Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: an activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit
act of gaining knowledge
aquisition by development
all imply gaining ownership
refs, The new researcher talks about learning as a legitimate peripheral participation, (Lave & Wenger, 1991), apprenticeship in thinking, (Rogoff, 1990).
states are replaced with attention to activities.
you become a member of a certain community, "Just as different organs combine to form a living body, so do learners contribute to the existence and functioning of a community of practitioners.", Sfard, focus on evolving bonds between learner and community
acquisition is tantamount to becoming a participant.
this rests on a differing mechanism of learning
while the AM/ PM debate rests on a differign vision of what learning is.
On Two Metaphors for Learning and the Dangers of Choosing Just One Anna Sfard Educational Researcher, Vol. 27, No. 2 (March 1998) American Educational Research Association