Online Mind Mapping and Brainstorming

Create your own awesome maps

Online Mind Mapping and Brainstorming

Even on the go

with our free apps for iPhone, iPad and Android

Get Started

Already have an account? Log In

Sfard - 2 metaphors of learning by Mind Map: Sfard - 2 metaphors of
0.0 stars - reviews range from 0 to 5

Sfard - 2 metaphors of learning


Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: an activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit

think about how it fits in with this...




acquisition metaphor

act of gaining knowledge

gradual reception

aquisition by development

knowledge construction

all imply gaining ownership

participation mataphor

refs, The new researcher talks about learning as a legitimate peripheral participation, (Lave & Wenger, 1991), apprenticeship in thinking, (Rogoff, 1990).

states are replaced with attention to activities.

you become a member of a certain community, "Just as different organs combine to form a living body, so do learners contribute to the existence and functioning of a community of practitioners.", Sfard, focus on evolving bonds between learner and community

acquisition is tantamount to becoming a participant.

fundamental issue with definition of learning - nothing to do with social / individual axis

this rests on a differing mechanism of learning

while the AM/ PM debate rests on a differign vision of what learning is.


  On Two Metaphors for Learning and the Dangers of Choosing Just One Anna Sfard Educational Researcher, Vol. 27, No. 2 (March 1998) American Educational Research Association  

not mutally exlcusive

When a theory is translated into an instructional prescription, exclusivity becomes the worst enemy of success. Educational

The exclusivity is often equated with certainty, whereas the very presence of a competing metaphor may be enough to disclose the arbitrary nature of some of the generally accepted classifications.

application metaphor - other forum

3rd metaphor - wiki-university

knowledge-creation metaphor of learning, has been proposed by Paavola et. al. (2004)


forum discussion about assessmetn

range of very interesting resources from Seema