Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) by Mind Map: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

1. Pathogenesis

1.1. inhaled irritants cause inflammatory cells to accumulate and activate

1.1.1. when activated initiate an inflammatory cascade trigger the release of an inflammatory cascade

1.1.1.1. leading to tissue damage and systemic effects

1.1.1.1.1. resulting in limited airflow

1.2. Structural Changes

1.2.1. Peribronchial fibrosis

1.2.1.1. thickening of bronchial wall

1.2.1.1.1. a radiologic sign which occurs when excess fluid or mucus buildup in the small airway passages of the lung causes localized patches of atelectasis (lung collapse)

1.2.2. build up of scar tissue from damage to airways

1.2.3. over-multiplication of the epithelial cells lining the airway

1.2.4. Parenchymal destruction

1.2.4.1. loss of lung tissue elasticity

1.2.4.1.1. a result of destruction of the structures supporting and feeding alveloli

1.3. Mucociliary Dysfunction

1.3.1. smoking / inflammation enlarges the mucous glands

1.3.1.1. goblet cell metaplasia

1.3.1.1.1. healthy cells replaced by more mucus-secreting cells

1.3.1.2. damage to the mucociliary transport system

1.3.1.2.1. resulting in mucus not being able to clear from airways

2. Risk Factors

2.1. SMOKING!!!!

2.1.1. Most people who have COPD, smoke or used to smoke

2.1.2. Secondhand smoke- being around people who smoke also puts you at risk

2.2. Long-term exposure to other lung irritants

2.2.1. Air pollution

2.2.2. Chemical Fumes

2.2.3. Dust from the environment / Workplace

2.3. Middle aged people and older

2.3.1. Anyone greater than age 40 is at a greater risk

2.4. Genetic Conditions

2.4.1. having an alpha- 1 antitrypsin deficiency

2.5. Family History

2.5.1. if someone else had it in your family you could be at a higher risk

3. Incidence / Prevalence

3.1. World Health Organization estimates 65 million people worldwide had COPD in 2004

3.2. Three million people died from COPD in 2005

3.2.1. corresponds to 5% deaths globally

3.2.2. 4th leading cause of death in the world

3.2.2.1. the World Health Organization predicts by 2030 it will rise to the third cause of death

3.2.3. a person with COPD dies every four minutes in the United States

3.3. costly disease to manage

3.3.1. costs up to more than 50 billion dollars in annual health economic losses

3.4. COPD kills more women than men each year

4. Diagnostics

4.1. Lung Function Tests

4.1.1. a test measuring how much air you can breathe in and out

4.1.2. how fast you can breathe in and out

4.1.3. how well your lungs deliver oxygen to your blood

4.2. Spirometry

4.2.1. You will breath as hard as you can into a tube connected to a small machine called a spirometer

4.2.1.1. This will meausre how much air you breathe out

4.2.1.2. measuring how fast you can blow air out

4.2.1.3. used to determine how severe your COPD is

4.2.1.3.1. based on the information the doctor can set up a treatment paln

4.3. Chest X-Ray or Chest CT scan

4.3.1. pictures of the structures of your inside of you chest can show signs of COPD

4.4. Arterial Blood Gass

4.4.1. a blood test measuring the oxygen level in your blood

4.4.1.1. results can show how severe your COPD is and if you need oxygen therapy

5. Treatments

5.1. Lifestyle Changes

5.1.1. QUIT SMOKING

5.1.1.1. join a support group

5.1.1.2. try different products

5.1.1.2.1. nicotine patches

5.1.1.2.2. nicotine gum

5.1.2. Avoid Secondhand Smoke

5.2. Medications

5.2.1. Bronchodilators

5.2.1.1. relax the muscles around the airways, opening your airway making it easier to breathe

5.2.1.2. Inhalers

5.2.1.2.1. Depending on the severity of your disease will depend on the type of inhaler

5.2.2. Combination Bronchodilators Plus Inhaled Glucocorticosteriods

5.2.2.1. used in severe cases of COPD

5.2.2.1.1. a combination of a bronchodilator to open up the airways, and an inhaled steroid to reduce the airway inflammation

5.3. Oxygen Therapy

5.3.1. giving oxygen through nasal prongs or a mask

5.3.2. may need oxygen all the time or only certain times

5.4. Surgery

5.4.1. Bullectomy

5.4.1.1. doctors remove large bullae from the lungs, which are larger air spaces which interfere with breathing

5.4.2. Lung Transplant

5.4.2.1. removal of a damaged lung with a healthy lung from a deceased donor

5.4.3. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

5.4.3.1. removal of damaged tissues from the lungs

6. Clinical Manifestations

6.1. chronic cough that produces a lot of mucous

6.1.1. often known as "smokers cough"

6.2. shortness of breath

6.2.1. made worse with physical activity

6.3. wheezing

6.3.1. a whistling or squeaky sound that only occurs whenever you breathe

6.4. chest tightness

6.5. might often have a cold or the flu

6.6. severe clinical manifastations

6.6.1. swelling in your ankles, feet, or legs

6.6.2. weight loss

6.6.3. lower muscle endurance

6.7. severe symptoms requiring immediate medical attention

6.7.1. hard time breathing or talking

6.7.2. lips or fingernails turn blue or gray

6.7.2.1. sign of an extreme low oxygen level in your blood

6.7.3. you're not mentally alert

6.7.4. you're heartbeat is extremely fast