Special Education Categories and Accomodations

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Special Education Categories and Accomodations by Mind Map: Special Education Categories and Accomodations

1. Let the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech

2. Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies. These help all students but are particularly helpful to those with LD

3. Learn about the different testing modifications that can really help a student with LD show what he or she has learned

4. Let the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities

5. Give the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests

6. Breaking tasks into smaller steps, and give directions verbally and in writing

7. Let students with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder

8. Assistive technology can also help many students work around their learning disabilities. Examples can include “low-tech” equipment such as tape recorders to “high-tech” tools such as reading machines (which read books aloud) and voice recognition systems (which allow the student to “write” by talking to the computer).

9. Diagnosis is made when child displays 6 or more symptoms across 3 areas: social interaction, communication, behavior

10. TIPS FOR TEACHERS:                             Make sure directions are given step-by- step, verbally, visually, and by providing physical supports or prompts, as needed by the student. Students with autism spectrum disorders often have trouble interpreting facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice.                                                                                                                                Be as concrete and explicit as possible in your instructions and feedback to the student. Find out what the student’s strengths and interests are and emphasize them. Tap into those avenues and create opportunities for success. Give positive feedback and lots of opportunities for practice. Build opportunities for the student to have social and collaborative interactions throughout the regular school day.               Learn more about the autism spectrum Have consistent routines and schedules and inform students when there will be changes.                                      Provide  support, structure, and lots of feedback.

11. Possible signs of visual impairment:                                                                                                      Eyes that don’t move together when following an object or a face Crossed eyes, eyes that turn out or in, eyes that flutter from side to side or up and down, or eyes that do not seem to focus Eyes that bulge, dance, or bounce in rapid rhythmic movements Pupils that are unequal in size or that appear white instead of black Repeated shutting or covering of one eye (as noticed with Julian) Unusual degree of clumsiness, such as frequent bumping into things or knocking things over Frequent squinting, blinking, eye-rubbing, or face crunching, especially when there’s no bright light present Sitting too close to the TV or holding toys and books too close to the face Avoiding tasks and activities that require good vision

12. Additional skills that students learn include the following, which teachers need to accommodate and  consider when planning lessons:                                     -use assistive technologies designed for children with visual impairments -use what residual vision they have effectively and efficiently  -read and write in Braille, if determined appropriate by the IEP team             -moving about safely and independently, which is known as orientation and mobility (O&M)

13. Example: When Julian was almost two years old, he developed this adorable habit of closing one eye when he looked at you. It almost seemed as if he were winking. The possibility that Julian had a visual impairment didn’t initially occur to his parents, but when Julian’s right eye started crossing inward toward his nose, off they went to the eye doctor, who confirmed that, yes, Julian had a visual impairment—amblyopia, often called “lazy eye.” As the most common cause of vision problems in children, amblyopia is the medical term used when vision in one eye is reduced because that eye and the brain are not working together properly.  Julian was also very farsighted, especially in the eye he’d taken to closing. Soon Julian had a brand-new pair of durable glasses suited to his active two-year-old self. The eye doctor also put an eyepatch over Julian’s better eye, so that he would have to use the weaker eye and strengthen its communication with the brain. Otherwise, the eye doctor said, the brain would begin to ignore the images sent by the weaker eye, resulting in permanent vision problems in that eye. Julian took good care of his glasses, but he didn’t take well to the patch, unfortunately. He ripped it off every time his parents put it on…and back on… and back on again. So today his eye still turns inward if he doesn’t wear his glasses.

14. Signs of deafness or hearing impairment:                 -not respond consistently to sounds or to his or her own name -asks for things to be repeated or often says “huh?” -is delayed in developing speech or has unclear speech -turns the volume up loud on the TV and other electronic devices. (CDC, 2012)

15. Example: Sharon is an active five year old who loves to spend time with her grandmother. She also loves to fingerpaint and play with the family dog. Sharon has multiple disabilities. When she was born, she didn’t get enough oxygen. As a result, she has an intellectual disability, problems with mobility, and a speech impairment that makes it hard to understand what she’s saying. That doesn’t stop Sharon from chattering, though. She has a lot to say. For Sharon’s parents, it’s been a long road from Sharon’s birth to today. When she was just a baby, she began receiving special services called early intervention. These services help children with disabilities from birth to their third birthday. In early intervention, Sharon learned to crawl and to stand and to walk with braces. Now in preschool, Sharon receives special education services. Like early intervention, these services are meant to address her special learning needs. Her parents are very involved. They sit down often with the preschool staff and talk about Sharon’s progress. The team also talks about Sharon’s challenges and how to address them. Last week, for example, Sharon got a picture board to help her communicate. She’s busy learning to use it. Sharon’s parents know that Sharon will always need some support because of her multiple disabilities. But her parents also know how determined Sharon can be when she’s learning something new. She’s going to learn it, by golly, there’s no stopping her.

16. Other health impairments can also fall under the umbrella of IDEA’s disability category besides the ones specifically mentioned in the law. DOE mentions specific other disorders or conditions that may, in combination with other factors, qualify a child for services under IDEA:                                                                         fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) bipolar disorders dysphagia other organic neurological disorders

17. Impairments included in IDEA:               ADD and AH/HD Diabetes Epilepsy Heart conditions Hemophilia Lead poisoning Leukemia Nephritis Rheumatic fever Sickle cell anemia Tourette syndrome

18. Other terms used to describe these disabilities include: -dyslexia—which refers to difficulties in reading           -dysgraphia—which refers to difficulties in writing       -dyscalcula—which refers to difficulties in math

19. Students with a TBI may have physical disabilities, difficulties with thinking, and social, behavioral and/or emotional problems

20. Approximately 1.7 million people receive traumatic brain injuries every year.

21. Accommodations and tips for teachers:  -Give student more time to finish work    -Give directions one step at a time          -Have consistent routines                        -Allow student opportunity to rest since they might get tired quickly                     -Help student get and stay organized

22. Educational tips for teachers:          -Know needs, play to strengths     -Allow partial participation            -Encourage independence             -Practice and reinforce                   -Make modifications                       -Support transition planning

23. Educational accommodations can include: -regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist                           -amplification systems                               -interpreter for those students who use sign language                                             -favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading                                                 -captioned media -assistance of a notetaker -instruction in alternate communication methods, such as sign language               -counseling

24. -Profound deafness occurs in 4-11 per 10,000 children                                                              -A child’s hearing loss or deafness may also be a characteristic of another disability such as Down syndrome, Usher syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Alport syndrome

25. Pervasive Development Disorders (PDD):        -Autism                                                              -Asperger syndrome                                          -Rett syndrome                                                  -Childhood disintegrative disorder                    -Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not   Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS)

26. Austism

27. Deafness

28. Hearing Impairment

29. Multiple Disabilities

30. Other Health Impairment

31. Specific Learning Disability

32. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

33. Visual Impairment, including Blindness

34. Use some of the same techniques and factors with deaf or blind students depending on the level of the disability

35. Increase the novelty of lessons by using films, tapes, flash cards, or small group work or by having a child call on others.

36. Pause and create suspense by looking around before asking questions.

37. Children with an intellectual disability may:                     sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children   learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking find it hard to remember things not understand how to pay for things have trouble understanding social rules have trouble seeing the consequences of their actions have trouble solving problems have trouble thinking logically

38. Be as concrete as possible

39. Emotional Disturbance

40. Educational programs for children with an emotional disturbance need to include attention to providing emotional and behavioral support as well as helping them to master academics, develop social skills, and increase self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem.

41. Characteristics seen in children who have an emotional disturbance include: Hyperactivity (short attention span, impulsiveness) Aggression or self-injurious behavior (acting out, fighting Withdrawal (not interacting socially with others, excessive fear or anxiety) Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills) Learning difficulties (academically performing below grade level)

42. Accommodations by teachers:                                                 -Use Assistive Technology - electronic communication devices -Learn as much about the disability as possible

43. Examples of accommodations teachers can make:                                   Seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements Instruction that is focused on development of gross and fine motor skills Ensuring suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices Being aware of the student's medical condition and its affect on the student

44. Assistive technologies for students with orthopedic disabilities include:                                                       -Screen reading software                                             -Speech recognition software                               -Augmentative and alternative communication devices

45. Of the 6.1 million children with disabilities who received special education under IDEA in public schools in the 2005-2006 school year, more than 1.1 million were served under the category of speech or language impairment.

46. Example: Susan was 7 years old when she was hit by a car while riding her bike. She broke her arm and leg and hit her head very hard. The doctors say she sustained a traumatic brain injury. When she came home from the hospital, she needed lots of help, but now she looks fine. In fact, that’s part of the problem, especially at school. Her friends and teachers think her brain has healed because her broken bones have. But there are changes in Susan that are hard to understand. It takes Susan longer to do things. She has trouble remembering things. She can’t always find the words she wants to use. Reading is hard for her now. It’s going to take time before people really understand the changes they see in her.

47. Anxiety disorders                                   Bipolar disorder (manic-depression)         Conduct disorders                             Eating disorders                           Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)   Psychotic Disorders

48. Deaf-blindness

49. Developmental Delay

49.1. Early intervention services can include:

49.2. Assistive technology

49.3. Speech and language services

49.4. Medical services

49.5. Counseling and training for a family

49.6. Nutrition services

49.7. Physical therapy

49.8. Nursing services

49.9. Psychological services

49.10. Audiology or hearing services

50. Intellectual Disability

51. Orthopedic Impairment

52. Speech or Language Impairment

53. When a child has a hearing loss, it is cause for immediate attention. That’s because language and communication skills develop most rapidly in childhood, especially before the age of 3. When hearing loss goes undetected, children are delayed in developing these skills (March of Dimes, 2010).

54. Recognizing the importance of early detection, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the CDC) recommends that every newborn be screened for hearing loss as early as possible, usually before they  leave the hospital. Catching a hearing loss early means that treatment can start early as well and “help the child develop communication and language skills that will last a lifetime” (CDC, 2013).

55. Randomly pick reciters so the children cannot time their attention.

56. Use the child’s name in a question or in the material being covered.

57. Ask a simple question (not even related to the topic at hand) to a child whose attention is beginning to wander.

58. Develop a private running joke between you and the child that can be invoked to re-involve you with the child.

59. Stand close to an inattentive child and touch him or her on the shoulder as you are teaching.

60. Walk around the classroom as the lesson is progressing and tap the place in the child’s book that is currently being read or discussed.

61. Decrease the length of assignments or lessons.

62. Alternate physical and mental activities.

63. Incorporate the children’s interests into a lesson plan.

64. Structure in some guided daydreaming time.

65. Investigate the use of simple mechanical devices that indicate attention versus inattention.

66. Teach children self monitoring strategies.

67. Use a soft voice to give direction.