Student Assessment

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Student Assessment by Mind Map: Student Assessment

1. Diagnostic (Pre-Assessments)

1.1. Diagnostic Assessment

1.2. Definition: To help instructor evaluate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions before beginning a learning activity. Teachers use this assessment to provide remedial instruction or place students within appropriately leveled classes.

1.3. Purpose: Teachers use the result of this assessment to provide remedial instructions or place students in the appropriate grade level.

1.4. Advantages

1.4.1. 1. Assist in the identification of students' current knowledge and skills sets

1.4.2. 2. Clarify any students' misconceptions before starting the new content

1.4.3. 3. Plan higher quality lesson to target students' skills after collecting the assessment's data

1.4.4. 4. Allow for better differentiation plans for the students

1.4.5. 5. Help teachers pinpoint at what grade level children are reading based on their mastery of phonics, blending, word recognition and text comprehension.

1.4.6. 6. Determine if students have or need the prerequisite skills necessary for a higher-level class such as calculus or trigonometry.

1.4.7. 7. Help determine students at risk for reading problems

1.5. Disadvantages

1.5.1. Pretests can cause students' anxiety

1.5.2. Interviews can be time consuming

1.5.3. Self-assessment are not accurate in some cases

1.6. Examples of diagnostic assessments

1.6.1. Pretests

1.6.2. Self-assessment

1.6.3. Discussion board responses

1.6.4. Interviews

1.6.5. KWL Chart Example of KWL Chart

1.7. Diagnostic Assessment is an assessment for learning.  The testing involves using information to indicate each students' level of learning or knowledge.  Furthermore, it allows teachers to place students in an appropriate learning groups or levels.  (Earl, 2006).

1.8. Video

2. Summative

2.1. Summative Assessment

2.2. Definition: are cumulative evaluations used to measure student growth after instruction and are generally given at the end of a course in order to determine whether long term learning goals have been met. (Learn NC, 2011)

2.3. Purpose

2.3.1. Evaluate students' learning, skill acquisition and academic achievement at the end of a defined period (usually at the end of a unit, lesson and/or semester).

2.3.2. Evaluate long term learning goals.

2.3.3. Have high stakes and reflect a higher point than formative assessment.

2.4. Advantages

2.4.1. 1. High stakes or high point value

2.4.2. 2. Motivation for students

2.4.3. 3. Give teachers a great insight to evaluate students' outcome

2.4.4. 4. Help teachers assess whether the results of the object being evaluated met the stated goals

2.4.5. 5. Promote students and teacher accountability

2.4.6. 6. Promote students' engagement with the content

2.5. Disadvantages

2.5.1. 1. Not always the most accurate reflection of learning

2.5.2. 2. Do nothing to identify and fix instructional problems before they become critical

2.5.3. 3. Can cause anxiety for students

2.5.4. 4. May promote "teaching or learning" the test instead of authentic  learning experiences

2.6. Examples of Summative assessments

2.6.1. Final project Portfolio Portfolios are collections of student activities, accomplishments and achievements to demonstrate growth over time, offering an alternative authentic assessment for students and teachers. Research/Paper

2.6.2. Chapter/Unit tests

2.6.3. End-of-course evaluation

2.7. Summative assessment is an assessment of Learning.  It allows teachers to determine what students know as well as the level of their skills. Teachers will be able to determine if students achieved the unit or lesson goals.

2.8. Video

3. High-Stakes

3.1. High-Stakes Assessment

3.2. Definition: It is any test used to make critical decisions about students, educators, schools or districts.  It can be statewide or district administrated test to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers.

3.3. Purpose

3.3.1. To determine whether students get promoted to the next grade

3.3.2. Tests are designed specifically to asses whether students' learning meets the state standards

3.3.3. Test results allow teachers and administrators to receive financial rewards or demotions

3.3.4. School districts may receive or loose funds

3.4. Advantages

3.4.1. 1. Motivate students in some cases

3.4.2. 2. Can use results (by teachers) to improve teaching techniques

3.4.3. 3. Scores can help boost students' sel-esteem

3.4.4. 4. Use test results to diagnose learning problems

3.4.5. 5. Students and schools across the district receive consistent instructions and evaluations

3.4.6. 6. Underperforming schools receive a much needed support and resources to improve students' performance

3.5. Disadvantages

3.5.1. 1. Schools who perform poorly can face budget reduction.

3.5.2. 2. Low enrollment in some areas for low scoring schools

3.5.3. 3. Students may be retained in current grades or drop out to receive remedial instructions.

3.5.4. 4. Additional pressure on teacher to perform well on tests

3.5.5. 5. Teachers may receive poor ratings or termination

3.5.6. 6. Students feel the temptation of cheating (to get high scores)

3.5.7. 7. Requirements of passing standardized tests to graduate

3.5.8. 8. Some tests are heavily weighted

3.6. Examples of Standardized assessment

3.6.1. 1. Dibels (Reading and literacy) Example Teachers will monitor students' progress. Their performance are recorded and it will impact their instructional

3.6.2. 2. Saxon math

3.7. Video

3.8. High-stakes assessment is an assessment of Learning. It is recorded and reported.  It allows to determine a students' level of achievement in regards to state standards (CCSS)

4. Formative

4.1. Formative Assessment

4.2. Definition: A method of continually evaluating students' academic  needs and development (not waiting till the end of the lesson).  Formative assessments help teachers identify concepts that students are struggling to understand, skills they are having difficulty acquiring or learning standards they have not yet achieved.

4.3. Purpose

4.3.1. Collect detailed information that can be used to improve instruction and student learning while it’s happening.

4.3.2. Allow teachers to improve their practice

4.3.3. Allow students to determine their strengths, weakness and target areas that need work.

4.4. Advantages

4.4.1. 1. Not graded and have a lower stake.

4.4.2. 2. Allow struggling students to receive the help needed before summative assessment or end of unit tests.

4.4.3. 3, Function as practice for students, provide feedback so that they can improve their performance.

4.4.4. 4. Allow teachers to modify their instruction based on information gained through the assessments.

4.4.5. 5.  Help teacher to provide corrective activities and enrichment activities as appropriate.

4.4.6. 6. Foster development and improvement within an on-going activity.

4.5. Disadvantages

4.5.1. 1. May be difficult to motivate students' performance on low stake assignments.

4.5.2. 2. Time consuming for instructors to provide effective feedback.

4.5.3. 3. Some teachers have no experience to effectively use formative assessments.

4.5.4. 4. Students may not take the assessment seriously which may cause teachers to misread feedback from students. (Dr. Nesa Sasser)

4.6. Examples of Formative assessments

4.6.1. Summarizing techniques

4.6.2. Graphic organizers

4.6.3. Think-Pair-Share Video Think-Pair-Share Think-Pair-Share is used to increase peer to peer interaction and to encourage critical thinking.

4.6.4. Observations

4.6.5. Exit/Admit slips

4.6.6. Four corners

4.6.7. Laundry day

4.7. Formative assessment is an assessment for Learning used by teachers and students as part of instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of core content.

4.8. Video

5. Performance-Based

5.1. Performance-Based Assessment

5.2. Definition: a set of strategies for the acquisition and application of knowledge, skills and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to students.  It "measures students' ability to apply the skills and knowledge learned from a unit or units of study." (Edutopia, 2015)

5.3. Purpose

5.3.1. It measures accurately one or more specific course standards.

5.3.2. It measures students' ability to combine knowledge across disciplines, collaboration and problem solving.

5.4. Advantages

5.4.1. 1. Provide teachers with information about the diverse learning needs of their students

5.4.2. 2. Allow teachers to modify activities and/or tasks

5.4.3. 3. Help students to gain ownership and accountability of their progress

5.4.4. 4. Data gathered from assessment help teachers to evaluate what students have learned as well as what they can learn

5.4.5. 5. Learning accord during assessment

5.4.6. 6. More authentic

5.4.7. 7. Provide opportunity for more formative assessment

5.5. Disadvantages

5.5.1. 1. Reliability may be difficult to establish

5.5.2. 2. Difficult to plan for amount of time needed

5.5.3. 3. Can result in inaccurate conclusions

5.5.4. 4. Teachers have to decide how to distinguish and grade it

5.6. Examples of Performance-Based assessment

5.6.1. Simulations

5.6.2. Presentations

5.6.3. Problem solving through case studies

5.7. Performance-Based assessment is an assessment of learning.  It allows students to show their understanding and produce high quality work.  Students can present and support their work by using credible statements (project or research will be replicated)

5.8. Video

6. Portfolio

6.1. Portfolio Assessment

6.2. Definition: It is a collection of students' work that showcases a selection of performance.  Portfolio assessment allows students to present their reflection, self-evaluation and rubrics.

6.2.1. Types of Portfolios

6.3. Purpose

6.3.1. 1. Portfolio assessment matches  assessment to teaching

6.3.2. 2. Portfolio assessment can be decided at the beginning  of unit or lesson

6.3.3. 3. Portfolio assessment has clear goals

6.3.4. 4. Portfolio assessment are direct and clear to students and teachers

6.3.5. 5. Portfolio assessment allows students to go in depth for any lesson

6.3.6. 6.

6.4. Advantages

6.4.1. 1. Promotes student self-assessment, evaluation and reflection

6.4.2. 2. Allow student collaboration

6.4.3. 3. Focus on students' progression not comparison with others

6.4.4. 4. Provide concrete examples for parents to see

6.4.5. 5. Allow for flexibility and adaptability

6.4.6. 6. Enhance students' motivation

6.4.7. 7. Allow teachers to measure students' performance authentically

6.5. Disadvantages

6.5.1. 1. Time consuming for teachers to develop criteria, score the portfolio and meet with each students

6.5.2. 2. Collecting data and work samples may be difficult

6.5.3. 3. Selection of materials may be hard for students

6.5.4. 4. Low scoring may lead to low reliability

6.6. Examples of Portfolio assessment

6.6.1. Examples of written work

6.6.2. Journals and logs

6.6.3. Self-evaluation

6.6.4. Mind maps and notes

6.6.5. Peer reviews

6.6.6. Lists of books read

6.6.7. Questionnaire results

6.6.8. Group reports

6.6.9. Videotapes of students' performance

6.6.10. Charts and graphs

6.7. Video

6.8. Portfolio assessment can be for and of Learning. * For Learning: at the end of each unit, students can reflect on their quality of work by reviewing their portfolios.  *Of Learning: Some schools require students to have their portfolios to highlight evidence of accomplishments in order to graduate.

7. Self-Assessment

7.1. Self-Assessment

7.2. Definition: It is a building block for setting goals and making positive changes. Self-assessment is the process by which students monitor and evaluate the quality of their behavior and learning.

7.3. Purpose

7.3.1. Allow students to revise their work

7.3.2. Allow students to monitor their own progress

7.3.3. Allow students to identify strategies that improve their understandings and skills

7.4. Advantages

7.4.1. 1. Encourage reflective practice

7.4.2. 2. Allows students to identify their own strengths and weaknesses

7.4.3. 3. Allow students to recognize the quality of their own work

7.4.4. 4. Allow students to become active learners

7.4.5. 5. Help teachers to individualize students' goals and learning styles

7.5. Disadvantages

7.5.1. 1. Time consuming (for lower grade levels)

7.5.2. 2. Need preparation

7.5.3. 3. Affected by context

7.5.4. 4. Students won't give themselves a low grade

7.5.5. 5. Can be unreliable

7.6. Example of Self-Assessment

7.6.1. Sample

7.7. Video

7.8. Self-assessment is an assessment for Learning by allowing students to be engaged in the lesson.  It also enhances their learning goals.  Teachers can motivate students and help them to set goals at the beginning of the lesson.

8. Peer Assessment

8.1. Peer Assessment

8.2. Definition: Peer assessment is the evaluation of student's work by another students of equal status.  It involves using criteria set by the teachers to provide consrtuctive feedback.

8.3. Purpose

8.3.1. Build students'  confidence

8.3.2. Allow students to be an active listener

8.3.3. Build students' development skills

8.3.4. Help improving students' performance

8.3.5. Serve as a summative assessment

8.4. Advantages

8.4.1. 1. Promote collaborative learning

8.4.2. 2. Allow students to support each other

8.4.3. 3. Allow students to develop autonomy and responsibility

8.5. Disadvantages

8.5.1. 1. Unreliable due to peer pressure

8.5.2. 2. Students may be hesitant to give negative feedback

8.5.3. 3. Require teachers' intervention

8.5.4. 4. Students may lack the appropriate skills to give critics or constructive feedback

8.6. Examples of Peer assessment

8.6.1. 1

8.6.2. 2

8.6.3. 3

8.7. Video

8.8. Peer assessment is an assessment for Learning where students are encouraged to engage in discussion. It helps students to build up their own understanding and provide constructive feedback.  They will also evaluate their own learning progress by comparing it to their peers.

9. Authentic

9.1. Authentic Assessment

9.2. Definition: It is a "form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world task that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills." (John Mueller).  Students' skills are evaluated by the use of a rubric.  Performance and authentic assessment are similar and often interchangeably.

9.3. Purpose

9.3.1. 1. Show what students are learning

9.3.2. 2. Show how the students are learning

9.3.3. 3. Evaluate the quality of understanding

9.4. Advantages

9.4.1. 1. Allow students to take risks

9.4.2. 2. Support the development of students'  analytical skills and the ability to integrate what they learn across subjects

9.4.3. 3. Require careful planning and creativity

9.4.4. 4. Allow students and teachers to value the learning process as much as the finished product

9.5. Disadvantages

9.5.1. 1. Time consuming to create

9.5.2. 2. Require more resources and materials to perform

9.5.3. 3. Not affordable for some schools

9.5.4. 4. Grading it may lead to teachers to be bias

9.6. Examples of Authentic assessment

9.6.1. Content area assessment KWL chart Use it for Kindergarten or first grade level at the beginning of the unit T-list Semantic maps

9.6.2. Math Assessment Problem solving

9.6.3. Science assessment Science experiments

9.7. Video

9.8. Authentic assessment are assessment for Learning.  They are considered part of the learning process and instructional strategy.  These assessments involve qualitative, anecdotal and descriptive data.  Authentic assessment can rank students' achievements level against a standard

10. References

10.1. 1. Assessment Matters: Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment.  (N.D).  Retrieved November 19, 2016, from:

10.2. 2. Diagnostic Testing in Education. (N.D).  Retrieved November 20, 2016, from:

10.3. 3. Defining Portfolio Assessment. (N.D).  Retrieved November 19, 2016, from:

10.4. 4. Center for the Collaborative Classroom. (February, 2015).  Retrieved November 19, 2016, from:

10.5. 5. Authentic Assessment Overview. (N.D).  Retrieved November 20, 2016, from: