Samuel Choi M6U1A1

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Samuel Choi M6U1A1 by Mind Map: Samuel Choi M6U1A1

1. References: Dyer, K. ( July, 2015). The Importance of Student Self Assessment. Teach. Learn. Grow.: The Education Blog. NWEA. Retrieved from: TKI. New Zealand Ministry of Education. Self and peer assessment. Retreived from: Promoting Student Self-Assessment. ReadWriteThink. NCTE. Retrieved from: Cornell University Center for Teaching Excellence Retrieved from: Chan C. (2010). Assessment: Self and Peer Assessment, Assessment Resources@HKU, University of Hong Kong []: Available: Accessed: 1/28/17 West Virginia Department of Education. Teach21. Peer/Self Assessments. Retrieved from: Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms. (November 2015). OECD Retrieved from: Whys & Hows of Assessment. Eberly Center. Carnegie Mellon University. Retreived from: Spira, M. What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Formative Assessment? Synonym. Retrieved from: Wylie, E. (2008). Formative Assessment: Examples of Practice. The Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from: Hidden curriculum (2014, August 26). In S. Abbott (Ed.), The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from: Hilliard, P. (December, 2015). Performance-Based Assessment: Reviewing the Basics. Edutopia. Retrieved from: Performance Based Assessment. Project Appleseed. Retrieved from: Fernsten, L. (December, 2009). Portfolio Assessment. Retrieved from: Authentic Assessment Overview. TeacherVisioin. Retrieved from:

2. Assessment For Learning

2.1. Peer assessment

2.1.1. Definition: An assessment tool that allows students to share the burden of assessment with the teacher by assessing one another's work. (Cornell University Center for Teaching Excellence)

2.1.2. Purpose: - It empowers students to take responsibility of learning - It lightens the workload of teachers

2.1.3. Advantages: - Activates learners as instructional resources (Dyer, 2015) - Allows students to develop lifelong assessment skills (Cornell University Center for Teaching Excellence) - Motivates students to engage with the class (Cornell University Center for Teaching Excellence)

2.1.4. Disadvantages: - Peer pressure and friendship can influence grades - Students aren't experienced in assessment - Students may cheat (Chan, 2010)

2.1.5. Example: Two Stars and a Wish - Students review each other's work and give two positive feedbacks and one negative feedback. (West Virginia Department of Education)

2.2. Formative

2.2.1. Definition: Assessment that informs the teacher of student progress and allows the teacher to make adjustments to instruction. (Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms)

2.2.2. Purpose: To monitor students' learning (Whys & Hows of Assessment)

2.2.3. Advantages: - They help students identify strengths and weaknesses. - Help teachers recognize where students are struggling. (Whys & Hows of Assessment)

2.2.4. Disadvantages: - Can be time-consuming for the teacher - Lack of accountability: whereas standardized assessment can be systematized and rendered into data, formative assessment can't. (Spira)

2.2.5. Example: The teacher asks a question and students write their answers on a whiteboard. The teacher gathers from the answers whether the class needs reinstruction or has mastery of a concept. The teacher also uses an exit slip to gather further feedback of learning. (Wylie, 2008)

2.3. Self-assessment

2.3.1. Definition: Self assessment is a type of assessment that allows students to actively participate in their own learning.

2.3.2. Purpose: It gives students ownership of their learning and therefore improved performance (Dyer, 2015).

2.3.3. Advantages: - Students can assess the quality of their work and revise as needed (NKI)

2.3.4. Disadvantages: - Requires hands on attention of teachers - Requires a lot of preparation from teachers

2.3.5. Example: Students help develop a rubric for a secondary ELA class writing assignment. The Teacher asks the students what they think makes good writing for a particular assignment and they create a rubric for the students to follow together. (Promoting Student Self-Assessment)

3. Assessment Of Learning

3.1. High-stakes

3.1.1. Definition: Any test that is used to determine consequences for students, teachers, or districts, often used for the sake of national education accountability. (Hidden Curriculum, 2014)

3.1.2. Purpose: They can be used for policy accountability, sanctions, advancement, or compensation. (Hidden Curriculum, 2014)

3.1.3. Advantages: - They can be used for motivation for student learning - They can be used to hold teachers and schools accountable for students' education - They establish high expectations for teachers and students. - They reveal areas of needs for reform and improvement (Hidden Curriculum, 2014)

3.1.4. Disadvantages: - They force teachers to teach to the test - They promote narrow academic programs - They may increased rates of cheating from students and educators - They may diminish the quality of education (Hidden Curriculum, 2014)

3.1.5. Example: SAT - As many universities and colleges use SAT scores as a standard for admissions, this test is an example of high-stakes learning. Students' admission or denial for an educational institution is determined heavily by this test. (Hidden Curriculum, 2014)

3.2. Diagnostic

3.2.1. Definition: Diagnostic Assessment is a type of assessment that a teacher uses to determine a student's level of understanding. It is used prior to engaging in learning. It is often used to place students at appropriate levels.

3.2.2. Purpose: - To determine students' understanding - To place students at an appropriate level for learning

3.2.3. Advantages - It allows teachers to diagnose students' level and prevents any issue that not using them might pose - They can be administered as needed

3.2.4. Disadvantages: - The testing material may not be the best measure of the students' previous experiences and learning.

3.2.5. Example: A new student arrives at a school and the administration provides a test for the student to complete. The student's score will determine which class he will enroll in.

3.3. Summative

3.3.1. Definition: A type of assessment that is used to evaluate student learning at the end of a unit. (Whys & Hows of Assessment)

3.3.2. Purpose: To determine student learning at the end of a set time. They are often high stakes and can be used to determine consequences for students.

3.3.3. Advantages: - They are standardized and make for good data. - It creates good accountability structure for teachers and schools.

3.3.4. Disadvantages: - Teachers often teach to the test and don't focus on student learning - It is often one-dimensional and doesn't take into account many different aspects of learning

3.3.5. Example: A cumulative final exam for any grade level. It assesses students' learning from the whole year or whatever designated time period. It is often a large part of a student's final grade for the class and hence has consequences that will affect the student.

3.4. Performance-based

3.4.1. Definition: Performance-based assessments measure students' abilities via higher-order thinking, usually to create a product or carry out a process. (Hilliard, 2015)

3.4.2. Purpose: To provide varied and authentic measures of student learning. (Hilliard, 2015)

3.4.3. Advantages: It incorporates a greater focus on understanding and combining contents and skills. (Performance Based Assessment)

3.4.4. Disadvantages: - Assessment tends to be more subjective - If using portfolios, the evaluation may be different depending on who is assessing (Performance Based Assessment)

3.4.5. Example: The teacher has a student write an appeal to a board of directors for an action. The teacher must set up the scenario and provide a rubric for student grading. A specific example could be a grant-writing project, wherein a student makes an appeal for funding. The teacher can adjust how in-depth the student should go.

3.5. Authentic

3.5.1. Definition: Assessment that evaluate students in real-world contexts through tasks and projects. (Authentic Assessment Overview)

3.5.2. Purpose: The purpose of it is to discourage rote and passive learning and focus on analytical skills, and integrate learning with creativity, collaboration, and express them with written and oral skills (Authentic Assessment Overview)

3.5.3. Advantages: - Offers alternative to traditional assessment approaches - It gives students a chance to practice higher-order thinking skills

3.5.4. Disadvantages: - Difficult to tailor for each student in large class sizes - Assessment might be subjective - Hard to standardize assessment

3.5.5. Example: Student writes a report to the class about his/her own learning, thereby taking ownership of learning process and engaging with the material at a higher level. (Authentic Assessment Overview)

3.6. Portfolio

3.6.1. Definition: Portfolio assessment is an assessment tool that is a collection of student-developed artifacts. (Fernsten, 2009)

3.6.2. Purpose: It provides a controlled space for student work and evidence of learning. (Fernsten, 2009)

3.6.3. Advantages: - They are more individualized for the students - Provides one-to-one attention for student and teacher - Provides an authentic way of demonstrating learning (Fernsten, 2009)

3.6.4. Disadvantages: - Requires a lot of attention per student, which may be difficult for some teachers - Assessment may be subjective depending on the teacher

3.6.5. Example: One type of portfolio is a showcase portfolio. A student's portfolio may consist of his/her writing samples collected over the course of his/her education. It may include poems, narratives, argumentative essays, and larger, more involved projects. (Fernsten, 2009)