Learning design and technology

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Learning design and technology by Mind Map: Learning design and technology

1. What is Design of Learning/Instructional Products?

1.1. History of Instructional Media

1.1.1. (1994) Definition

1.1.2. (Current) Definition

1.2. History of Instructional Design

1.3. Evaluation of Instructional Media

1.3.1. Learning environment analysis

1.3.2. Learner analysis

1.3.3. Needs analysis

1.3.4. Content analysis

1.3.5. Use of objective data

1.3.6. Generic approach to design

1.4. Teacher's private theory

1.4.1. Areas of private theories

1.4.1.1. Students: How student learn

1.4.1.2. Learning: How knowledge is acquired

1.4.1.3. Teacher: Teachers' role in learning

1.4.1.4. Technology: benefit and limitation of using technology in class

1.4.1.5. Design: Selection, planning and design of technology-based learning

1.4.1.6. Educational changes: Changes in society and implications

1.4.2. Design Approach

1.4.2.1. Direct instruction

1.4.2.2. Student-centered learning

1.5. Additional information

2. Instructional Design Models

2.1. Instructional Design & Learning Theory

2.1.1. Basics of Learning Theories

2.1.1.1. Behaviorism

2.1.1.1.1. Behaviorism & Instructional Design

2.1.1.2. Cognitivism -

2.1.1.2.1. Cognitivism and Instructional Design

2.1.1.3. Constructivism

2.1.1.3.1. Constructivism and Instructional Design

2.1.2. Learning Theory and the practice of Instructional Design

2.1.2.1. Strengths and Weaknesses

2.1.2.1.1. Behaviorism

2.1.2.1.2. Cognitivism

2.1.2.1.3. Constructivism

2.1.2.2. Best learning Theroy for Instructional Design

2.1.2.2.1. Matching types of learnings

2.1.2.2.2. Matching Learning theories with content

2.2. Generations of Instructional Design

2.2.1. ID1

2.2.1.1. Limitations

2.2.1.1.1. e.g. Expert Systems

2.2.2. ID2

2.2.2.1. Components

2.2.2.2. Analyzingand Representing Knowledge for Integrated Goals

2.2.2.2.1. Classes of Knowledge Representations

2.2.2.2.2. Knowledge Representation

2.2.2.2.3. Knowledge Analysis and Acquisition system (KAAS)

2.2.2.2.4. Instructional Strategies and Transactions

3. Designing Instructional / Learning Technology Product - Using Multimedia

3.1. Multimedia Learning

3.1.1. Multimedia instructional message

3.1.1.1. Cognitive theory of multimedia learnig

3.1.1.2. Works across media?

3.1.1.2.1. Multimedia effect

3.1.1.2.2. Personalization effect

3.1.1.2.3. Coherence effect

3.1.1.2.4. Contiguity effect

3.2. Blueprints for Complex Learning

3.2.1. Complex Learning

3.2.1.1. 4 Blueprint components

3.2.1.1.1. Learning Tasks

3.2.1.1.2. Supporting Information

3.2.1.1.3. Just-In-Time Information

3.2.1.1.4. Part-task Practice

3.2.1.2. 10 Steps of Complex Learning

3.3. Additional Information

3.3.1. More about Just-in-time Information

3.3.2. Cognitive Theory and Multimedia Instruction

4. Designing Instructional / Learning Technology Product - Problem-based Learning

4.1. Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving

4.1.1. Problems

4.1.1.1. Problems Variations

4.1.1.1.1. Structedness

4.1.1.1.2. Complexity

4.1.1.1.3. Domain Specificity

4.1.1.2. Problem Representations

4.1.1.3. Individual Differences

4.1.1.3.1. (Strong Predictor)

4.1.1.3.2. Cognitive Controls

4.1.1.3.3. Metacognition

4.1.1.3.4. Epistemological Beliefs

4.1.1.3.5. Affective and Conative

4.1.1.3.6. General Problem-Solving Skills

4.1.1.4. Typology of Problem Solving

4.1.1.4.1. Logical Problems

4.1.1.4.2. Algorithmic Problems

4.1.1.4.3. Story Porblems

4.1.1.4.4. Rule-using Problem

4.1.1.4.5. Decision-Making Problem

4.1.1.4.6. Troubleshooting Problem

4.1.1.4.7. Diagnosis-Solution Problems

4.1.1.4.8. Strategic Performance

4.1.1.4.9. Case-Analysis Problems

4.1.1.4.10. Design Problems

4.1.1.4.11. Dilemmas

4.1.1.4.12. Discrete Problems vs. Metaproblems

4.2. Problem Based Learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework

4.2.1. Constructivism

4.2.1.1. Understanding is in our interactions with environment

4.2.1.2. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stiulus for learning and determines the organiation and nature of what is learned

4.2.1.3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings

4.2.2. Instructional Principals

4.2.2.1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem

4.2.2.1.1. Example

4.2.2.2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task

4.2.2.3. Design an authentic task

4.2.2.4. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning.

4.2.2.5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution.

4.2.2.6. Design the learning enviornment to support and challenge the learner's thinking.

4.2.2.7. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts.

4.2.2.8. Provide opportunity for the support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

4.2.3. Problem-Based Learning

4.2.3.1. Better explanation by Project-based learning. Example here.

4.2.3.2. All areas

4.3. Designing Consructivist Learning Environment

4.3.1. Model

4.3.1.1. Type of CLE

4.3.1.1.1. Question-Base

4.3.1.1.2. Case-Base

4.3.1.1.3. Problem-Base

4.3.1.1.4. Project-Base

4.3.1.2. Type of Problem

4.3.1.2.1. Problem Context

4.3.1.2.2. Problem Representation/Simulation

4.3.1.2.3. Problem Manipulation Space

4.3.1.3. Related Cases

4.3.1.3.1. Scaffold Student Memory: Case-Based Reasoning

4.3.1.3.2. Enhance Cognitive Flexibility

4.3.1.4. Information Resources

4.3.1.5. Cognitive (Knowledge-Construction) Tools

4.3.1.5.1. Problem/Task Representation Tools

4.3.1.5.2. Static and Dynamic Knowledge Modeling Tools

4.3.1.5.3. Perforance Support Tools

4.3.1.5.4. Information Gathering Tools

4.3.1.6. Conversation and Collaboration Tools

4.3.1.7. Social/Contextual Support

4.3.2. Activity

4.3.2.1. 1. Modeling

4.3.2.1.1. Behavioral- how to perform the activities

4.3.2.1.2. Cognitive - reasoning for the learner to use while engage in activities

4.3.2.2. 2. Coaching

4.3.2.2.1. Monitor performance

4.3.2.2.2. Provides hints and help

4.3.2.2.3. Prompt the use of collaborative activities

4.3.2.2.4. Prompt consideration of related cases

4.3.2.2.5. Prompt the use of specific cognitive tools

4.3.2.2.6. Prompt feedback and reflection

4.3.2.3. 3. Scaffolding

4.3.2.3.1. Adjust task difficulty

4.3.2.3.2. Provide alternative assessments

4.4. Rich Environments for Active Learning (REAL)

4.4.1. REAL

4.4.1.1. Definition

4.4.1.1.1. Is not

4.4.1.1.2. Is

4.4.1.2. Foundation

4.4.1.2.1. Characteristics from constructism

4.4.1.3. Attributes

4.4.1.3.1. Student responsibility and initative

4.4.1.3.2. Generative learning activities

4.4.1.3.3. Authentic learning contexts

4.4.1.3.4. Authenticassessment strategis

4.4.1.3.5. Co-operative support

4.4.2. Need for Educational change

4.4.2.1. Changing Society

4.4.2.2. Weaknesses with the current system

4.5. Additional Information

4.5.1. Challenge-based Learning by Apple

4.5.2. Supporting PBL

5. Design Learning Technology for Mobile Learning

5.1. Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld deices

5.1.1. Devices

5.1.1.1. PDA

5.1.1.2. Mobile Phone

5.1.1.3. tablet computer

5.1.2. Functionality framework

5.1.2.1. Administration

5.1.2.1.1. e.g. Drupal

5.1.2.1.2. e.g. Moodle

5.1.2.2. Reference

5.1.2.2.1. e.g. Google Translate

5.1.2.3. Interactive

5.1.2.4. Microworld

5.1.2.4.1. e.g. 2nd Life

5.1.2.5. Data Collection

5.1.2.5.1. Scientific

5.1.2.5.2. Reflective

5.1.2.6. Location aware

5.1.2.6.1. e.g. GPS

5.1.2.7. Collaborative

5.1.2.7.1. e.g. Discussion forum

5.1.3. Pedagogical underpinning

5.1.3.1. Little Pedagogy

5.1.3.2. Instructional

5.1.3.3. Behaviourist

5.1.3.4. Constructionist

5.1.3.5. Collaborative

5.1.3.6. Contextual

5.1.3.7. Reflective

5.1.4. Collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications

5.1.4.1. TxtIT

5.1.4.2. GPRS

5.1.4.3. SortIT

5.2. Additional Information

5.2.1. Comparing M-learning with E-learning

5.2.1.1. new resources for use with mobile learning: smart phones, tablet computers, notebooks

5.2.1.1.1. New type of digital storybook

5.2.1.2. New opportunities for Mobile Learning

5.2.1.3. New type of pedagogy platform

5.2.1.3.1. e.g. Augmented Reality

5.2.1.4. New frameworks and skill sets for both teachers and learners

6. Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

6.1. Web 2.0 and Possibilities for Educational Applications

6.1.1. Education and Web 2.0

6.1.1.1. New opportunities

6.1.1.1.1. New form of assessment

6.1.1.1.2. Internet-mediated social learning spaces

6.1.1.1.3. New model/method for digital curriculum

6.1.1.1.4. Resources sharing / technology integration of communities of teachers

6.1.1.1.5. New type of Learning Management Systems

6.1.1.2. New requirements

6.1.1.2.1. Professional Development for teachers

6.1.1.2.2. Ways to integrate Web 2.0 into pedagogy

6.1.1.2.3. New investment in hardware/software

6.1.1.3. New problems

6.1.1.3.1. How to perceive student facing new world with new technology

6.1.1.3.2. New kind of treat from digital technology

6.1.2. Web 2.0

6.1.2.1. Read-Write Web

6.1.2.1.1. Blog

6.1.2.1.2. Wiki

6.1.2.2. Subscribing to information

6.1.2.2.1. RSS

6.1.2.2.2. Podcast

6.1.2.3. Social Spaces

6.1.2.3.1. Collective activities

6.1.2.3.2. Resources sharing

6.1.2.3.3. Folksonomy

6.1.2.3.4. "learn" and improve based on activities

6.1.2.4. Internet as platform

6.1.2.4.1. Google Docs

6.1.2.4.2. Zoho

6.1.2.5. Open Source

6.1.2.5.1. Content contributed by communities

6.1.2.5.2. Software contributed by communities

6.2. Additional Information

6.2.1. When we think Web 2.0 is good for T&L, Web 3.0 is here

6.2.2. Web 3.0 is about data

6.2.3. Social network really useful in education?

7. Development of Product

7.1. Teaching and Learning in Digital Environments: The Resurgence of Resource-Based Learning

7.1.1. Resource-Based Learning

7.1.1.1. Resource-based teaching and learning

7.1.1.1.1. Components or RBLEs

7.1.1.1.2. Challenges, Opportunities & implications

7.1.1.2. Evolution of Resources for RBL

7.1.1.2.1. Predigital perspectives

7.1.1.2.2. Digital era perspectives

7.2. Teaching and learning online: A beginning's guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education

7.2.1. Online learning

7.2.1.1. Materials for online learning

7.2.1.1.1. Online learning resources

7.2.1.2. frameworks

7.2.1.2.1. Any MITE course

7.2.1.3. Instructional design for web-based learning

7.2.2. Learning tasks

7.2.2.1. Content-based design (normal teaching mode)

7.2.2.2. Task-based design

7.2.2.2.1. = Project-based learning

7.2.2.2.2. LMS vs LCMS

7.2.2.2.3. Planning: authentic learning tasks and activities

7.2.2.2.4. Authentic online assessment

7.2.3. Learning Resources

7.2.3.1. Web deployment

7.2.4. Learning supports

7.2.4.1. Guided Learning supports

7.2.4.1.1. Learning Contracts

7.2.4.1.2. Learning Guides

7.2.4.1.3. Learning Schedules

7.2.4.2. Self-regulated learning

7.2.4.2.1. Metacognition and self-concept

7.2.4.2.2. Self-monitoring and motivation

7.2.4.2.3. Volitional & Cognitive Strategy formation

7.2.4.3. Social construction of knowledge

7.2.4.3.1. e-mail

7.2.4.3.2. Bulletin Board / Forum

7.2.4.3.3. Videe/audio conference

7.2.4.3.4. Second Life

7.2.4.4. Learning scaffolding

7.2.4.5. Learning communities

7.2.4.5.1. Mentors

7.2.4.5.2. Professional recognition

7.2.4.5.3. Group projects

7.2.5. Learning designs

7.2.5.1. Situated learning (instruction-based)

7.2.5.2. Problem-based learning

7.2.5.3. Case-based learning

7.2.5.4. Project-based learning

7.2.5.5. Inquiry-based learning

7.2.5.6. Role-playing and simulations

7.2.5.6.1. The Sims

7.2.6. Design and development strategies

7.2.6.1. Learning Objects

7.2.6.1.1. Accessibility

7.2.6.1.2. Making it reusable

7.2.6.1.3. Metadata

7.2.6.2. Evaluating online learning settings

7.2.6.2.1. Attributes of effective online settings

7.2.6.2.2. Framework for evaluating

7.3. Additional Information

7.3.1. Using SecondLife as VLE (Virtual Learning Envornment

8. Designing for Concept Learning

8.1. Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing Constructivist Learning Environments

8.1.1. Activity Theory

8.1.1.1. Activity System

8.1.1.2. Assumptions

8.1.1.2.1. Minds in Context

8.1.1.2.2. Consciousness in the World

8.1.1.2.3. Inentionality

8.1.1.2.4. Object-Orientedness

8.1.1.2.5. Community: A Dialectic Context

8.1.1.2.6. Historical-Curtural Dimension

8.1.1.2.7. Tool Mediation

8.1.1.2.8. Collaboration

8.1.1.3. CLE through Activity Theory

8.1.1.3.1. Problem-Project Space

8.1.1.3.2. Related Cases

8.1.1.4. Learning Supports

8.1.1.4.1. Information Resources

8.1.1.4.2. Conversation and Collaboration Tools

8.1.1.4.3. Cognitive Tools

8.1.1.5. Process for Designing CLEs

8.1.1.5.1. 1. Clarify purpose of activity

8.2. Searching for Learner-Centered, Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools

8.2.1. Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology

8.2.1.1. Cognitive & Metacognitive Factors

8.2.1.1.1. Tools for learners to build, browse, link, draw, represent, summarize...

8.2.1.2. Motivational & Affective Factors

8.2.1.2.1. Colloborative tools (forum)

8.2.1.3. Developmental & Social Factors

8.2.1.3.1. Electronic conferencing, collobrative tools

8.2.1.4. Individual differences

8.2.1.4.1. Global communication tools (linguistic/cultural difference)

8.2.2. Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology

8.2.2.1. Cognitive constructivist

8.2.2.2. Social constructivist

8.2.3. Socialcultural Views on Collaborative Technology

8.3. On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design

8.3.1. Concepts

8.3.1.1. Classical-Attribute Isolation View of Concepts

8.3.1.1.1. Problems

8.3.1.2. Prototype or Probablistic View of Concepts

8.3.1.3. Example view of concepts

8.3.1.4. Similarity views of concepts

8.3.1.5. Other view of concepts

8.3.1.5.1. Actional view of concepts

8.3.1.5.2. Theory-based view of concepts

8.3.2. Conceptual Change

8.3.2.1. Implications

8.3.2.1.1. For Assessment: Propositions

8.3.2.1.2. Free word assoications

8.3.2.1.3. Similarity ratings

8.3.2.2. Representation

8.3.2.2.1. Cognitive maps

8.4. Additional Information

8.4.1. Teaching Concepts: Instructional Design Guide

8.4.2. Web 3.0 and Conceptual map's resemblance

8.4.3. Model-based reasoning in conceptual change