Teaching, Learning and Development

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Teaching, Learning and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development

1. Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Reflective Practice

1.1.1. Practitioner

1.1.2. Dewey

1.1.2.1. professional educator's imaginative insights cannot allow his/her accomplishments to be final; must see practice in terms of constantly testable hyptheses

1.2. 3 ways teachers can relate to scholarly knowledge

1.2.1. The teacher simply applies whatever the research says should be done

1.2.2. The teacher appraises the effectiveness of the ideas, learns from them, and adapts them into practice

1.2.3. The teacher uses scholarly knowledge and understands it in such a way that he/she can test the conclusions of the research

1.3. Understanding the Central Topics that Constitute Educational Psychology

1.3.1. Four Commonplaces

1.3.1.1. Teacher

1.3.1.2. Curriculum

1.3.1.3. Student

1.3.1.4. Classroom

1.4. Steps Involved in the research Process

1.4.1. Step 1

1.4.2. Step 2

1.4.3. Step 3

1.4.4. Step 4

1.4.5. Step 5

1.5. Different Methods Used in Educational Psychology Research

1.5.1. Quantitative

1.5.2. Descriptive

1.5.3. Experimental

1.5.4. Qualitative

1.5.5. Idiographic

1.5.6. Ethnographic

1.6. Rules for designing Lesson Plans

1.6.1. the purpose of each lesson will be clear

1.6.2. the theme or essence of each lesson will be flexible enough to accommodate interruptions and teachable moments

1.7. 3 Interrelated Elements of the Curricular Planning Process

1.7.1. Educational Purpose

1.7.2. Learning Experiences

1.7.3. Evaluation

1.8. "students who feel competent about learning generally expect success for their efforts but they do not have the same success expectations if they feel that they have little or no control over contextual influences that can determine the outcome of the task"

2. Making Instructional Decisions

2.1. Learning Objectives and Lesson Plans

2.1.1. Backward Lesson Plan

2.1.1.1. the development of sc units and lessons that are derived from the identical objectives that are used in creating assessment tools

2.1.2. learning objectives helps teachers to relate what is happening in their classroom to the broader objectives of the curriculum to the overall philosophy of education

2.2. Purpose and Application of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Skills

2.2.1. Educational Objectives and types of thinking required to learn and apply them are sorted into 6 distinct levels:

2.2.1.1. Knowledge

2.2.1.2. Comprehension

2.2.1.3. Application

2.2.1.4. Analysis

2.2.1.5. Synthesis

2.2.1.6. Evaluation

2.2.1.7. **these six processes can be brought to bear on four different types of knowledge

2.2.1.7.1. factual

2.2.1.7.2. conceptual

2.2.1.7.3. procedural

2.2.1.7.4. metacognitive

2.2.2. Relationship Between Bloom's Taxonomy and Stiggins' Targets

2.2.2.1. Stiggins purposefully targets the development of the combined use of knowledge with thinking processes to create products (b) preferred attitudes and dispositions that students should bring to bear on their academic endeavors

2.3. Importance of Developing an Overall Approach to Instruction that is Based on an Overarching Theoretical Perspective

2.3.1. Universal Instructional Design

2.3.2. Teaching is accomplishing by explaining or demonstrating

2.3.3. Learning is a highly complex function

2.4. Meaningful Learning

2.4.1. Selecting relevant information

2.4.2. Organizing the selected information

2.4.3. Integrating the organized information with prior knowledge

2.4.4. Benefits

2.4.4.1. Prevents teachers from feeling pressure to design lessons that are solely about interesting stuff

2.4.4.2. Teachers can use select-organize-integrate model to make all material cognitively stimulating

2.5. Necessity for Specialized Instructional Strategies

2.5.1. Direct Instruction

2.5.2. Cognitive Credit Card

2.5.2.1. explain key words in a math problem and together read through the problem

2.5.2.2. help students identify, discuss and understand various terms

2.5.2.3. have student volunteer type the identified terms into a word processing program then print out copies on the size of the credit card paper

2.5.2.4. Show students how to use their cognitive credit cards during math problems

2.6. Applications of Metacognition Executive Functioning and its Accompanying Two Slave Functions

2.6.1. Phonological Loop

2.6.2. Visuo-spatial sketch pad

3. Assessing Student Progress

3.1. Diagnostic Assessment

3.2. Formative Assessment

3.2.1. Type One

3.2.2. Type Two

3.3. Summative Assessment

3.4. Designing Tests and Exams

3.4.1. Content Validity is the most important criterion in teacher-generated assessments because it pointedly evaluates whether a test and the questions contained therein properly address the essence of the content that was taught

3.4.1.1. Two Step Process of Assessment Validity

3.4.2. Table of Specifications to ensure constructed tests have high validity

3.4.3. Testing Issues

3.4.3.1. Appropriateness of the test questions

3.4.3.2. Frequency of assessment

3.4.4. Types of Assessment Questions

3.4.4.1. Selected-response Questions

3.4.4.2. Constructed-Response Questions

3.4.5. Bloom's Taxonomy

3.4.5.1. Knowledge

3.4.5.2. Comprehension

3.4.5.3. Application

3.4.5.4. Analysis

3.4.5.5. Synthesis

3.4.5.6. Evaluation

3.4.6. Erickan's Views

3.4.6.1. Student Self-Esteem

3.4.6.2. Student Self-Assessment

3.4.6.3. Interaction in Learning Environments

3.4.6.4. Teacher-student dialogue

4. Considering Developmental Differences

4.1. Development

4.1.1. gradually progressive

4.1.2. follows an orderly and logical progression

4.1.3. involves quantitative and qualitative changes

4.1.4. develop at different rates

4.1.5. results from combinational influences of genetics and the environment

4.2. Piaget

4.2.1. Sensorimotor Ages 0-2

4.2.2. Preoperational Ages 2-6

4.2.3. Concrete Operations Ages 6/7-11/12

4.2.4. Formal Operations Ages 11/12-Adulthood

4.3. Zone of Proximal Development

4.4. Scaffolding

4.5. Erikson's Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development

4.6. Kohlber's Six Stage Theory

4.7. Executive Cognitive Functioning

4.7.1. individuals organize, co-ordinate, and reflect on their thinking to achieve more efficient processing outcomes

4.8. Definitions

4.8.1. Self-Efficacy

4.8.2. Self-concept

4.8.3. Self-esteem

4.8.4. Theory of Mind

5. Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

5.1. Deciding on an Approach to Classroom Management

5.1.1. need some stress and anxiety for optimal leanring

5.1.2. make the classroom look inviting

5.1.3. emphasize the importance of respect

5.1.4. implement appropriate consequences for misbehaviour

5.1.5. process-outcome research

5.2. Dynamic Classroom Management

5.2.1. Develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students

5.2.2. Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students' access to learning

5.2.3. Use group management methods that encourage students' engagement in academic tasks

5.2.4. Promote the development of students' socail skills and self-regulation

5.2.5. Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems

5.2.6. Primary Steps

5.2.6.1. Concept presented to all students at school assembly

5.2.6.2. Teachers and students develop rules as well as rewards

5.2.6.3. Wall of rules posted in classroom

5.2.6.4. Administrators visit each class for presentation of rules by students

5.2.6.5. Rules/reward/consequences for non-teaching spaces are determined

5.2.6.6. Parents are informed

5.3. Teacher Behaviours that Diminish Student Behavioural Problems

6. Socio-Cultural Considerations

6.1. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

6.1.1. Differences within Identified Groups

6.1.2. Positioning Cultural Identity within the Individual

6.2. Stereotype Threat

6.2.1. "the fear, existing either in your own eyes or in the eyes of others that your behaviour will confirm an existing negative stereotype about your identity group"

6.3. Prejudice

6.4. Socio-economic Status

6.5. Effect of Parenting Style

6.5.1. Authoritarian Parenting

6.5.2. Permissive Parenting

6.5.3. Authoritative Parenting

6.6. Effect of Teaching Style

6.7. Multi-Cultural Education

6.7.1. Banks' Model

6.8. Aboriginal Education

7. Individual Differences - Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

7.1. Intelligence

7.1.1. Fluid Intelligence

7.1.2. Crystallized Intelligence

7.1.3. Visual-Spatial Reasoning

7.1.4. Intelligence as Structures

7.1.4.1. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

7.1.4.1.1. Linguistic Intelligence

7.1.4.1.2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

7.1.4.1.3. Spatial Intelligence

7.1.4.1.4. Musical Intelligence

7.1.4.1.5. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

7.1.4.1.6. Interpersonal Intelligence

7.1.4.1.7. Naturalistic Intelligence

7.1.5. Intelligence As Processes

7.1.5.1. Analytical/Componential Intelligence

7.1.5.2. Creative/Experiential Intelligence

7.1.5.3. Practical/Contextual Intelligence

7.1.6. Special Education

7.1.6.1. high-incidence exceptionalities

7.1.6.2. low-incidence exceptionalities

7.1.6.3. inclusion

7.1.6.4. IEP's

7.1.6.5. Psycho-Educational Assessment

7.1.6.6. Differentiated Learning

7.1.6.7. ADHD

7.1.6.8. Autism Spectrum Disorder

7.1.6.9. Gifted/Talented Students

7.1.6.10. Specific Learning Disorders

7.1.6.11. According to Thomas and Chess' original framework there are nine key traits of temperament that are on a continuum

8. Standardized Achievement Tests

8.1. "a test that contains the same questions for all test-takers and is administered to all individuals in the same fashion within a specified time and is always scored in a uniform manner"

8.1.1. Criterion-referenced tests

8.2. Aptitude Tests

8.2.1. What is the student able to do?

8.2.2. norm-references tests

8.3. Purposes

8.3.1. determine student performance

8.3.2. monitor achievement trends over time

8.3.3. identify and modify the instructional methods

8.3.4. evaluate educational programs

8.3.5. hold districts, schools, and teachers accountable

8.4. Five Essential Elements

8.4.1. The test must assess important curricular goals

8.4.2. Curricular goals must be teachable

8.4.3. The assessed knowledge and skills must be clearly described and accurately reflect effective learning

8.4.4. The test must be specific enough to directly guide instruction

8.4.5. The assessment process must be minimally intrusive on classrooms

8.5. The Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada