PSYC 1F90 Progress Exam

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PSYC 1F90 Progress Exam by Mind Map: PSYC 1F90 Progress Exam

1. How to Study Psychology

1.1. Experiential Cogntion

1.1.1. A thought that is automatic, passive and effortless.

1.1.2. System 1 Thinking

1.1.2.1. Watching TV

1.1.2.1.1. Dont actively think about what your watching.

1.1.3. Hot System

1.1.3.1. Fight or Flight

1.1.3.2. Develops Early

1.1.3.3. Automatic

1.1.3.4. Triune Brain

1.1.3.4.1. Hindbrain

1.2. Reflective Cognition

1.2.1. A thought that is active, effortful and controlled.

1.2.2. System 2 Thinking

1.2.2.1. Actively think about what your reading or studying

1.2.2.1.1. Methods

1.2.3. Cool System

1.2.3.1. Voluntary

1.2.3.2. Develops Late

1.2.3.3. Triune Brain

1.2.3.3.1. Forebrain

2. Introducing Pscyhology

2.1. Critical Thinking

2.2. Psychology want to try to falsify theories

2.2.1. Gather empirical evidence

2.2.2. Reconstruct theories

2.2.2.1. Can prove theories wrong.

2.2.2.2. Cannot prove theories to be true.

2.3. Scientific Method

2.3.1. Research a topic

2.3.2. Propose a hypothesis

2.3.3. Test the hypothesis

2.3.4. Gather evidence

2.3.5. Construct a theory

2.3.6. Publish results

2.4. Theoretical Explanation

2.4.1. Contemporary Perspectives

2.4.1.1. Psychological

2.4.1.2. Biological

2.4.1.3. Sociocultural

2.5. Empirical Evidence

2.5.1. Types of Data

2.5.1.1. Experimental

2.5.1.1.1. Survey

2.5.1.1.2. Observational

2.5.1.1.3. Case Study

2.5.1.2. Non Experimental

2.5.1.2.1. Quasiexperiemntal

2.5.1.2.2. Correlational

2.6. Setting Representativeness

2.6.1. Setting can influence the results of a study

2.6.2. Researcher Effects

2.6.2.1. Researcher Bias

2.6.2.1.1. When a researcher influences the participant to act the way the researcher has predicted the study will turn out.

2.6.2.2. Research Participant Bias

2.6.2.2.1. When a participant influences themselves and changes the results to go toward what the researcher predicted.

2.6.2.3. Single Blind Experiment

2.6.2.3.1. When the participant doesn't know what is being studied or what the purpose is.

2.6.2.4. Double Blind Experiment

2.6.2.4.1. When the researcher and participant don't know what is being studied or what the purpose is.

2.6.2.5. Placebo Effect

2.6.2.5.1. Used in the medical field.

2.6.2.5.2. When a patient believes they received the drug and results are shown as if they were given the drug when they were actually given the placebo.

3. Brain and Behaviour

3.1. Triune Brain

3.2. Localization of Function

3.2.1. When a brain structure is localized and the specific function of that structure can be determined

3.2.1.1. This can be done through a variety of scans

3.2.1.1.1. fMRI

3.2.1.1.2. PET

3.3. Neurons

3.3.1. Axon

3.3.2. Axon Terminal

3.4. Brain Structures

4. Sensation and Perception

4.1. Reality

4.1.1. The study of reality in physics

4.1.1.1. Psychophysics

4.2. reality

4.2.1. The study of reality in Psychology

4.3. Naive Realism vs. Constructivism

4.3.1. Naive Realism

4.3.2. Constructivism

4.3.3. Distal Stimulus

4.3.3.1. The object

4.3.4. Proximal Stimulus

4.3.4.1. What we see immediately through our eyes.

4.3.5. Percept

4.3.5.1. How our brain processes it

4.3.6. Bottom-Up Processing

4.3.7. Top-Down Processing

4.3.8. Depth Perception

4.3.9. Depth Cues

4.4. Gestalt Perception

4.4.1. Principles

4.4.1.1. Nearness

4.5. Consistencies

4.5.1. Shape

4.5.2. Size

4.5.3. Brightness

5. Learning

5.1. Fixed Action Patterns

5.1.1. Not everything is learned in a lifetime.

5.1.2. Some is "second nature"

5.2. Associative Learning

5.2.1. Hot System

5.3. Cognitive Learning

5.3.1. Cool System

5.4. Classical Conditioning

5.4.1. Conditioned Emotional Response

5.4.2. Discrimination

5.4.3. Higher Order Conditioning

5.5. Operant Conditioning

5.6. Law of Effect

5.7. Reinforcement

5.7.1. Positive

5.7.2. Negative

5.8. Punishment

5.8.1. Positive

5.8.2. Negative

5.9. Shaping

5.10. Discriminative Stimuli

5.11. Chaining

5.12. Schedules of Reinforcement

5.12.1. Continuous Reinforcement

5.12.2. Partial Reinforcement

5.12.2.1. Fixed Ratio

5.12.2.2. Variable Ratio

5.12.2.3. Fixed Interval

5.12.2.4. Variable Interval

5.13. Superstitious Conditioning

5.13.1. "Lucky" hat, pencil, shirt, etc

6. Memory

6.1. Measuring Memory

6.1.1. Recall

6.1.1.1. Being able to retrieve information from LTM from little to no prompts.

6.1.2. Recognition

6.1.2.1. Learning memories that have already been stored in memory.

6.1.3. Accessibility

6.1.3.1. Memories that are accessible in LTM.

6.1.4. Availability

6.1.4.1. Memories that are available in memory.

6.2. Errors

6.2.1. Encoding

6.2.1.1. Failure to encode information in LTM.

6.2.2. Storage

6.2.2.1. Failure to store memories in LTM

6.2.3. Retrieval

6.2.3.1. Failure to retrieve memories stored in LTM

6.3. Atkinson-Schriffrin

6.3.1. Sensory Memory

6.3.1.1. Unconscious memory stored for approximately 3 seconds

6.3.2. STM

6.3.2.1. About 5 - 8 items can be held in STM for approx. 12 seconds

6.3.2.1.1. More items can be held if chunking is used.

6.3.3. LTM

6.3.3.1. Memories that are stored for long periods of time.

6.3.3.1.1. Memories must be encoded, stored and retrieved.

6.4. Forgetting from Sensory Memory and STM

6.4.1. Decay

6.4.1.1. When the brain decays and memories are lost.

6.4.2. Displacement

6.4.2.1. When memories are lost during encoding and/or storage

6.5. Forgetting in LTM

6.5.1. Encoding Failure

6.5.2. Retrieval Failure

6.5.2.1. Failure to be able to retrieve memories that are stored in LTM

6.5.2.1.1. Tip-of-Tongue Phenomena

7. Cognition and Intelligence

7.1. Symbol Manipulation

7.1.1. Images

7.1.1.1. Vivid images in the mind that are picture-like

7.1.2. Concepts

7.1.2.1. Categories

7.1.3. Language

7.1.3.1. Ways of communication and thought

7.2. Levels of Language

7.3. Intelligence

7.4. Theories of Intelligence

7.4.1. Nature

7.4.2. Nurture

7.4.3. Flynn Effect

7.5. IQ

7.5.1. Misuse

7.5.1.1. Oversimplification

7.5.1.2. Labeling

7.5.2. Stereotyping

7.5.2.1. IQ classifies people into categories which are misleading because the IQ test doesn't measure everything and therefore they are inaccurate.

8. Human Sexuality

8.1. Perspectives

8.1.1. Nemethetic

8.1.2. Ideographic

8.1.3. Oliver Sacks

8.2. Sex

8.2.1. A persons biological sex, male or female

8.3. Gender

8.3.1. A persons social gender they decide.

8.4. Biological Essentialism

8.4.1. Having a biological sex is essential

8.5. Social Constructivism

8.5.1. People must have their own social determination of what gender they are in order to construct a social identity.

8.6. Adrogeny

8.6.1. Having both masculine and feminine traits.

8.7. Gender Role Strain

8.7.1. The idea that each gender has its own traits and that its not right to go off of that specific trait "trail"

8.8. Feminism

8.9. Masculine

9. Applied Psychology

9.1. Industrial Psychology

9.1.1. Leadership

9.1.1.1. X

9.1.1.2. Y

9.2. Environmental Psychology

9.3. Psychology and the Law

9.4. Educational Psychology

9.5. Sports Psychology

9.6. Human Factors