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Learning design and technology by Mind Map: Learning design and
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Learning design and technology

What is Design of Learning/Instructional Products?

History of Instructional Media

(1994) Definition

(Current) Definition

History of Instructional Design

  Post WWII approach 1. Programmed instructionl movement (1950s - mid 1960s): Formative evaluation 2. Behavioral objective (early 60s): How to write objectives 3. Criterian-Reference Testing Movement 4. Domains of Learning, Events of instruction & Hierarchical Analysis (1965) * Verbal information * Intellectual skills * Psychomotor skill * Attitude * Cognitive strategies 5. The indirect launch of formative evaluation (1965): Summative evaluation  

Evaluation of Instructional Media

  School Museums (early 20th century) Visual instruction Movement and Films (early 20th century) Audiovisual Instrution Movement and Radio (1920s) WW II - boosted in instruction for use in miltary Post WWII developments & media researh (1940s) Theory of Communications/Instructional Television (1950s - 1960s) Computers (19502 - 1995) Internet (recent)  

Learning environment analysis

Learner analysis

Needs analysis

Content analysis

Use of objective data

Generic approach to design

Teacher's private theory

Areas of private theories, Students: How student learn, Learning: How knowledge is acquired, Teacher: Teachers' role in learning, Technology: benefit and limitation of using technology in class, Design: Selection, planning and design of technology-based learning, Educational changes: Changes in society and implications

Design Approach, Direct instruction, Student-centered learning

Additional information

The use of technology in teaching and learning does not gurantee meanful result.  It is necessary to analysis the following before moving forward. The type of instructions and what can be substituted with the use of technology How strong is the "need" - does the environment suitable for new kind of T&L.  For example if Internet access is not yet popular, it will not be possible to push for online learning. Do teachers have a throughful understand of the use of technology.  Will they be able to use technology wisely in their teaching, so that the mode of learning will be transformed to "student-centered" learning?  Or teacher will only be able to use technology as a new way to giving instruction (e.g. PowerPoint slide as a substitute of black/white board teaching)

Instructional Design Models

Instructional Design & Learning Theory

Basics of Learning Theories, Behaviorism, Behaviorism & Instructional Design, Behavioral Objectives Movement, Taxonomic Analysis of Learning Behaviors, Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning, Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning, Mastery Learning, Military and Industrial Approach, Accountability Movement, Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction Movement, Early Use of Programmed Instruction, Individualized Approaches to Instruction, Keller Plan, Individually Prescibed Instruction (IPI), Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN), Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), Systems Approach to Instruction, Cognitivism -, Cognitivism and Instructional Design, Cognitivism and Computer-Based Instruction, e.g. LOGO, Constructivism, Constructivism and Instructional Design

Learning Theory and the practice of Instructional Design, Strengths and Weaknesses, Behaviorism, Weakness - stimulus for correct response does not occur. Learning cannot respond, Strength - Learner is focused on clear goal. Can respond automatically to cues, Cognitivism, Weakness - Learner may not use the best way to accomplish a task, Strength - Enable consistency, Constructivism, Weakness - divergent thinking and action will cause problems, Strength - learner is better able to deal with real life situations., Best learning Theroy for Instructional Design, Matching types of learnings, Introductory Learning - classical instructional design, Advanced Knowledge Acquisition - constructivist approach, Expertise - Constructivist approach, Matching Learning theories with content, Behavioral - tasks requiring low degree of process, Cognitive - Tasks requiring increased level of processing, Constructive - Tasks demanding high levels of processing

Generations of Instructional Design

ID1, Limitations, e.g. Expert Systems

ID2, Components, Analyzingand Representing Knowledge for Integrated Goals, Classes of Knowledge Representations, KR(r): retrieving knowledge, KR(e) - Execution of representation, KR(i) - class of interest, Knowledge Representation, 3 fundamental frame types, 3 elaborations, 2 principal network structures, Knowledge Analysis and Acquisition system (KAAS), Instructional Strategies and Transactions, Transactions and Transaction Classes, Transaction Configuration, Transaction Configuration System (TCS) and Library, e.g. Intelligent Tutoring System and Micro-worlds, Strategy Analysis, Prescriptions and Filters, Information Gathering, Strategy Analysis System (SAS), Course Organiation, Intelligent Advisor System (IADV)

Designing Instructional / Learning Technology Product - Using Multimedia

Multimedia Learning

combing pictures with words allows student to learn deeply than verbal-only messages  

Multimedia instructional message, Cognitive theory of multimedia learnig, Works across media?, Multimedia effect, Personalization effect, Coherence effect, Contiguity effect

Blueprints for Complex Learning

Complex Learning, 4 Blueprint components, Learning Tasks, Task classes, Learner support, Product-oriented support, Process-oriente support, Supporting Information, Mental models, 1. Conceptual model, 2. Structural model, 3. Casual model, Strategies, Inductive Strategy, 1. Inductive-inquiry strategy, 2. Inductive-expository strategy, 3. Deductive strategy, Deductive strategy, Cognitive strategies, Cognitive feedback, Just-In-Time Information, Information display, Demonstrations and instances, Corrective feedback, Part-task Practice, Practice items, JIT information for part-task practice, Overtraining, 10 Steps of Complex Learning

Additional Information

More about Just-in-time Information

Cognitive Theory and Multimedia Instruction

Designing Instructional / Learning Technology Product - Problem-based Learning

Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving

Problems, Problems Variations, Structedness, Well-structured problems, Ill-structured problems, Complexity, Domain Specificity, Problem Representations, Individual Differences, (Strong Predictor), Domain and Structural Knowledge, Familiarity, Cognitive Controls, Metacognition, Epistemological Beliefs, Affective and Conative, Affective elements, Conative elements, General Problem-Solving Skills, Some people are better, Typology of Problem Solving, Logical Problems, Algorithmic Problems, Story Porblems, Rule-using Problem, Decision-Making Problem, Troubleshooting Problem, Diagnosis-Solution Problems, Strategic Performance, Case-Analysis Problems, Design Problems, Dilemmas, Discrete Problems vs. Metaproblems

Problem Based Learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework

Constructivism, Understanding is in our interactions with environment, Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stiulus for learning and determines the organiation and nature of what is learned, Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings

Instructional Principals, Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem, Example, Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task, Design an authentic task, Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning., Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution., Design the learning enviornment to support and challenge the learner's thinking., Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts., Provide opportunity for the support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

Problem-Based Learning, Better explanation by Project-based learning. Example here., All areas

Designing Consructivist Learning Environment

Model, Type of CLE, Question-Base, Case-Base, Problem-Base, Project-Base, Type of Problem, Problem Context, Performance environment, Community of practitioners, Problem Representation/Simulation, Narrative (low end/current), Virtual reality (high end/future), Authentic, Activity structures, cognitive task analysis (PARI), Problem Manipulation Space, Related Cases, Scaffold Student Memory: Case-Based Reasoning, Enhance Cognitive Flexibility, Information Resources, Cognitive (Knowledge-Construction) Tools, Problem/Task Representation Tools, Static and Dynamic Knowledge Modeling Tools, Perforance Support Tools, Information Gathering Tools, Conversation and Collaboration Tools, Social/Contextual Support

Activity, 1. Modeling, Behavioral- how to perform the activities, Cognitive - reasoning for the learner to use while engage in activities, 2. Coaching, Monitor performance, Provides hints and help, Prompt the use of collaborative activities, Prompt consideration of related cases, Prompt the use of specific cognitive tools, Prompt feedback and reflection, 3. Scaffolding, Adjust task difficulty, Provide alternative assessments

Rich Environments for Active Learning (REAL)

REAL, Definition, Is not, Is, Foundation, Characteristics from constructism, Attributes, Student responsibility and initative, Intentional learning, REAL Strategy: reciprocal teaching, Questioning, Self-Reflection, Metacognitive skills, Generative learning activities, REAL Strategy: cognitive apprenticeship, Authentic learning contexts, REAL Strategy: anchored instruction, REAL Strategy: cognitive flexibility theory, Authenticassessment strategis, REAL example: learning in design, Co-operative support, REAL strategy: problem-based learning

Need for Educational change, Changing Society, Weaknesses with the current system

Additional Information

The evolution of learning, from conservative mode into new type of pedagogy, has changed a number of processes in pedagogy The problem-based learning, defining learning through introduction of problems.  In supporting the use of PBL, it is necessary to define/create new resources for sustaining PBL: Resources need to be defined to support self-directed learning, so that student will have the opportunity to seek knowledge (solution) for the problem.  Typical resources include library, internet search.  However it is also possible to build repository of (problems) and related materials for use with PBL. Access to information will have to be increased, as compare to traditional classroom-based teaching.  This could mean extended opening hours of school, extra staffing, introduction of Just-in-time information. Extensive use of ICT (to support student research) and increasing collection of multimedia material for enquiry, online based collaborative tools for team-work, etc. All these resources will (most likely) require additional funding for school to sustain PBL.  Professional development for teachers in PBL assessment is also expected as the method of assessment (Bloom's taxonomy?) will be different from traditional "marking scheme".  It is also expected to put teachers through training for their delivery of PBL courseware effectively.

Challenge-based Learning by Apple

Supporting PBL

Design Learning Technology for Mobile Learning

Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld deices

Devices, PDA, Mobile Phone, tablet computer

Functionality framework, Administration, e.g. Drupal, e.g. Moodle, Reference, e.g. Google Translate, Interactive, Microworld, e.g. 2nd Life, Data Collection, Scientific, e.g. DataStudio, Reflective, e.g. Blog, Location aware, e.g. GPS, Collaborative, e.g. Discussion forum

Pedagogical underpinning, Little Pedagogy, Instructional, Behaviourist, Constructionist, Collaborative, Contextual, Reflective

Collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications, TxtIT, GPRS, SortIT

Additional Information

Mobile learning brings in new opportunities for learners as well as new challenges.  As compare with E-learning, Mobile will involve a lot more of innovative ideas and tools for the learners.

Comparing M-learning with E-learning, new resources for use with mobile learning: smart phones, tablet computers, notebooks, New type of digital storybook, New opportunities for Mobile Learning, New type of pedagogy platform, e.g. Augmented Reality, New frameworks and skill sets for both teachers and learners

Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

Web 2.0 and Possibilities for Educational Applications

Education and Web 2.0, New opportunities, New form of assessment, Digital portfolios, PDF portfolios, Student blog, Internet-mediated social learning spaces, Facebook, New model/method for digital curriculum, Moodle's course, Resources sharing / technology integration of communities of teachers, TeacherTube, Google Docs, New type of Learning Management Systems, Canvas, Drupal, Joomla, New requirements, Professional Development for teachers, Google Teacher, Adobe ACA, Ways to integrate Web 2.0 into pedagogy, New investment in hardware/software, Government's involvement -> State of Maine, New problems, How to perceive student facing new world with new technology, Digital literacy, New kind of treat from digital technology, Cyber-bullying, Identity theft

Web 2.0, Read-Write Web, Blog, Wiki, Subscribing to information, RSS, Podcast, Social Spaces, Collective activities, Facebook, Ning, Resources sharing, YouTube, Vimeo, Folksonomy, Tag, "learn" and improve based on activities, suggestion, Apple's iTune's Ping, Internet as platform, Google Docs, Zoho, Open Source, Content contributed by communities, Wikipedia, Software contributed by communities, OpenOffice, Audacity

Additional Information

There are a lot more choices of internet resources available for use as "Web 2.0" tools for teaching and learning.  Each tool has its strength in certain area of the education segments (e.g. adminstration requires school Drupal as school management). Web 2.0 does not limit to online activities as well.  OpenSource software and Hybrid software (software which requires to access internet for update info) are getting popular. Google Earth is 1 example which is a downloadable software but requires online information. There are also tools, never considered to be educational, now being highly used in T&L.  Socialnetworking (FaceBook, Twitter) are heavily used as collobrative tools among students. New uses of technology also created new issues.  Cyber-misbehavior spread much wider and faster. Also, new Web 2.0 tools will need new skill sets for edcators to process.  

When we think Web 2.0 is good for T&L, Web 3.0 is here

Web 3.0 is about data

Social network really useful in education?

Development of Product

Teaching and Learning in Digital Environments: The Resurgence of Resource-Based Learning

Resource-Based Learning, Resource-based teaching and learning, Components or RBLEs, Resources, Static, Dynamic, Contexts, Externally directed (teachers-lead), Learner generated, Negotiated = Externally directed + Learner generated, Tools, Searching Tools, Internet search, Processing Tools (Capturing), Web capturing tool, Manipulating tools, "Collaboration" software, Communication tools, email, Scaffolds, Conceptual - outline, Metacognitive - help learners to realize what to learn, Procedural - help learners (with tools) to problem-solve, Strategic - alternative approaches, Challenges, Opportunities & implications, Inconsistent standard, Standardizing terminology for better communication: practice, applied theory ... By Richard Alan Strehlow, Sue Ellen Wright, American Society for Testing and Materials, Role and design of enabling context have not been established, Resources creditability, content validity, and reliability, Fake websites, Direct approaches -> non-independent thinking, Student lack metacognitive awareness, Contemporary school accountability standards, "It is not the marks that we are after. Instead we all realise that learning cannot last and will not be effective without an element of fun." Professor Arthur K C Li, Secretary for Education and Manpower, Generative learning goal require varied rather than singular learning strategies., Student-centered learning complicates identification and selection of appropriate resources, Resources are not diverisified, RBLEs may cultivate transferable skilss, 21st century learning, Course designers need to adhere to grounded practices that support individual needs and intention, Learning Technologist, SEN Teachers, The process used to integrate multiple resources into coherent learning environment are not well established, RBLE participants lack necessary skills to access, process and use information and ideas, Evolution of Resources for RBL, Predigital perspectives, various type instructural materials ->, Location and packaging restriction, Learning happens in classroom, Ideas are fixed and in static fashion, Digital era perspectives, Integrated (CBT) single learning resource, Resources available online/everywhere, Learning happens everywhere, Reusable resources across different subjects

Teaching and learning online: A beginning's guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education

Online learning, Materials for online learning, Online learning resources, frameworks, Any MITE course, Instructional design for web-based learning

Learning tasks, Content-based design (normal teaching mode), Task-based design, = Project-based learning, LMS vs LCMS, Planning: authentic learning tasks and activities, Authentic online assessment

Learning Resources, Web deployment

Learning supports, Guided Learning supports, Learning Contracts, Learning Guides, Learning Schedules, Self-regulated learning, Metacognition and self-concept, Self-monitoring and motivation, Volitional & Cognitive Strategy formation, Social construction of knowledge, e-mail, Bulletin Board / Forum, Videe/audio conference, Second Life, Learning scaffolding, Learning communities, Mentors, Professional recognition, Group projects

Learning designs, Situated learning (instruction-based), Problem-based learning, Case-based learning, Project-based learning, Inquiry-based learning, Role-playing and simulations, The Sims

Design and development strategies, Learning Objects, Accessibility, 3 priorities level checkpoints, Making it reusable, Metadata, Industrial standard, Evaluating online learning settings, Attributes of effective online settings, Framework for evaluating

Additional Information

After going through the readings for this week, the following points are the summarization: The evolution of learning, from conservative mode into new type of pedagogy, has changed way of teaching. Use of multimedia in instructural design can bring in a number of advantages towards learning. The tool itself does not contribute much to the T&L.  It is always necessary to have "learning support" - resources / knowledge / communities' collaboration. Tools can have multiple strength when placing them as components of Resource Based Learning.  This is unlink Learning Object which should only serve single objective through the learning.

Using SecondLife as VLE (Virtual Learning Envornment

Designing for Concept Learning

Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing Constructivist Learning Environments

Activity Theory, Activity System, Assumptions, Minds in Context, Consciousness in the World, Inentionality, Object-Orientedness, Community: A Dialectic Context, Historical-Curtural Dimension, Tool Mediation, Collaboration, CLE through Activity Theory, Problem-Project Space, Related Cases, Learning Supports, Information Resources, Conversation and Collaboration Tools, Cognitive Tools, Process for Designing CLEs, 1. Clarify purpose of activity, 2. Analyze the Activity System, 3. Analyze the Activity Structure, 4. Analyze Tools and Mediators, 5. Analyzing the Context, 6. Analyzing Activity System Dynamics

Searching for Learner-Centered, Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools

Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology, Cognitive & Metacognitive Factors, Tools for learners to build, browse, link, draw, represent, summarize..., Motivational & Affective Factors, Colloborative tools (forum), Developmental & Social Factors, Electronic conferencing, collobrative tools, Individual differences, Global communication tools (linguistic/cultural difference)

Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology, Cognitive constructivist, Social constructivist

Socialcultural Views on Collaborative Technology

On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design

Concepts, Classical-Attribute Isolation View of Concepts, Problems, Limited by the languages use to discribe, Similarity lacks coherence, Inability to use concepts to generate concepts, Prototype or Probablistic View of Concepts, Example view of concepts, Similarity views of concepts, Other view of concepts, Actional view of concepts, Theory-based view of concepts

Conceptual Change, Implications, For Assessment: Propositions, development of Model-based reasoning, Implications, Concepts-in-use, Semistructured Interviews, Think-Aloud Problem Solving, Free word assoications, Similarity ratings, Representation, Cognitive maps, Pathfinder networks, Concept Maps

Additional Information

In order to formulate a much suitable instructural design scheme, it is necessary to understand how people formulate concepts.  In addition, how people can learn through activity will be important element for designer to use this ideas. The two articles has suggested that concept formulation and evolution of concepts into knowledge is closely resembles to constructivist learning (e.g. enquiry-based, problem-based) where learners will manipulate their knowledge and develop their own findings.   Conceptual changes has evolved the way people perceive concepts into higher reasoning (Model based reasoning in conceptual change). The "conceptual change" has also brought into attention of Web 3.0 development, where web 3.0 is a collection of database.  Information is provided through the use of artificial intelligence.   (Web 3.0 Definition)

Teaching Concepts: Instructional Design Guide

Web 3.0 and Conceptual map's resemblance

Model-based reasoning in conceptual change