Learning Theories / Instructional Methods

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Learning Theories / Instructional Methods by Mind Map: Learning Theories / Instructional Methods

1. Constructivists see learners as being active rather than passive.

2. Information should be chunked to prevent overload during processing in working memory

3. Relevance: Inform learners of the importance of the lesson and how taking the lesson could benefit them.

4. Satisfaction: Provide feedback on performance and allow learners to apply what they learn in real-life situations.

5. Confidence: Use strategies such as designing for success and informing learners of the lesson expectations.

6. Attention: Capture the learners' attention at the start of the lesson and maintain it throughout the lesson. The online learning materials must include an activity at the start of the learning session to connect with the learners.

7. Learners must receive the information in the form of sensations before perception and processing can occur

8. Cognitivist: looks at learning from an information processing point of view, where the learner uses different types of memory during learning

9. Learners must be provided with feedback

10. Learning materials must be sequenced appropriately to promote learning.

11. Learners must be tested to determine whether or not they have achieved the learning outcome.

12. Learners should be told the explicit outcomes of the learning

13. Behaviorists look at overt behaviors that can be observed and measured as indicators of learning

14. The computer is merely the vehicle that provides the processing capability and delivers the instruction to learners (Clark, 2001).

15. Delivery Technologies

16. Instructional Design and Strategies

16.1. Activities that link new info to old

16.2. Acquire meaningful new knowledge

16.3. Use Metacognitive Abilities

16.3.1. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature. It includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving.

16.4. online learning should have high authenticity (i.e., students should learn in the context of the workplace), high interactivity, and high collaboration.

16.5. Behaviorists claim that it is the observable behavior that indicates whether or not the learner has learned something, and not what is going on in the learner's head.

16.6. Cognitive psychology claims that learning involves the use of memory, motivation, and thinking, and that reflection plays an important part in learning.

16.7. Constructivist theorists claim that learners interpret information and the world according to their personal reality, and that they learn by observation, processing, and interpretation, and then personalize the information into personal knowledge

16.7.1. Learners learn best when they can contextualize what they learn for immediate application and to acquire personal meaning.

16.7.1.1. And Characteristics with Constructivist Theories : Universal goals such as problem solving and critical thinking. Students generate knowledge through collaborative group work. Learning is not linear, often exploratory in nature. Prerequisite knowledge not always required or considered. Instruction emphasizes learning in experiential contexts. Learning is social. Assessment varies.

16.8. the three schools of thought can in fact be used as a taxonomy for learning. Behaviorists' strategies can be used to teach the “what” (facts), cognitive strategies can be used to teach the “how” (processes and principles), and constructivist strategies can be used to teach the “why” (higher level thinking that promotes personal meaning and situated and contextual learning).

16.9. The objectivist learning category includes both the behaviorist and cognitivist theories.

16.9.1. Behaviorism equates learning with changes in either the form or frequency of observable performance.

16.9.1.1. For example, when presented with a math flashcard showing the equation “2 + 4 = ?” the learner replies with the answer of “6.” The equation is the stimulus and the proper answer is the associated response.

16.9.2. Cognitivism: Learning is concerned not so much with what learners do but with what they know and how they come to acquire it

16.9.2.1. cognitive theories are usually considered more appropriate for explaining complex forms of learning (reasoning, problem-solving, information-processing)

16.9.3. Characteristics of Instructional Methods Associated with Objectivist Theories : Instruction is directive. Instructors transmit body of knowledge/skills to learners. Assessments: multiple choice, short answer tests, or essays and projects graded by rubrics or checklists. Students require prerequisite skills for advancing through curriculum. Instruction is sequential, linear, standardized. Efficient

16.10. Connectivism is “driven by the understanding that decisions are based on rapidly altering foundations. New information is continually being acquired. The ability to draw distinctions between important and unimportant information is vital”

16.10.1. where the learner connects with, and builds knowledge via the connections [nodes] made within a network. Nodes can be resources or people.

16.10.1.1. And Characteristics with Connectivist Theory: Learning is primarily online, open, learners engage within network. Learning objectives are not pre-determined, emerge throughout the course, determined by learners’ needs. Variety of content sources on web, extensive, accessible. Learners are self-directed, independent, know how-to-learn. Prerequisites not required. Learning is often disorganized, chaotic.

17. it is the instructional strategy and not the technology that influences the quality of learning.

18. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

19. What is Critical Thinking?

19.1. Critical thinking is thinking that assesses itself

19.2. Critical thinking... means making reasoned judgments

19.3. Critical thinking is the ability to think about one's thinking in such a way as 1. To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, 2. To recast the thinking in improved form

20. Creative Thinking & Problem Solving

20.1. how/best mindset: marked by an intolerance of uncertainty and a concern with being right.:

20.2. experts tend to ignore creative ideas

20.3. If creativity is ignored, students learn that it isn't valued and stop striving for creative solutions to problems. Instead, they focus on finding the "right" answer.

20.4. Brainstorming is valuable !

20.5. Creative Thinking Objectives

20.5.1. Utilizes a range of idea creation techniques (i.e., brainstorming, mind mapping, role playing, etc.) (Cognitive domain) Creates new ideas or combines old ideas in new ways (Cognitive domain) Values new and diverse perspectives (Affective domain) Accepts failure as an opportunity to learn (Affective domain) Note - the ability to see failure as an opportunity to learn is part of the "learning growth" mindset that also happens to be key in critical thinking, metacognition, and self-directed learning.

20.5.2. Instructional Designs/Strategies: Brainstorming activities. Cooperation and Collaboration activities. Problem-based learning. Debates or role playing where you have to support a different perspective than your own. Socratic dialog focused on exposing one's assumptions.

21. Metacognition

21.1. Knowledge of one's own cognition: knowing what factors influence one's own performance (i.e., knowing strengths/weaknesses) knowing about the various learning strategies that work for you in general knowing which learning strategy to use in one's specific situation Regulation of one's own cognition: Planning and goal setting Monitoring and controlling one's own learning Evaluating one's own regulation

21.2. central to developing expertise and it is critical to the ability to transfer knowledge/skills from one area of learning to another. It is a key component of self-directed learning and critical to one's ability to be a successful life-long learner.

21.3. Metacognition skills are essential for Online Learning Students to recognize and develop. Promotes Self-Directed learning.

22. Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework and the Online Collaborative Learning (OCL) Model

22.1. Based on Constructivist/Social Constructivist theories of learning

22.2. OCL = Online discussion forums

22.2.1. design principles of OCL:

22.2.1.1. idea generating, idea organizing, intellectual convergence

22.2.1.1.1. in the OCL model, discussion forums are not an addition or supplement to core teaching materials, such as textbooks, recorded lectures, or text in an LMS, but are the core component of the teaching.

22.3. Community of Inquiry

22.3.1. social presence, teaching presence, cognitive presence

23. E-learning theory

23.1. MULTIMEDIA PRINCIPLE

23.1.1. Using any two out of the combination of audio, visuals, and text promote deeper learning than using just one or all three.

23.2. MODALITY PRINCIPLE

23.2.1. Learning is more effective when visuals are accompanied by audio narration versus onscreen text.

23.3. COHERENCE PRINCIPLE

23.3.1. The less that learners know about the presentation content, the more they will be distracted by unrelated content. Irrelevant video, music, graphics, etc. should be cut out to reduce cognitive load that might happen through learning unnecessary content.

23.4. CONTIGUITY PRINCIPLE

23.4.1. Learning is more effective when relevant information is presented closely together.

23.5. SEGMENTING PRINCIPLE

23.5.1. More effective learning happens when learning is segmented into smaller chunks.

23.6. SIGNALING PRINCIPLE

23.6.1. Using arrows or circles, highlighting, and pausing

23.7. LEARNER CONTROL PRINCIPLE

23.7.1. being able to control the rate at which they learn

23.8. PERSONALIZATION PRINCIPLE

23.8.1. A tone that is more informal and conversational, conveying more of a social presence, helps promote deeper learning.

23.9. PRE-TRAINING PRINCIPLE

23.9.1. Introducing key content concepts and vocabulary before the lesson can aid deeper learning.

23.10. REDUNDANCY PRINCIPLE

23.10.1. Having graphics explained by both audio narration and on-screen text creates redundancy. The most effective method is to use either audio narration or on-screen text to accompany visuals.

23.11. EXPERTISE EFFECT

23.11.1. Instructional methods that are helpful to low prior knowledge learners may not be helpful at all, or may even be detrimental, to high prior knowledge learners.