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1. Common System Components

1.1. Process Management

1.2. Main Memory Management

1.3. File Management

1.4. I/O System Management

1.5. Secondary Storage Management

1.6. Networking

1.7. Protection System

1.8. Command-Interpreter System

2. Operating System Services

2.1. User interface

2.1.1. Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI)

2.2. Program execution

2.2.1. Load a program into memory and to run that program, end execution

2.3. I/O operations

2.3.1. The user programs cannot execute I/O operations directly, the os must provide some means to perform I/O.

2.4. File-system manipulation

2.4.1. Program capabilities read files write files directories create delete search list file Information,

2.5. Communications

2.5.1. Processes may exchange information, on the same computer or between computers over a network

2.6. Error detection

2.6.1. Ensure correct computing by detecting errors in the CPU and memory hardware, in I/O devices, or in user programs.

3. Additional Operating System Functions

3.1. Resource allocation

3.1.1. allocating resources to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time.

3.2. Accounting

3.2.1. keep track of and record which users use how much and what kinds of computer resources for account

3.3. Protection and security

3.3.1. The owners of information stored in a multiuser or networked computer system may want to control use of that information, concurrent processes.

4. System Calls

4.1. Provide the interface between a running program and the operating system.

5. Types of System Calls

5.1. Process control

5.2. File management

5.3. Device management

5.4. Information maintenance

5.5. Communications

5.6. Protection

6. Communication Models

6.1. message passing

6.2. shared memory

7. Layered Approach

7.1. Advantage

7.1.1. Simplicity of construction and debugging

7.2. Disadvantages

7.2.1. The careful definition and interaction of the layers

7.2.2. Less efficient

8. Microkernel

8.1. -Small os core

8.2. Many services traditionally included in the operating system are now external subsystems

8.2.1. Device drivers

8.2.2. File systems

8.2.3. Virtual memory manager

8.2.4. Windowing system

8.2.5. Security services

8.3. -Contains only essential core operating systems functions

9. Benefits of a Microkernel Organization

9.1. Extensibility

9.1.1. Allows the addition of new services

9.2. Flexibility

9.2.1. New features added

9.3. Reliability

9.3.1. Modular design

9.4. Portability

9.4.1. Changes needed to port the system to a

10. Operating System Design

10.1. -Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful. -The design of the system will be affected by the choice of hardware and the type of system: batch, time shared, single user, multiuser, distributed, real time or general purpose.

11. Operating System Design Goals

11.1. User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast.

11.2. System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient.