Theory & Perspective of Learning

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Theory & Perspective of Learning by Mind Map: Theory & Perspective of Learning

1. Constructivism

1.1. Include

1.1.1. The social basis of learning

1.1.2. Pupil- centred learning

1.1.3. Intrinsic motivation

1.1.4. Deep learning

1.1.5. Metacogntive learning

1.1.6. Situated learning

1.1.7. Metacognition learning

1.1.8. Mental construction

1.1.9. Discovery

2. Experiential Learning

2.1. Learning by doing & reflecting on learning

2.2. ‘Hands-­‐on’ learning

2.3. Activity oriented

2.4. Focuses on the processes

2.5. Focus is on direct

2.6. Experience is focused on the students, not the teachers

2.7. Learning is active

2.8. Can take place inside

2.9. Traditional Teaching

2.9.1. Teacher--‐centred

2.9.2. Abstract learning unrelated to everyday life

2.9.3. Prescribed fixed design

2.9.4. Knowledge transfer

2.10. Experiential Learning

2.10.1. Student-centred

2.10.2. Real world, concrete learning

2.10.3. Flexible open possibilities

2.10.4. Develops knowledge

2.11. Plan

2.11.1. State the intended learning outcomes

2.11.2. State the learning resources

2.11.3. State the activity

2.12. Do

2.12.1. Students do the task

2.12.2. Teachers can give immediate individue

2.13. Review

2.13.1. Students to identify , reflect on

2.14. In -class Experiential Learning

2.14.1. simulations

2.14.2. Demon-strations

2.14.3. Practical activities

2.14.4. Role-Play

2.14.5. Model building

2.14.6. Projects

2.15. Out-of-class Experiential Learning

2.15.1. Off-site Iaboratories

2.15.2. Field trips

2.15.3. Internships

2.15.4. Observational work outside

2.15.5. Experiments

2.15.6. Field studies

3. Motivation and Learning

3.1. Intrinsic

3.1.1. Come from within a person

3.1.1.1. Autonomy

3.1.1.2. Curiosity

3.1.1.3. Meaning

3.1.1.4. Learning

3.2. Extrinsic

3.2.1. Comes from outside forces

3.2.1.1. Badges

3.2.1.2. Competition

3.2.1.3. Fear of failure

3.2.1.4. Fear of punishment

3.2.1.5. Rewards

3.3. Intrinsic motivation

3.3.1. Understand what they are learning

3.3.2. Be curious

3.3.3. To enjoy the task

3.3.4. To be able to see the new learning as part of a bigger picture

3.3.5. Have energy for learning

3.4. Behavioral Theories of Motivation

3.4.1. Student motivation is the result of seeking rewards

3.4.2. focus on the use of reinforcement to promote academic motivation

3.4.3. Punishment should be avoided whenever possible

3.5. Cognitive Theories of Motivation

3.5.1. Focus on students thoughts, beliefs

3.5.2. emphasize the importance of promoting intrinsic

3.5.3. Include

3.5.3.1. Interest

3.5.3.2. Goal

3.5.3.3. Self-determination

3.6. Use a range of learning styles in class lesson

3.7. Encourage creativity

3.8. Ensure lessons are meaningful

3.9. Minimise pressure

3.10. Encourage student choice

4. Emotions and Learning

4.1. A state of feeling

4.2. Emotion Involves

4.2.1. A subjective conscious experience(cognitive)

4.2.2. Bodily arousal (physiological)

4.2.3. Characteristic overt expressions(behavioral)

4.3. The behaviour of the teacher

4.4. The bahaviour of the learners

4.5. The physical experience of the learners

4.6. The language that is used by the teacher

4.7. The materials and how they are used

4.8. The activities that the learners engage in.

4.9. Emotional Intelligence

4.9.1. Self-awarence

4.9.1.1. Being alert to your feelings

4.9.2. Self-regulation

4.9.2.1. Managing your feelings

4.9.3. Motivation

4.9.3.1. Using feelings to help achieve your goals

4.9.4. Empathy

4.9.4.1. Tuning into how others feel

4.9.5. Social skills

4.9.5.1. Handling feelings well in interactions with others

4.10. Classroom Application

4.10.1. Subgroup

4.10.2. Explain

4.10.3. Use

4.10.4. Find Out

5. Learning Styles

5.1. Usually one or two styles are preferred

5.2. Not fixed traits which an individual will always display

5.3. Students do not learn the same way

5.4. Learning style models

5.4.1. Honey-Mumford Model

5.4.1.1. Four Learning styles

5.4.2. Neuro-Linguistic Programming

5.4.2.1. Three Learning Styles

5.5. Honey-Mumford Model

5.5.1. Enthusiastic Learning style

5.5.2. Imaginative learning style

5.5.3. Practical learning style

5.5.4. Logical learning style

5.6. Three particular learning style

5.6.1. Visual

5.6.1.1. Prefer to learn by seeing

5.6.1.2. Good visual recall

5.6.1.3. Often use hand movements when describing

5.6.1.4. Tendency to look upwards when think

5.6.2. Auditory

5.6.2.1. Prefer to learn by listening

5.6.2.2. Good auditory memory

5.6.2.3. Like sequence, repetition

5.6.2.4. When recalling memories tend to tilt their head

5.6.3. Kinaesthetic

5.6.3.1. Prefer to learn by doing

5.6.3.2. They are good at recalling events &associate feelings

5.6.3.3. Often find it difficult to keep still

6. Consolidation on of Key Learning Theories

6.1. Learning is a process of interaction between what is known & what is to be learnt

6.2. Learning is a social process

6.3. Learning is situated

6.4. Learning is a metacognitive process

6.5. Learning

6.5.1. New Knowledge

6.5.1.1. Knowledge that is available before the learning event

6.5.1.2. Previous understanding

6.5.1.3. Knowledge gathered

6.6. Context in which learning takes place influence the effectiveness of the learning

6.7. Meaningful contexts for learning are very important

6.8. Teachers need to provide a positive learning environment

6.9. Metacognitive process

6.9.1. Teachers need to give students opportunity to reflect on what they are learning

6.9.2. Students awareness of their own learning

7. Cooperative learning

7.1. Individnal & team accountability

7.2. Team processing

7.3. Interpersonal & small term

7.4. Face to face promotive interaction

7.5. Positive interdependence

8. Vygotsky social constru

8.1. effectively

8.2. scaffolding

8.3. understanding

9. Multiple Intelligence

9.1. Biological endowent

9.2. Peronal life history

9.3. Culture & historical & Background

9.4. word smart

9.5. picture smart

9.6. number smart

9.7. body smart

9.8. music smart

9.9. self smart

9.10. people smart

9.11. nature smart

10. Experiential learning

10.1. Outer world

10.1.1. learning environment

10.1.2. learning activities

10.2. Inter world

10.2.1. emotion reasoning

10.2.2. intelligence learning and change

10.3. Kolb experiention learning cycle

10.3.1. Reflective Obseration

10.3.2. Concrete experience

10.3.3. Active experimentation

10.3.4. Abstract conceptualization

10.4. A method for learnig

10.5. Focus the process

10.6. Out comes of learning

10.7. Directionless or undirected learning

11. Different ways of teaching and learning

11.1. Verabal / lingnistic

11.1.1. World

11.2. Logical / matherical

11.2.1. Number

11.3. Music / rhythic

11.3.1. Music(songs)

11.4. Intrapersonal

11.4.1. Self--reflection

11.5. Bodily kinesthestic

11.5.1. A physical experience(game)

11.6. Interpersonal

11.6.1. A social experience

11.7. visual /spatial

11.7.1. pictural

11.8. Naturalist

11.8.1. experience natural world

12. learning

12.1. Cultural

12.2. definition

12.3. Conception

12.4. Psychological

12.5. Choice

12.5.1. environment

12.5.1.1. exploration

13. Theory

13.1. explain facts wvwnts

13.2. behavior

13.3. may be modified

13.4. understand process

14. Cognitivism

14.1. learners

14.2. individal

14.3. constructed

15. Behaviourism

15.1. Positive reinforcement

15.2. Negative reinforcement

15.3. Operant Condinting

15.4. Classical conditioning

15.4.1. Response

15.4.2. learn assication

15.4.3. Aqnistion

15.4.4. Extinction

15.5. Organism

16. Memory

16.1. Reheassal

16.2. Sensory memorory

16.2.1. Long memory

16.2.2. Short memory

17. Cognition & Cognitive

17.1. Jean Piaget

17.1.1. children cognitive development

17.2. Promble Solving

17.3. Knowledge

17.3.1. Declarative

17.3.2. Knowledge & proceaural

17.4. Drive motivation

17.5. Flexibility

17.5.1. setting goals

17.5.2. making decision

17.5.3. using& changing strategies

17.6. Schema theory

17.7. Information Processing theory