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Sfard - 2 metaphors of learning by Mind Map: Sfard - 2 metaphors of learning
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Sfard - 2 metaphors of learning


Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: an activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit

think about how it fits in with this...




acquisition metaphor

participation mataphor

fundamental issue with definition of learning - nothing to do with social / individual axis


  On Two Metaphors for Learning and the Dangers of Choosing Just One Anna Sfard Educational Researcher, Vol. 27, No. 2 (March 1998) American Educational Research Association  

not mutally exlcusive

When a theory is translated into an instructional prescription, exclusivity becomes the worst enemy of success. Educational

The exclusivity is often equated with certainty, whereas the very presence of a competing metaphor may be enough to disclose the arbitrary nature of some of the generally accepted classifications.

application metaphor - other forum

3rd metaphor - wiki-university

knowledge-creation metaphor of learning, has been proposed by Paavola et. al. (2004)


forum discussion about assessmetn

range of very interesting resources from Seema