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Learning design and technology by Mind Map: Learning design and technology
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Learning design and technology

What is Design of Learning/Instructional Products?

History of Instructional Media

History of Instructional Design

  Post WWII approach 1. Programmed instructionl movement (1950s - mid 1960s): Formative evaluation 2. Behavioral objective (early 60s): How to write objectives 3. Criterian-Reference Testing Movement 4. Domains of Learning, Events of instruction & Hierarchical Analysis (1965) * Verbal information * Intellectual skills * Psychomotor skill * Attitude * Cognitive strategies 5. The indirect launch of formative evaluation (1965): Summative evaluation  

Evaluation of Instructional Media

  School Museums (early 20th century) Visual instruction Movement and Films (early 20th century) Audiovisual Instrution Movement and Radio (1920s) WW II - boosted in instruction for use in miltary Post WWII developments & media researh (1940s) Theory of Communications/Instructional Television (1950s - 1960s) Computers (19502 - 1995) Internet (recent)  

Teacher's private theory

Additional information

The use of technology in teaching and learning does not gurantee meanful result.  It is necessary to analysis the following before moving forward. The type of instructions and what can be substituted with the use of technology How strong is the "need" - does the environment suitable for new kind of T&L.  For example if Internet access is not yet popular, it will not be possible to push for online learning. Do teachers have a throughful understand of the use of technology.  Will they be able to use technology wisely in their teaching, so that the mode of learning will be transformed to "student-centered" learning?  Or teacher will only be able to use technology as a new way to giving instruction (e.g. PowerPoint slide as a substitute of black/white board teaching)

Instructional Design Models

Instructional Design & Learning Theory

Generations of Instructional Design

Designing Instructional / Learning Technology Product - Using Multimedia

Multimedia Learning

combing pictures with words allows student to learn deeply than verbal-only messages  

Blueprints for Complex Learning

Additional Information

Designing Instructional / Learning Technology Product - Problem-based Learning

Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving

Problem Based Learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework

Designing Consructivist Learning Environment

Rich Environments for Active Learning (REAL)

Additional Information

The evolution of learning, from conservative mode into new type of pedagogy, has changed a number of processes in pedagogy The problem-based learning, defining learning through introduction of problems.  In supporting the use of PBL, it is necessary to define/create new resources for sustaining PBL: Resources need to be defined to support self-directed learning, so that student will have the opportunity to seek knowledge (solution) for the problem.  Typical resources include library, internet search.  However it is also possible to build repository of (problems) and related materials for use with PBL. Access to information will have to be increased, as compare to traditional classroom-based teaching.  This could mean extended opening hours of school, extra staffing, introduction of Just-in-time information. Extensive use of ICT (to support student research) and increasing collection of multimedia material for enquiry, online based collaborative tools for team-work, etc. All these resources will (most likely) require additional funding for school to sustain PBL.  Professional development for teachers in PBL assessment is also expected as the method of assessment (Bloom's taxonomy?) will be different from traditional "marking scheme".  It is also expected to put teachers through training for their delivery of PBL courseware effectively.

Design Learning Technology for Mobile Learning

Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld deices

Additional Information

Mobile learning brings in new opportunities for learners as well as new challenges.  As compare with E-learning, Mobile will involve a lot more of innovative ideas and tools for the learners.

Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

Web 2.0 and Possibilities for Educational Applications

Additional Information

There are a lot more choices of internet resources available for use as "Web 2.0" tools for teaching and learning.  Each tool has its strength in certain area of the education segments (e.g. adminstration requires school Drupal as school management). Web 2.0 does not limit to online activities as well.  OpenSource software and Hybrid software (software which requires to access internet for update info) are getting popular. Google Earth is 1 example which is a downloadable software but requires online information. There are also tools, never considered to be educational, now being highly used in T&L.  Socialnetworking (FaceBook, Twitter) are heavily used as collobrative tools among students. New uses of technology also created new issues.  Cyber-misbehavior spread much wider and faster. Also, new Web 2.0 tools will need new skill sets for edcators to process.  

Development of Product

Teaching and Learning in Digital Environments: The Resurgence of Resource-Based Learning

Teaching and learning online: A beginning's guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education

Additional Information

After going through the readings for this week, the following points are the summarization: The evolution of learning, from conservative mode into new type of pedagogy, has changed way of teaching. Use of multimedia in instructural design can bring in a number of advantages towards learning. The tool itself does not contribute much to the T&L.  It is always necessary to have "learning support" - resources / knowledge / communities' collaboration. Tools can have multiple strength when placing them as components of Resource Based Learning.  This is unlink Learning Object which should only serve single objective through the learning.

Designing for Concept Learning

Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing Constructivist Learning Environments

Searching for Learner-Centered, Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools

On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design

Additional Information

In order to formulate a much suitable instructural design scheme, it is necessary to understand how people formulate concepts.  In addition, how people can learn through activity will be important element for designer to use this ideas. The two articles has suggested that concept formulation and evolution of concepts into knowledge is closely resembles to constructivist learning (e.g. enquiry-based, problem-based) where learners will manipulate their knowledge and develop their own findings.   Conceptual changes has evolved the way people perceive concepts into higher reasoning (Model based reasoning in conceptual change). The "conceptual change" has also brought into attention of Web 3.0 development, where web 3.0 is a collection of database.  Information is provided through the use of artificial intelligence.   (Web 3.0 Definition)