assistive Technologies for deaf-blindness: Braille materials for reading and writing. Braille reader and refreshable format and Nemeth for mathematic expressions (Beech, 2010).

2.1.2. Accommodations for deaf-blindness: Using braille materials and Nemeth format for math expressions. Using tactile graphics like 3D maps, charts etc... or real objects instead of 2D representations, like a real coin. Allow for extra time and have assistance for moving around the school. Making sure the student does not have to move as much as possible and has easy access to facilities (Beech, 2010).

2.1.3. Rural Goa and DeafBlindess

3. Deafness

3.1. "Deafness means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance"(CPIR, 2012).

3.1.1. Assistive Technologies for deafness: Offering closed captioning videos with descriptions of any visuals presented, or text to type recorders to help take notes for the student during class can help them effectively participate in class (Beech, 2010).

3.1.2. Accommodations for Deafness: Offering students a sign language interpreter, a scribe to take notes during class, or having prepared lectures printed before class can help students keep up with the class. Also, writing directions on the board or printing them instead of only telling them to the class to make sure they are understanding directions. Allowing printed assignments instead of spoken assignments as well (Beech, 2010).

4. Developmental delay

4.1. "Developmental delay is for children from birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B), the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development" (CPIR, 2012).

4.1.1. Early Childhood Development

4.1.2. Accommodations for developmental delay: Give them extra practice in the area that is delayed. For example, if the child is having trouble with motor skills, have the students practice cutting, drawing, and/or pasting with crafts. Make sure you offer small wins often to keep them motivated and make sure they do not get too frustrated. For a long list of options click here (Do2Learn, 2016). http://do2learn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/DevelopmentalDelay_Strategies.html

5. Emotional disturbance

5.1. "Emotional disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance"(CPIR, 2012).

5.1.1. Assistive Technologies for Emotional Disturbance: Devices with schedules.

5.1.2. Accommodations for Emotional Disturbance: Use regular schedules and make sure the student knows what the expectations and agenda is before or at the beginning of class. Intersperse review and easier content with harder more challenging content. Demonstrate and reward appropriate behavior, social rules, and clearly model work. Take suicide and self-mutilation threats seriously. Pre-establish consequences but make sure the punishment is appropriate.

5.1.3. Case Study: Megan - Megan is a 12 year old that has been having trouble with behavior, tardiness, and withdrawel from peers. She has no physical health problems. She has three younger siblings and her parents have recently gone through a "contentious" divorce and she has no contact with her father. Megan has average to high level academic abilities when tested though she is struggling with her grades because of emotional issues rather than her cognitive abilities. Her persistent sadness and irritability has only served to isolate her from her peer further.

5.1.3.1. The recommended intervention for Megan is to go to school early and come home later to allow for more time to finish her homework, which would benefit her grades the most. She is encouraged to participate in extracurricular activities for more interaction with peers in a more positive environment. The family can benefit together from counseling. Teachers can prioritize problem behavior to reduce behavior issues. She would also benefit from a mentor that can help her with her interpersonal issues in a constructive way rather than in self-destructive ways.

6. Hearing impairment

6.1. "Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness”"(CPIR, 2012).

6.1.1. Assistive Technologies for hearing impairment: Amplification devices for hearing clearer. Recording devices (Beech, 2010).

6.1.2. Accommodations for hearing impairment: Preferential seating to make sure they are close enough to hear, allowing recording devices to help take notes, visual or written directions, print outs of expectations instead of only spoken directions will all help to alleviate any difficulties the student might be having (Beech, 2010).

7. Intellectual disability

7.1. "Intellectual disability means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance"(CPIR, 2012).

7.1.1. Assistive Technologies for intellectual disability: Using computers or tablets for visual and communication help and calculators for math help (Beech, 2010).

7.1.2. Accommodations for intellectual disability: Using hands-on activities, pictures, diagrams, directions with pictures, and calculators will help students participate in class more effectively. Teacher monitoring to make sure they are following along. As well as extra time to complete tasks (Beech, 2010).

8. Multiple disabilities

8.1. "Multiple disabilities means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness"(CPIR, 2012).

8.1.1. Assistive Technologies for multiple disabilities: A combination of the technologies used for individual disabilities based on the combination. It will be case by case: See other disabilities.

8.1.2. Accommodations for multiple disabilities: Mush like the technology, it will depend on the combination of disabilities. See other disabilities.

9. Orthopedic impairment

9.1. "Orthopedic impairment means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures)"(CPIR, 2012).

9.1.1. Assistive Technologies for orthopedic impairment: Positioning tools to hold materials or material secured to work areas, computers or tablets (word processors - predictive type or voice to text), modified pencils or crayons, non-slip surfaces and ramps (Beech, 2010).

9.1.2. Accommodations for orthopedic impairment: Allowing extra time for finishing tasks, making sure there is enough space to move, using positioning tools or materials secured to work areas for help keeping material in an easy to reach area. Allowing for large or special shaped writing utensils to help in the writing process. Also, teachers can physically support students while writing. Students can also receive preferential seating if necessary (Beech, 2010).

10. Other health impairment

10.1. "Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance"(CPIR, 2012).

10.1.1. Assistive Technologies for other health impairment: using computers or tablets to allow for students to work from a hospital or home where they may be getting needed care (Beech, 2010).

10.1.2. Accommodations for other health impairment: Offering safe spaces, preferential seating, and/or lighting changes for students who may need less distraction (Beech, 2010).

10.1.3. Case Study: Antonio

11. Specific learning disability

11.1. "Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage"(CPIR, 2012).

11.1.1. Assistive Technologies for specific learning disability: Allowing students to use computers or tablets with proper fonts, speaking, mathematical or visual learning can help students in their ability to comprehend material (Beech, 2010).

11.1.2. Accommodations for specific learning disability: Using visual clues, special fonts, advanced organizers, explicit clues, note taking assistance, repetition, signals or prompts, directions with pictures, reduced distraction, and/or regular procedures can help students focus on class and the material (Beech, 2010).

11.1.3. Case Study: Ellie - Ellie is an 11-year old girl with no health problems and no maternal history of learning disabilities. There is some history of hyperactivity on the paternal side, however. She is having trouble with her grades at school, specifically in reading and writing, though her math is near average. She still has trouble with math word problems. After testing it was discovered that she has strong reasoning abilities but is being held back by her slower processing speed, working memory, and executive functions that are affecting her reading and writing skills. She likely has ADD (Pearson, 2010).

11.1.3.1. The recommended intervention for Ellie's ADD is to slow down the reading and comprehension learning allowing her time to process rather than repeat more often. Lower her recommended reading level until she acquires the vocabulary to move up, add visual imagery to supplement, and to teach her ways to organize information to help build her memory (Pearson, 2010).

12. Speech or language impairment

12.1. "Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance"(CPIR, 2012).

12.1.1. Assistive Technologies for speech or language impairment: Recording devices or text to type technologies (Do2Learn, 2016).

12.1.2. Accommodations for Speech or Language Impairment: Use more interactive communication and active listening. Use language to solve problems and offer more practice for reading with tactile and visual clues. Use regular speaking exercises. Speak clearly and model correct speech patterns and avoid over-correcting (Do2Learn, 2016).

12.1.3. Assistive Technology for Communication

12.1.4. Case Study: Bryanna - Bryanna is an 8 year old who is struggling with oral reading fluency and retell fluency. Bryanna has been receiving interventions in the form of 60 minute sessions with the special education teacher in reading mastery five days a week and tutored for 50 minutes on literacy twice a week. Her scores have been generally improving with these interventions but not enough, so she is being referred for special education. She qualified for special education in the category of speech-language and is awaiting parental approval and an IEP meeting.

13. Traumatic brain injury

13.1. "Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma"(CPIR, 2012).

13.1.1. Assistive Technologies for Traumatic brain injury: Computers, tablets, or smartphones for tracking memory and schedules or alternative learning (Beech, 2010).

13.1.2. Accommodations for traumatic brain injury: Communicate with the hospital, therapist, and family before the student enters school to make sure there is a plan in action. Homeschooling and slow reentry to the classroom environment might be better for the student. Reduce distractions and noise levels, and make sure their physical space is safe and comfortable. Offer notes, large print books, and multiple options for displaying information. Offer exams in multiple choice (Bowen, 2015).

14. Visual impairment, including blindness

14.1. "Visual impairment means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness"(CPIR, 2012).

14.1.1. Assistive Technologies for visual impairment: Screen readers, computers or tablets with text to talk, braille books or refreshable braille, Nemeth braille for math expressions, or magnification technology (Beech, 2010).

14.1.2. Accommodations for visual impairment: Using large print or braille materials and text to talk technology for student work. Allowing for audio formats of the material or screen readers. Read materials aloud in class including all directions and expectations. Using reduced glare filters and/or seating students closest to visual material. Talking technologies like talking clocks or scales can help students participate in activities and have more autonomy in class (Beech, 2010).