International Humanitarian Law

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International Humanitarian Law by Mind Map: International Humanitarian Law

1. Technical and administrative questions

2. 4. The Geneva Law

2.1. 4.1 Introduction

2.1.1. 4.1.1 Introduction Overview of Chapter 4

2.1.2. 4.1.2 Mindmap Chapter 4

2.2. 4.2 The protection of prisoners of war

2.2.1. 4.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2. 4.2.2 Who is entitled to POW status? Explanation Article 4 GCIII The categories of people entitled to POW status MCQ (1 pt) Explanation Article 4(A)(3) Article 4(A)(6) Article 46(1) Article 47 Article 3 Article 75 MCQ (1 pt)

2.2.3. 4.2.3 When can POWs be interned? Explanation Article 5 Article 45 MCQ (1 pt)

2.2.4. 4.2.4 How are POWs protected? How are POWs protected MCQ (1 pt)

2.3. 4.3 The protection of civilians

2.3.1. 4.3.1 Introduction Introduction

2.3.2. 4.3.2 Who are civilians? Who are civilians under IHL? MCQ (1 pt)

2.3.3. 4.3.3 How are civilians protected? Explanation Maintenance and re-establishment of family links Right to leave Transfer and deportation of civilian population Protection of women Protection of children Other fundamental guarantees MCQ (1 pt)

2.3.4. 4.3.4 When can civilians be interned? When can civilians be interned? MCQ (1 pt)

2.3.5. 4.3.5 How are civilians protected when detained? Explanation Place of internment Working conditions Penal and disciplinary sanctions Release MCQ (1 pt)

2.4. 4.4 The protection of the wounded and sick

2.4.1. 4.4.1 Introduction Introduction

2.4.2. 4.4.2 Who qualifies as wounded or sick? Who is wounded or sick under IHL?

2.4.3. 4.4.3 How are the wounded and sick protected? How are wounded and sick protected? MCQ (1 pt)

2.5. 4.5 The protection of individuals in occupied territories

2.5.1. 4.5.1 Introduction Introduction

2.5.2. 4.5.2 The notion of occupation cf. 3.6

2.5.3. 4.5.3 The law applicable to occupation The law applicable to occupation MCQ (1 pt)

2.6. 4.6 The protection of individuals in non-international armed conflicts

2.6.1. 4.6.1 Introduction Introduction

2.6.2. 4.6.2 Who is protected and how are individuals protected in NIACs? Who is protected in NIACs? MCQ (1 pt)

2.6.3. 4.6.3 Internment in NIACs Can individuals be interned in NIACS? MCQ (1 pt)

2.6.4. 4.6.4 Protections for the sick and wounded in NIACs Explanation Common Article 3 Article 7 of Additional Protocol II Rules 109, 110 and 111 of the ICRC Study on Customary IHL MCQ (1 pt)

2.7. 4.7 Wrap-up interview

2.7.1. 4.7.1 Interview with Prof. Andrew Clapham

3. 5. The Hague Law

3.1. 5.1 Introduction

3.1.1. 5.1.1 Introduction Introduction General overview of the chapter and general considerations MCQ T/F

3.1.2. 5.1.2 Mindmap Chapter 5

3.2. 5.2 The prohibition against attacks on civilians and civilian objects

3.2.1. 5.2.1 The principle of distinction and protection against attacks Explanation T/F

3.2.2. 5.2.2 Direct attacks Explanation Art. 51 Art. 13

3.2.3. 5.2.3 Indiscriminate attacks Explanation Art. 51 Martic case MCQ

3.2.4. 5.2.4 Disproportionate attacks The principle of proportionality MCQ Extract of the Good Kill movie (YouTube) Discussion "Proportionate attack under IHL?" Explanation MCQ

3.2.5. 5.2.5 Terrorist attacks Explanation Art. 51 Art. 13 Galic case Martic case T/F

3.2.6. 5.2.6 Reprisals The law of reprisals

3.3. 5.3 Civilians

3.3.1. 5.3.1 Introduction Explanation Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under IHL MCQ

3.3.2. 5.3.2 Civilians who are not protected against attacks Explanation Commentary of 1987 Third Report on the situation in Colombia Targeted Killings case The 3 criteria for direct participation in hostilities Excerpt of the ICRC Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under IHL Full document MCQ The temporal dimension of direct participation MCQ

3.3.3. 5.3.3 Civilians versus armed forces in NIACs Explanation Common art. 3 to the GC AP II The 2 main approaches to membership of non-state armed forces MCQ Explanation Combining the two main approaches? MCQ

3.3.4. 5.3.4 Civilians versus armed forces in IACs Explanation Art. 4 A (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) Art. 50 Art. 43 of API The role of the condition of distinction in defining state armed forces MCQ Explanation Membership of state armed forces T/F Explanation

3.3.5. 5.3.5 Members of armed forces protected against attack Explanation Persons "hors de combat" Extract short film T/F MCQ Explanation Arts 19 GCI; 22 GCII; 18 GCIV; 12 API and 11 APII T/F

3.4. 5.4 Civilian Objects

3.4.1. 5.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2. 5.4.2 The definition of military objective Explanation Draft rules Art. 52 Definition of military objective MCQ Targeting of an oil refinery (YouTube) MCQ Explanation

3.4.3. 5.4.3 Civilian objects that benefit from a particular protection Explanation

3.4.4. 5.4.4 Cultural objects Explanation Art. 27 1954 Convention 1st additional protocol 2nd additional protocol Protection of cultural objects under the general protection regime MCQ Explanation MCQ

3.4.5. 5.4.5 Objects that are indispensable to the survival of the civilian population Explanation Art. 54 Art. 14 Protection of objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population T/F

3.4.6. 5.4.6 The natural environment Explanation Art. 35, 3 Art. 55 ICRC commentary Protection of the environment under API Explanation Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court MCQ Explanation ENMOD Convention Understandings attached to the Convention Art. 35,3 Art. 55 Comparison between regimes under API and the ENMOD Convention MCQ Oil fields burning in Kuwait (YouTube) Discussion "Setting fire to oil wells" Legal analysis by Y. Dinstein

3.4.7. 5.4.7 Works containing dangerous forces Explanation Art. 15 APII Art. 56 API Protection of works and installations containing dangerous forces MCQ

3.5. 5.5 The precautionary principle

3.5.1. 5.5.1 Introduction Explanation MCQ

3.5.2. 5.5.2 Precautions in attack Explanation Art. 57, §2, a Three obligations of precaution on those who plan or decide upon attacks Raytheon Pike 40 mm new weapon (YouTube) MCQ General precautionary obligations Oil trucks destroyed by US airplanes (YouTube) Explanation Colonel Steve Warren's press briefing MCQ

3.5.3. 5.5.3 Precautions against the effects of attacks Explanation Art. 58 of API ICRC study on customary IHL Three obligations of precautions against the effects of attacks Explanation Art. 51,7 / 23,1 / 28 / 4 Beirut under siege in 1982 (YouTube) MCQ

3.6. 5.6 Means and methods of warfare

3.6.1. 5.6.1 Introduction Explanation

3.6.2. 5.6.2 Specific prohibitions, or regulation, of weapons Extract from “Armed Conflicts and the Law” (2016) Napalm strikes (YouTube) T/F

3.6.3. 5.6.3 The general prohibition of weapons causing superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering Explanation Art. 35, 2) of API 1868 St Petersburg Declaration 1899 Hague Convention 1907 Hague Convention 1980 CCCW 1997 Ottawa Convention The principle of superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering MCQ The SIrUS project (ICRC audiovisual archives)

3.6.4. 5.6.4 The general prohibition of weapons which have an indiscriminate effect Explanation Art. 51, 4) of API MCQ

3.6.5. 5.6.5 The autonomous value of the general prohibitions Are the general principles on weapons autonomous or only guiding principles? Explanation Art. 36 of API ICRC document on how to operationalize that obligation MCQ

3.6.6. 5.6.6 Nuclear Weapons Devastating effects of nuclear weapons (YouTube) New smart nuclear weapons (YouTube) Discussion "Your legal analysis on nuclear weapons" ICJ Advisory Opinion in the Nuclear case

3.6.7. 5.6.7 New technologies in weaponry New technologies MCQ

3.7. 5.7 Specific methods of warfare

3.7.1. 5.7.1 Introduction

3.7.2. 5.7.2 Perfidy Perfidy and other acts of deception of the enemy MCQ

3.7.3. 5.7.3 Denial of quarter Explanation Art. 40 of API T/F

3.7.4. 5.7.4 Starvation Explanation Aleppo evacuation in Syria (Deutsche Welle) Art. 49 of API San Remo Manual on sea warfare Art. 12 of the Manual Israeli raid on aid ship (The Telegraph) Report of a fact-finding mission MCQ General observations on humanitarian relief MCQ ICRC seeks permission to work in IS territory (Yahoo News) Discussion "Humanitarian relief and the consent of armed groups" Excerpt of a paper on the ICRC right of initiative

3.8. 5.8 Wrap-up interview

3.8.1. 5.8.1 Interview with Lieutenant-Colonel Chris De Cock Interview Chris De Cock

4. 6. Implementation and enforcement of IHL - Part I

4.1. 6.1 Introduction

4.1.1. 6.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2. General overview of Chapter 6

4.2. 6.2 Non-judicial mechanisms provided by IHL

4.2.1. 6.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2. 6.2.2 Obligation to respect and ensure respect for IHL Explanation 1949 Geneva Conventions 1977 API The obligation to respect and ensure respect for IHL Explanation Art. 1, 89, 16, 40, 41 Wall advisory opinion MCQ

4.2.3. 6.2.3 Protecting Powers, bilateral and multilateral enquiry procedures Protecting Powers, bilateral and multilateral enquiry procedures MCQ

4.3. 6.3 The ICRC

4.3.1. 6.3.1 Introduction ICRC ICRC: Humanity in Action (YouTube) MCQ

4.3.2. 6.3.2 The ICRC as part of the Red Cross/Crescent Movement Explanation The ICRC''s mandate and mission 1st resolution of the 31st International Conference 2011 32nd International Conference 2015 Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement The Seville Agreement 1997 MCQ

4.3.3. 6.3.3 The ICRC's functions The ICRC's functions ICRC visits Guantanamo for hundredth time (ICRC video) Explanation MCQ

4.3.4. 6.3.4 ICRC as the guardian of IHL ICRC as the guardian of IHL A History of Humanity (YouTube) MCQ

4.3.5. 6.3.5 ICRC neutrality under discussion Discussion: Your opinion about the neutrality of ICRC Principles under fire: does it still make sense to be neutral?

4.4. 6.4 General non-judicial mechanisms

4.4.1. 6.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2. 6.4.2 NGOs Explanation Report of Amnesty International Report by Human Rights Watch (1) Report by Human Rights Watch (2) T/F

4.4.3. 6.4.3 The United Nations The role of the UN in implementing and enforcing IHL Explanation Resolutions MCQ

4.5. 6.5 State Responsibility

4.5.1. 6.5.1 Introduction Explanation Responsibility of States for International Wrongful Acts Louvain MOOC on International Law MCQ

4.5.2. 6.5.2 Distinct from individual criminal responsibility State responsibility versus individual criminal responsibility T/F

4.6. 6.6 Attribution of conducts to states

4.6.1. 6.6.1 Introduction Explanation Art 4, 5, 7 MCQ

4.6.2. 6.6.2 Attribution of "public" conduct A lex specialis with respect to attribution of IHL violations by state armed forces T/F

4.6.3. 6.6.3 Attribution of "private" conduct Explanation Art. 8 to 11

4.6.4. 6.6.4 The control test Attribution based on the control test MCQ

4.6.5. 6.6.5 Absence or default of authority Explanation Art. 9 ILC commentary on Art. 9 T/F

4.6.6. 6.6.6 Successful insurrectinonal or separatist movements Retroactive attribution of acts of rebels MCQ

4.6.7. 6.6.7 Adoption of conduct Explanation Art. 11 T/F

4.7. 6.7 Circumstances precluding wrongfulness

4.7.1. 6.7.1 Introduction Explanation Art. 20 to 25

4.7.2. 6.7.2 The relevance of circumstances precluding wrongfulness with respect to IHL The relevance of circumstances precluding wrongfulness with respect to IHL

4.8. 6.8 Legal consequences

4.8.1. 6.8.1 Introduction Explanation MCQ

4.8.2. 6.8.2 Specific features with respect to IHL Consequences of state responsibility with respect to IHL violations MCQ

4.9. 6.9 Wrap-up interview

5. 7. Implementation and enforcement of IHL - Part II

5.1. 7.1 Introduction

5.1.1. 7.1.1 Introduction Introduction of the chapter

5.1.2. 7.1.2 Mindmap Chapter 7

5.2. 7.2 Ad hoc and hybrid tribunals

5.2.1. 7.2.1 General presentation

5.2.2. 7.2.2 Ad hoc and hybrid tribunal after the Cold War The ad hoc and hybrid Tribunals MCQ

5.3. 7.3 The International Criminal Court

5.3.1. 7.3.1 Introduction Explanation Multilateral treaty-based permanent ICC (1998) ICC Statute

5.3.2. 7.3.2 The structure of the ICC Explanation

5.3.3. 7.3.3 Juridictional basis ICC jurisdictional basis MCQ

5.3.4. 7.3.4 Triggering mechanisms ICC triggering mechanism MCQ

5.3.5. 7.3.5 The material competence Explanation

5.3.6. 7.3.6 The complementarity mechanism ICC complementarity mechanism MCQ

5.3.7. 7.3.7 The ICC contested The Declaration of Sherif Bojang for the Withdrawal from the ICC (YouTube) Discussion "Do share the view of the former Gambian minister?"

5.4. 7.4 Challenges and the way forwards

5.4.1. 7.4.1 Introduction

5.4.2. 7.4.2 Challenges Challenges of ICC T/F

5.4.3. 7.4.3 The way forward The way forward of ICC T/F T/F

5.5. 7.5 War crimes

5.5.1. 7.5.1 Introduction Explanation

5.5.2. 7.5.2 War crimes in international armed conflicts War crimes in international armed conflicts MCQ

5.5.3. 7.5.3 War crimes in non-international armed conflicts War crimes in non-international armed conflicts MCQ

5.6. 7.6 Wrap-up interview

5.6.1. 7.6.1 Introduction

5.6.2. 7.6.2 Interview with Prof. Paola Gaeta Interview Paola Gaeta

6. Welcome!

6.1. Let's get to know each other

6.1.1. Who are we?

6.1.2. Who are you?

6.2. How to navigate this course?

6.2.1. How to navigate on edX?

6.2.2. Focus on the Discussion Forum: best practices

6.3. What is this course about?

6.3.1. What is this course about? Explanation Learning objectives

6.3.2. Mindmap of the whole course

6.4. Disclaimer and thanks

6.5. Pre-course survey

7. 1. Introduction to IHL

7.1. 1.1 Introduction

7.1.1. 1.1.1 Introduction Introduction

7.1.2. 1.1.2 Mindmap Chapter 1

7.2. 1.2 What is International Humanitarian Law?

7.2.1. 1.2.1 What do you think? Wordcloud

7.2.2. 1.2.2 What's in a name? The various titles of IHL

7.2.3. 1.2.3 Overview of the content and structure of the course General overview of the course

7.3. 1.3 Law and armed conflicts

7.3.1. 1.3.1 Introduction

7.3.2. 1.3.2 The paradox of law in conflict What do you think? 2 extracts Survey "The idea of regulating International Law" Discussion A two-fold paradox

7.3.3. 1.3.3 Is international humanitarian law really law? Survey "International Humanitarian Law is..." Discussion Is IHL really law? Further reading about the legal status of IHL"

7.4. 1.4 History of International Humanitarian Law

7.4.1. 1.4.1 Introduction

7.4.2. 1.4.2 Pre-modern developments Explanation Further reading: "Historical Developments and Legal Basis" (C. Greenwood)

7.4.3. 1.4.3 The development of a legal regime regulating warfare at sea Explanation 1856 Declaration of Paris T/F

7.4.4. 1.4.4 The Lieber Code and early attempts at codification The Lieber Code T/F

7.4.5. 1.4.5 The creation of the Red Cross The birth of the Red Cross The ICRC website MCQ

7.4.6. 1.4.6 1945 to the present day The current core of IHL treaties MCQ

7.5. 1.5 Jus ad bellum VS Jus in bello

7.5.1. 1.5.1 Introduction Links

7.5.2. 1.5.2 Historical overview Explanation The rise of the idea of asymetrical application of IHL T/F Explanation MCQ From WWI to the present day T/F

7.5.3. 1.5.3 The principles of equality and separation Explanation 2 articles Extract "The judgment of Fonfana and Kondewa" MCQ

7.5.4. 1.5.5 Can jus ad bellum still affect jus in bello? Influence of jus ad bellum on jus in bello? T/F Explanation 1996 Advisory Opinion Extract "The dissenting opinion of Judge Koroma" T/F

7.5.5. 1.5.6 Can violations of the jus in bello affect the jus ad bellum? Explanation 1996 Advisory Opinion Statement made by France T/F Influence of jus in bello on jus ad bellum? T/F

7.6. 1.6 International Human Rights VS International Humanitarian Law

7.6.1. 1.6.1 Introduction Links Discussion "Human Rights Law vs IHL"

7.6.2. 1.6.2 Human Rights Law in armed conflict: legal obstacles? Potential obstacles to the application of HRL in armed conflict Article 2 of The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights + Explanation MCQ

7.6.3. 1.6.3 Similarities and differences Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child Similar but different MCQ

7.6.4. 1.6.4 Potential conflicts and solutions Explanation

7.6.5. 1.6.5 Cross interpretations and "humanitarization" at the international level Cross interpretations and humanitarization at the international level General comment n°31 of the Human Rights Committee T/F

7.6.6. 1.6.6 "Humanitarization" at the regional level: America and Africa Explanation Links General comment n°3 on the right to life MCQ

7.6.7. 1.6.7 "Humanitarization" at the regional level: Europe Explanation Link The Hassan Case Article 5 of the ECHR Article 31, 3, c of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties T/F

7.6.8. 1.6.8 "Humanization" of IHL Explanation Krnojelac, judgment (2002) Common Article 3 of the four Geneva Convention, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld case (2006) Article 21 of the Statute of the International Criminal Court T/F

7.6.9. 1.6.9 Salient problems The use of lethal force: IHL and HRL paradigms General comment n°3 of the African Commission of Human and Peoples’ Rights MCQ Human rights law and armed groups T/F

7.7. 1.7 Wrap-up interview

7.7.1. 1.7.1 Interview with Marco Sassòli Interview Marco Sassòli

8. 2. Sources and subjects

8.1. 2.1 Introduction

8.1.1. 2.1.1 Introduction General overview of the chapter

8.1.2. 2.1.2 Mindmap Chapter 2

8.2. 2.2 Treaties as the main IHL source

8.2.1. 2.2.1 Introduction

8.2.2. 2.2.2 A review of the main IHL treaties Three main groups of IHL treaties 1907 The Hague Convention 1949 Geneva Conventions 1997 Additional Protocols Other specific conventions 1954 The Hague (cultural objects) 1980 Convention (weapons) T/F (1 pt)

8.2.3. 2.2.3 Specific features of IHL treaties Main specific features ICTY judgment in the Kupreskic case (extract) Kupreskic case Non reciprocity Explanation Excerpt of "International Humanitarian Law" (Robert Kolb) MCQ (1 pt) Excerpt of the ICJ Advisory Opinion Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (28 May 1951) T/F (1 pt)

8.3. 2.3 Custom as a supplementary source of IHL

8.3.1. 2.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2. 2.3.2 The role played by custom in IHL What is the role of customary international law in IHL? Excerpt of the Tadic case Full case MCQ (1 pt)

8.3.3. 2.3.3 Identifying customary International Law Who identifies customary IHL? MCQ (1 pt)

8.3.4. 2.3.4 The practice of non-state actors Customary IHL from the practice of non-state actors Excerpt of ICTY decision in the Tadic case ICRC publications Customary IHL. Vol I: Rules HPCR Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare The Montreux Document Excerpt of the judgement in the Tadic case MCQ (1 pt)

8.3.5. 2.3.5 The elusiveness of state practice Customary IHL from relevant state practice Excerpt of the 2nd report of the Special Rapporteur of the IL Commission on identification of customary IL Full report Excerpt of ICTY decision in the Tadic case MCQ (1 pt)

8.3.6. 2.3.6 The making of customary IHL: Discussion 2 excerpts: US governement vs ICRC US government's response to the ICRC study customary IHL ICRC Discussion "Which methodology do you prefer?"

8.3.7. 2.3.7 The main customary rules of IHL What is the current state of customary IHL today? MCQ (1 pt)

8.4. 2.4 Is there a hierarchy between these sources?

8.4.1. 2.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2. 2.4.2 Defining jus cogens and obligations erga omnes The notion of jus cogens and its legal implications The notion of erga omnes and its legal implications T/F (1 pt)

8.4.3. 2.4.3 Jus cogens rules of IHL Explanation ICJ Advisory Opinion on the Legality of the threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons Kupreskic case Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts Commentaries T/F (1 pt)

8.4.4. 2.4.4 Erga omnes obligations of IHL Introduction Advisory Opinion on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory Article 1 Excerpt of the 2016 ICRC Commentary of Art. 1 of GC 1 Commentary Article 1 T/F (1 pt)

8.5. 2.5 States as the primary subjects of IHL

8.5.1. 2.5.1 States as the primary subjects of international law

8.6. 2.6 International Organizations

8.6.1. 2.6.1 Introduction Interpretation of the Agreement of 25 March 1951 between the WHO and Egypt (1980)

8.6.2. 2.6.2 International organizations versus member states Who is intervening: the organization or the member states? Explanation Text MCQ (1 pt)

8.6.3. 2.6.3 Binding international organizations Binding nature of IHL upon international organizations Explanation Excerpt of the Agreement on the status of the UNAMIR MCQ (1 pt)

8.7. 2.7 Armed Groups

8.7.1. 2.7.1 Introduction

8.7.2. 2.7.2 Binding armed groups Two schools of thought on the obligations of armed groups Discussion: "Which school of thoughts do you prefer, and why?"

8.7.3. 2.7.3 The weaknesses of the two main schools of thought Weekness of two main schools of thought Excerpt ICRC 2008 Report Full report MCQ (1 pt)

8.7.4. 2.7.4 Commitments by armed groups Explanation common Art. 3 to the four Geneva Conventions Geneva Call Aegean sea continental shelf case Qatar v. Bahrain case Excerpts of the judgement rendered by the Special Tribunal of Sierra Leone Full judgement MCQ (1 pt)

8.7.5. 2.7.5 Armed groups and national wars of liberation A specific type of armed group: national liberation movements T/F (1 pt)

8.8. 2.8 Wrap-up interview

8.8.1. 2.8.1 Interview with Prof. Robert Kolb

8.8.2. 2.8.2 Sources of IHL Prof. Kolb - Sources of IHL

8.8.3. 2.8.3 IHL subjects Prof. Kolb - IHL subjects

8.8.4. 2.8.4 Working with the ICRC and for the Swiss army Prof. Kolb - Working with the ICRC and for the Swiss army

9. 3. Scope of application

9.1. 3.1 Introduction

9.1.1. 3.1.1 Introduction Overview of Chapter 3 Explanation: broad or narrow conception Excerpt of the 2016 ICRC Commentary of Art. 2 of the first Geneva Convention Full commentary MCQ (1 pt) T/F (1 pt)

9.1.2. 3.1.2 Mindmap Chapter 3

9.2. 3.2 Material scope of application

9.2.1. 3.2.1 Introduction The main categories of armed conflicts

9.2.2. 3.2.2 Foundational questions Why are the distinctions between different types of conflicts so fundamental T/F (1 pt) What are the reasons justifying distinctions between armed conflicts? MCQ (1 pt)

9.3. 3.3 International armed conflicts

9.3.1. 3.3.1 Introduction

9.3.2. 3.3.2 Traditional international armed conflicts Traditional international armed conflicts QCM (1 pt)

9.3.3. 3.3.3 Internationalized non-international armed conflicts Internationalized non-international armed conflicts MCQ (1 pt)

9.3.4. 3.3.4 Wars of national liberation Wars of national liberation MCQ (1 pt)

9.4. 3.4 Non-international armed conflicts

9.4.1. 3.4.1 Introduction

9.4.2. 3.4.2 Low-intensity non-international armed conflicts Low-intensity non-international armed conflicts MCQ (1 pt)

9.4.3. 3.4.3 high-intensity non-international armed conflicts High-intensity non-international armed conflicts MCQ (1 pt)

9.5. 3.5 Controversial armed conflicts

9.5.1. 3.5.1 Introduction

9.5.2. 3.5.2 Transnational armed conflicts Transnational armed conflicts MCQ (1 pt)

9.5.3. 3.5.3 Urban war Hostilities involving criminal organizations MCQ (1 pt)

9.6. 3.6 Occupation

9.6.1. 3.6.1 Introduction

9.6.2. 3.6.2 The notion of occupation Occupation MCQ (1 pt)

9.6.3. 3.6.3 Research exercise Discussion: Categorizing conflicts

9.7. 3.7 Temporal scope

9.7.1. 3.7.1 Introduction General remarks and principles on the temporal scope of application of IHL MCQ (1 pt)

9.7.2. 3.7.2 International armed conflict Introduction Article 6 of GCIV Article 3 of API Several other articles What does “general close of military operations” mean? T/F (1 pt) MCQ (1 pt)

9.7.3. 3.7.3 Non-international armed conflict Introduction Art. 2 of APII Positions regarding the end of application of the law of NIACs Short text T/F (1 pt) Excerpt of the judgement of the ICTY in the Haradinaj case Full judgement T/F (1 pt)

9.7.4. 3.7.4 Belligerent occupation The end of application of the law of occupation Explanation Ahmed case 2008 Report (The Rapporteur) Discussion - The duration of belligerent occupation: your opinion Text Extracts from Yoram Dinstein Art. 47 GCIV T/F (1 pt)

9.8. 3.8 Geographic scope

9.8.1. 3.8.1 Introduction Introduction General remarks on the geographical scope of application of IHL Text Tadic case Kunarac case T/F (1 pt)

9.8.2. 3.8.2 Accepted evolution in NIACS: spillover conflicts The application of IHL to spillover non-international armed conflicts Excerpt of the Statute of the ICTR Full statute T/F (1 pt)

9.8.3. 3.8.3 Controversial evolutions in NIACs (part I) Does IHL apply to the territory of the state intervening against armed groups abroad? Extract from an article written by Jelena Pejic Full article Advisory Report on Armed Drones “Charting the Legal Geography of Non-International Armed Conflict” MCQ (1 pt) Excerpt of the 2002 EU Decision framework on combating terrorism Full text T/F (1 pt)

9.8.4. 3.8.4 Controversial evolutions in NIACS (part II) Worldwide application of IHL in relation to a specific NIAC occurring in a State Extract from “A Global Battlefield? Drones and the Geographical Scope of Armed Conflict” MCQ (1 pt)

9.8.5. 3.8.5 Controversial evolutions in NIACs (part III) Worldwide battlefield without any nexus to a specific NIAC occurring in a State Excerpt of the 2016 ICRC Commentary of Art. 3 of the first Geneva Convention Full commentary T/F (1 pt)

9.8.6. 3.8.6 International armed conflicts Explanation Excerpt of “The Geographical Scope of Application of the Conventions”(Katja Schöberl) MCQ (1 pt)

9.8.7. 3.8.7 Belligerent occupation Explanation T/F (1 pt)

9.9. 3.9 Wrap-up interview

9.9.1. 3.9.1 Interview with Dr. Tristan Ferraro