Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry by Mind Map: Organic Chemistry

1. Alkanes - formula: CnH2n+2

1.1. insoluble in water

1.2. soluble in organic solvents

1.3. higher boiling points with higher number of C

1.4. less volatile and flamable

1.5. more viscos

1.6. saturated compounds that cannot undergo further adddition reaction, only substitution reactions

1.7. complete combustion reaction -> carbon dioxide and water

1.8. incomplete combustion -> carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water and carbon

1.9. each compound differs with a CH2- group of atoms

2. Hydrocarbons

2.1. Cracking process

2.1.1. petrol

2.1.2. diesel

2.1.3. lubricants and oils

2.2. boiling point increases

2.3. liquids burn less readily

2.4. liquids are more viscous

2.5. unreactive

2.6. burn with smoky flame

2.7. refining of petrolium - fractions have different properties and uses

2.8. petrolium gas - 1-4 carbon atoms

2.9. petrol - fuel for motor vehicles

2.10. Naptha - plastic and detergents

2.11. kerosen - fuel for aircrafts

2.12. diesel - fuel for trains and engines

2.13. lubricant oils, waxes and polishes

2.14. bituminum - paving roads

3. Alkenes - formula CnH2n

3.1. chemical properties - more reactive than alkanes

3.2. chemical reactions-combustion - complete -> carbon dioxide and water, incomplete -> carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water and carbon

3.3. addition reactions

3.3.1. hydrogenation (with catalyst at 200 oC

3.3.2. hydration -> acohols

3.3.3. bromination

3.4. others: functional group C=C

3.5. unsaturated compounds

3.6. can undergo addition reactions

4. Alcohols - formula CnH2nOH

4.1. physical properties

4.1.1. colourless

4.1.2. miscible in water

4.1.3. flammable

4.1.4. boiling points increase with added C atoms

4.1.5. increase in mass as increase number of C

4.2. reactions

4.2.1. combustion: alcohols + oxygen -> carbon dioxide and water

4.2.2. oxidation ->carboxylic acid

4.2.3. esterification: alcohol + carboxylic acid ->

4.2.3.1. esters have compounds that have fruity smells and are used as artificial flavours

4.3. manufacturing Ethanol

4.3.1. from ethene and water

4.3.2. by fermentation

4.3.3. uses of ethanol: in drinks, as solvent, as fuel

4.4. polimerisation

4.4.1. addition - breaking of C=C bonds in smaller alkene compounds

4.4.2. condensation - joining small monomer molecules by elimination

5. Carboxylic Acids - fromula CnH2nCOOH

5.1. esterification: condensation reaction in presence of H2SO4

5.2. reactions with acohol - esterification

5.3. properties: with weak acids- dissociation,

5.4. completely miscible with water

5.5. carbonates - acid + carbonate -> Carbon dioxide and salt

5.6. alkali + insoluble bases -> salt and water (neutralization reaction)