NEW GRAMMAR  WHEN, WHERE, WHY AND TO WHOM?

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1. Levels of language

1.1. TEXT

1.1.1. Patterns

1.1.2. Commands in a procedure

1.1.3. Action verbs in a recount

1.1.4. Abstract nouns in a exposition

1.1.5. Dialogue in a narrative

1.1.6. Cohesive devices

1.1.6.1. pronouns (create relationships within the text

1.1.6.2. When introducing characters; long descriptive noun groups.

1.1.6.3. When text  moves to an action sequence; the emphasis is on action verbs.

1.1.6.4. Reflective stage; more thinking an feeling verbs.

1.2. SENTENCE

1.2.1. Consists of a single clause or a number of clauses joined together.

1.2.1.1. Students need to know how to combine clauses to make sentences and how to construct different types of relationships between clauses in a sentence.

1.2.1.1.1. Eg relationships of time, place and causality.

1.3. CLAUSE

1.3.1. A unit of meaning that expresses a message. Typically contains a verb/verb group.

1.3.2. Often seen as the basic unit for analysing language.

1.4. GROUP/PHRASE

1.4.1. A clause consists of smaller chunks or groups of words that do certain jobs.

1.4.1.1. "A group of small children were digging in the sand".

1.4.1.1.1. The core of the clause is the verb group "were digging".

1.4.1.1.2. Participating in this action (one or more persons or things, represented by a noun group) "A group of small children"

1.4.1.1.3. Extra information might appear in the form af an adverbial "in the sand".

1.5. WORD

1.5.1. Can be divided into individual words.

1.5.1.1. Noun group

1.5.1.1.1. eg article, adjective, noun.

1.6. Note! Page 10-11, Derewianka.

2. PROCESSES

2.1. PROCESSES (express meaning about...)

2.1.1. ACTION

2.1.1.1. Doing

2.1.1.2. constructs sequences of events

2.1.2. RELATING

2.1.2.1. Something is or has

2.1.2.1.1. relate to, equal, is made up of, become, represent, seem, cause and include.

2.1.2.2. builds:

2.1.2.2.1. definitions

2.1.2.2.2. descriptions

2.1.2.2.3. classifying

2.1.2.2.4. evaluation phenomena

2.1.3. SAYING

2.1.4. SENSING

2.1.5. LOOKING AT MEANING:

2.1.5.1. Recount or procedure? Ask: Is the text mostly concerned with actions?

2.1.5.2. Narrative or newspaper story? Ask:  Does the text report what people are saying?

2.2. Note! Pages 15-26 Derewianka, Pages 2-8, Humphrey

3. NOUN GROUP

3.1. WHO OR WHAT? (THING)

3.1.1. MEANING

3.1.1.1. THING

3.1.2. FORM

3.1.2.1. NOUN

3.2. WHICH ONE/S? (POINTERS)

3.2.1. WHICH?

3.2.1.1. POINTER (MEANING)

3.2.2. DETERMINER (FORM)

3.2.2.1. Articles (a/an, the)

3.2.2.2. Demonstratives (this, that, these, those)

3.2.2.3. Possessives (my, your, his, her, its, our, mum's)

3.2.2.4. other words such as each, every, both, some.

3.3. HOW MANY? (QUANTIFIERS)

3.3.1. Exact numbers

3.3.2. Inexact numbers or amounts (a few, several,)

3.3.3. Ordinal numbers (first, second)

3.3.4. Which?

3.3.4.1. POINTER (MEANING)

3.3.4.2. DETERMINER (FORM)

3.3.5. How many?

3.3.5.1. Quantifier (Meaning)

3.3.5.2. Numeral (Form)

3.4. WHAT LIKE? (DESCRIBERS)

3.4.1. ADJECTIVE OR -ED WORD OR -ING WORD

3.4.2. FACTUAL DESCRIBERS

3.4.3. EVALUATIVE DESCRIBERS

3.4.4. ADJUSTING THE DEGREE

3.4.5. MAKING COMPARISONS

3.5. WHAT TYPE? (CLASSIFIERS)

3.5.1. FORM

3.5.1.1. Noun or adjective or numeral or -ed word or -ing word

3.6. TELL ME MORE (QUALIFIERS)

3.6.1. Come after the Thing in the noun group.

3.6.2. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE AS QUALIFIER

3.6.2.1. eg in, on, under, over, behind, between, out

3.6.3. EMBEDDED CLAUSE AS QUALIFIER

3.6.3.1. embedded in the noun group, tells us more about the Thing

3.6.3.2. contains a verb

3.6.3.3. often begin with a relative pronoun

3.6.3.3.1. that, which, who, whom, where, etc

3.7. Note! Pages 41-66 Derewianka, pages 20-28 Humphrey

4. Language for expressing ideas

4.1. Sentences are key units for expressing ideas.

4.2. A clause represents a slice of experience.

4.2.1. In the treetop the cat was smiling mysteriously.

4.2.1.1. Where? Circumstances

4.2.1.1.1. In the treetop

4.2.1.2. Who/what is taking part? Participants

4.2.1.2.1. the cat

4.2.1.3. What's happening? Processes

4.2.1.3.1. was smiling

4.2.1.4. How? Circumstances

4.2.1.4.1. mysteriously

4.2.2. In representing experience, each part of the clause has a different function.

4.3. MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS:

4.3.1. When being and having verbs are used as auxiliaries, they function to locate a process in time, thus playing an important role in the formation of different tenses.

4.3.2. Might, must, would, could, should, may, can.

4.3.2.1. Need, have, ought, had better, dare.

4.4. BASE FORM:

4.4.1. Enrol, read, consider, see, leave, notice, do.

4.5. MULTI-WORD VERB GROUPS:

4.5.1. wake up, sit down, get out, put up with, settle down, get away with, give up on, catch on, turn up, give in.

4.6. NON-FINITE VERB GROUPS

4.6.1. They begin with an -ing verb form, an -ed verb form og a to + verb form.

4.6.2. They do not have a participant which answers the question who or what before them.

4.7. MORE ABOUT VERB GROUPS

4.7.1. In addition to the main verb, which expresses the process, verb groups can include varition which add meaning verb. They indicate:

4.7.1.1. a phrasal verb (turn off the light

4.7.1.1.1. Test: if they can be replaced with a one-word verb; give in > concede or surrender, give away > donate

4.7.1.2. a passive verb (the trees were cut by the loggers)

4.7.1.3. Passive verbs

4.7.1.3.1. Passive voice

4.7.1.3.2. Active voice

4.7.2. Important to recognise the form of passive verbs to avoid confusion with phrasal verbs and with circumstances.

4.7.3. the tense of the main verb (I came; I am coming; I was going to come)

4.8. Note! Pages 13-36, Derewianka. Pages 8-15 Humphrey

5. PARTICIPANTS

5.1. When finding the process, then ask who or what in relation to that process.

5.2. Categories of participants

5.2.1. living - non-living

5.2.2. human - non-human

5.2.3. named (proper nouns) - unnamed (common nouns)

5.2.4. particular - general

5.2.5. everyday - technical

5.2.6. concrete - abstract

5.2.7. literal - metaphorical

5.3. Grammatical form

5.3.1. Noun group or combination of noun groups

5.3.1.1. That funny old man...

5.3.1.1.1. sneezed loudly.

5.3.1.2. Noun groups include information about the main noun or thing:

5.3.1.2.1. Quantify

5.3.1.2.2. Describe

5.3.1.2.3. Specify

5.3.1.2.4. Classify

5.3.1.2.5. Can be added as:

5.3.2. Adjective or adjectival group which names qualities.

5.3.2.1. Reality shows are

5.3.2.1.1. boring.

5.3.3. A whole clause (embedded) which names facts, activities or ideas.

5.3.3.1. What I'm afraid of...

5.3.3.1.1. is snakes.

5.3.4. EXAMPLE

5.3.4.1. My dog loved those three smelly lamb bones from the butcher's shop.

5.3.4.1.1. My dog

5.3.4.1.2. loved

5.3.4.1.3. those three smelly lamb bones from the butcher's shop.

5.4. Note! Pages 36-40 Derewianka, pages 15-20  Humphrey

6. CIRCUMSTANCES

6.1. When, where, why, how, with whom? Providing details surrounding the activity.

6.2. TIME

6.2.1. WHEN?

6.2.1.1. Jim fed the cat ... "after breakfast".

6.2.2. HOW LONG?

6.2.2.1. "Last weekend"...we built a tree house.

6.2.3. HOW MANY TIMES?

6.2.3.1. We had been driving "for three hours".

6.3. PLACE

6.3.1. WHERE?

6.3.1.1. Crabs are often found "in rockpools".

6.3.2. WHERE TO/FROM?

6.3.2.1. Spoon the mixture "into the muffin tray".

6.3.3. HOW FAR?

6.3.3.1. I found my shoe "under the table".

6.4. MANNER

6.4.1. HOW?

6.4.1.1. We travelled "to Sydney by train".

6.4.2. BY WHAT MEANS?

6.4.2.1. Close the door "quietly".

6.4.3. WHAT LIKE?

6.4.3.1. Cut the cake "with a knife".

6.4.4. HOW MUCH?

6.4.4.1. She marched "like a soldier".

6.5. ACCOMPANIMENT

6.5.1. WHO/WHAT WITH?

6.5.1.1. Scott swam in the creek "with his friends".

6.5.2. AND WHO/WHAT ELSE?

6.5.2.1. Play this game "with three other people".

6.6. MATTER

6.6.1. WHAT ABOUT?

6.6.1.1. I am worried "about the hurricane".

6.7. CAUSE

6.7.1. WHY? (REASON)

6.7.1.1. Those fish will die "as a result of lead poisoning".

6.7.2. WHY? WHAT FOR? (PURPOSE)

6.7.2.1. "Because of the storm", the concert was cancelled.

6.7.3. WHO FOR? (BEHALF)

6.7.3.1. The park is closed "due to extreme fire danger".

6.8. CONTINGENCY

6.8.1. WHAT IF...? (CONDITION)

6.8.1.1. "In the event of an emergency", use the exit.

6.8.2. ALTHOUGH...? (CONCESSION)

6.8.2.1. We had fun, "despite the strong winds".

6.9. ROLE

6.9.1. WHAT AS? (GUISE)

6.9.1.1. He came "as a clown".

6.10. ANGLE

6.10.1. ACCORDING TO WHOM? (SOURCE)

6.10.1.1. "According to experts", the water level has fallen.

6.10.2. IN WHOSE VIEW? (VIEWPOINT)

6.10.2.1. "In my opinion", she could do much better.

6.11. The circumstances in a clause are typically expressed by adverbials.

6.11.1. ADVERBS

6.11.1.1. Usually consist of a single word an mostly en in -ly (eg slowly

6.11.2. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

6.11.2.1. Consists of a preposition plus a noun group (eg in the park)

6.12. Note! Pages 66-78 Derewianka, pages 28-34 Humphrey

6.13. Note! Expressing ideas in visual texts (Humphrey) slide 34-36

7. Roles of the participants

7.1. Action

7.1.1. The doer

7.1.2. The done to

7.2. Saying

7.2.1. The sayer

7.2.2. What is said

7.3. Sensing

7.3.1. A senser

7.3.2. What is sensed

7.4. The described is being related to its describtion. Relating verb.