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History by Mind Map: History

1. The Western Front

1.1. Blood

1.2. Plastic Surgery

1.3. Chain Of Evacuation

1.3.1. Stations Regimen Aid Post (RAP) Located within 200m of the front line Advanced or Main Dressing Stations (ADS&MDS) Located: ADS 400m from RAP, and MDS 1/2 a mile back from ADS Casualty Clearing Stations (CCS) Located a sufficient distance away from the front line to provide safety, but close enough to be accessible by motor ambulances. Usually set up in building such as factories or schools and were often located near a railway When wounded soldiers arrived, they were separated into 3 groups (called a "triage") Base Hospitals Near the French and Belgian coasts (near ports to go home to Britain) Originally all big operations happened there, but at time went on, CCS did them instead because otherwise infected injuries would kill people before they got to the hospital. This meant that instead the carried on treatments which were only started in the CCS. Also, they started experimenting new techniques to be used on patients.

1.3.2. Transport Walking If men were able to, then they would walk from the front lines to RAP and sometimes even from RAP to ADS Stretchers Stretcher bearers carried people from the front lines to RAP, and from RAP to ADS Motor Ambulance Motor Ambulances carries people from ADS to MDS, and from MDS to CCS. Hospital Train Hospital Trains carried people from CCS to base hospitals and back.

1.4. Thomas Splint

1.4.1. In 1914 and 1915 (before the Thomas Splint was in use) men with leg wounds only had a 20% chance of survival! This was because the splint that was in use at the time did not keep the leg straight and still. Also, the man probably would have lost a lot of blood, may have developed gas gangrene, and also may be in shock (shell shock). These factors all limited the chance of survival, and so many peoples legs had to be amputated.

1.4.2. In December 1915 a man named Robert Jones was sent to Boulogne. This is because before the war Jones was working at his uncle's, Hugh Thomas, medical practice. There he learnt about a splint that his uncle had designed which kept the leg rigid.

1.4.3. He offered his services to the war, and then people started realizing the huge impact of keeping the leg straight. The Thomas splint was then used as much as possible. It made the survival rate go up from 20% to 82%.

1.5. Wounds

1.5.1. Rifles & Explosives 60% of injuries were to the arms and legs. In a study of over 200,000 men high-explosive shells and shrapnel wounds were responsible for 58% of wounds. Machine guns were used for speed, and rifles were used for accuracy.

1.5.2. Shrapnel, Wound Infection & Head Injuries When men were injured, sometimes their uniform would be taken in with the wound, meaning they were also taking in all the dirt. In the dirt was Tetanus and Gas Gangrene Tetanus was an infection that stiffened muscles, it was reduced with anti-tetanus injections (first used at the end of 1914). Gas gangrene couldn't be cured.Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas in gangrenous areas. If people were infected they died within the day. Helmets Helmets started out as soft caps, but they did nothing, so in 1915 they started using the Brodie helmet. The Brodie helmet was a steel hemet with a strap. It was estimated that it reduced fatal head wounds by 80%

1.5.3. Poison Gas Types of gas Chlorine Phosgene Mustard Deaths Gas attacks made soldiers very scared but, only about 6,000 actually died from gas attacks. Fritz Haber Fritz Haber was a German chemist who invented chlorine gas. He also developed a way to make ammonia industrially He started out just making gases for killing lice and bacteria (he was trying to make better living conditions) but, he ended up dead with his wife and eldest daughter killing themselves because they didn't agree with his work, and his two youngest children dying in gas chambers (during the Holocaust) at the hand of poisonous gas which he helped develop.

1.6. Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) & First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY)

1.6.1. RAMC They were a branch of the army who were responsible for medical care They were formally founded in 1898

1.6.2. FANY They were the first women's voluntary organisation to send volunteers to the western front. It provided front line support for the medical services (e.g. driving motor ambulances and engaging in emergency first aid). They were founded in 1907.

1.7. X-Rays

1.8. Brain Surgery

1.9. Aseptic Surgery

1.10. Trenches

1.11. Major Battles

2. Medieval 1250-1500

2.1. The Black Death

2.1.1. It was in 1348

2.1.2. The plague was carried by some sailors from France (either from: flees, rats, or the actual sailors).

2.1.3. It took 18 months to kill almost 50% of the population.

2.1.4. People blamed the Black Death on: Bad air, The planets, and God.

2.1.5. It took roughly 400 years for the population to return to pre plague levels.

2.1.6. Prevention Praying Self flagellation Carrying flowers or herbs around Avoid bathing Do joyful or happy things Avoid the infected Quarantine Leave infected areas

2.1.7. Causes God Astronomy Miasma

2.1.8. Syptoms Fever Sneezing & coughing up blood Chest pains Breathing problems Boils and black bubbles in the groin and armpits

2.1.9. Treatments Confess your sins Ask god for forgiveness Bleeding yourself out Purging yourself Strong smelling herbs Lighting fires Boiling vinears Popping or lancing off buboes

2.1.10. Regimen Sanitalis Bathe often Wash hands before and after eating Clean house regularly Use sweet smelling herbs don't eat too much Purge youself once a fortnight Breath clean air Get enough sleep Excersize regulary

2.1.11. Healers Physicians The main role of a physician was to diagnose and recommend a course of action. Apothecaries They mainly mixed herbal remedies Surgeons Least qualified medical profession in England. Regularly perform small surgery

2.2. The Four Humours

3. The Elizabethan Period

3.1. Queen, Government & Religion

3.1.1. The Situation on Queen Elizabeth's accession to the throne Society & Government in 1558 The social hierarchy of Elizabethan England The social hierarchy of towns in Elizabethan England Elizabethan Government Challenges to Queen Elizabeth I Legitimacy Gender & Marriage Character & Strength Financial Weakness Threats from Abroad

3.1.2. The Settlement of Religion

3.1.3. Challenge to the Religious Settlement

3.1.4. The Problem of Mary, Queen of Scots

3.2. Challenges to Elizabeth at home, and abroad