Equine Reproduction

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Equine Reproduction by Mind Map: Equine Reproduction

1. HBLB Codes of Practice Annual review, screening

1.1. Bacterial infections

1.1.1. Taylorella equigenitalis (CEMO) Klebsiella pneumoniae (capsule 1,2,5) Pseudomas aeruginosa

1.2. Viral infections

1.2.1. Equine viral Arteritis (EVA) Equine Herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) Equine Infectious Anaemia (EIA) Equine Coital Exanthema (EHV-3)

1.3. Trypanosoma equiperdum (Dourine) - Not in UK

1.4. Strangles - Streptococcus equi

1.5. CEM (contagious equine metritis) and EVA endemic in many mainland Europe - little to no control in non-thoroughbreds

1.5.1. Always swab incoming horses for disease Sport horses often in contact with broodmares

1.5.2. Standards and regulations for CEMO and EIA depending on area - check with farm before walk in Need more control in non-thoroughbred industries, particularly AI

2. Breeding season = March - Sept Thoroughbreds - 1st Jan Birth Gestation = 11 months

2.1. Pre-season Screening

2.1.1. Stallions and teasers 01/01 - 15/02 Bacterial infections - Amies charcoal transport medium swab - Urethra, diverticulum, pounch between (fossa), prepucious smegma, pre-ejac fluids Viral infections - EVA titre Vaccinated stallions positive EIA - ELISA/Coggins test

2.1.2. Mares 01/01 - 15/02 Late foaling mares one month before due Clitoral swab for dystocia/treated mares - Kleb and Pseudomonas Bacterial infections - clitoral sinus and fossa swabs Lab receives swabs no more than 48 hrs Viral infections - EVA titre, EIA (Coggins/ELISA) test Dystocia - Additional clitoral swab + endometrial swab and smear when in oestrous more than 7 days after antibiotics finished Aerobic cultures - r/o Pseudo aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae

2.1.3. Lab - Aerobic culture - blood and McConkey's agar ~48 hrs Microaerophilic culture - Haemolysed CEMO agar, w/wo added streptomycin for at least 7 days K pneumoniae capsule typing qPCR for confirmation/rule out 1,2,5 QC - run +ve CEMO culture in CO2 incubator - quality Assurance Official HBLB certification T.equigenitalis - qPCR, QC +ve and -VE, QA biannual swabs, HLBL certification

2.2. Routine Mare monitoring

2.2.1. Individual horse cyclicity behaviour, ovarian function, uterine competence Alongside records

2.2.2. Teasing - understand oestrous behaviour Daily during oestrous, every other day when coming in From 14 days after last mating Progesterone profiling - daily bloods Mare: Oestrous - submissive, ears forward, straggled, high tail, urinating, everting clitoris Dioestrous - Violent. ears back, screaming, tail clamped Transitional - Ambivalent Predict ovulation - well in oestrous to teaser, cervix relaxed, pink moist Soft, deformable >3cm follicle migrating to ovulation fossa Uterus loosing fold oedema First show - Perineum and vulva health, Vaginoscopy, edometrial swab and smear, rectal palpation (ovaries, uterus), US (ovaries and uterus) Perineal - vulval discharge, injury, competence, swab, smear, treat and re-examine and next oestrous Time for trauma to heal Incompetence - Caslick's vaginoplasty/Pouret's perineoplasty surgery Cervix relaxed, pink, moist during oestrous Tight, pale, dry during dioestrous/pregnancy Urovagina, cervical discharge or injury Endometrial swab, smear if relaxed cervix - look for acute endometritis - positive, then treat uterus with 3 day course and re-examine next oestrous Rectal palpation - ovarian follicular size, consistency, position uterine size, consistency, homogeneity Ultrasound - ovarian follicle size, shape, deformability, Copora haemorrhagica and lutea, uterine size, wall thickness, fold oedema, lumenal fluid, quantity, echogenicity, pregnancy, foreign bodies - repeat 24-48 hrs until ovulation can be predicted and can mate

3. Reproductive Disease

3.1. Bacterial Venereal Diseases

3.1.1. Vaginal discharge 2 days after AI/mating Early oestrous return (<15 dys) May not be CS Swab uterus and clitoral fossa, sinuses Stop mating/AI Teasing/detection management, stud hygiene, trace contacts, notify, treat uterus with ABs, Clitorectomy (remove carrier status), re-swab 3x 7 days or more after treatment, mate only when negative swab confirmed

3.2. Equine Viral Arteritis

3.2.1. Conjunctivitis (Brick red), Fever, depression, filled legs, head, skin rash Abortion, Early pregnancy failure Blood antibodies + follow ups (titres), Nasopharyngeal swab, tissue PCR, culture Stop mating/AI/teasing

3.2.2. Mares do not become carriers Studs become carriers and shed in accessory organs Semen cultures, castration/euthanasia if +ve Avoid with vaccination (teasers and stallions), pre-vaccination blood test (passport) for proof of -ve status

3.3. Equine Herpesvirus-1

3.3.1. Respiratory infection, nasal discharge Yearlings, weanlings, horses out of training Self-limiting, worse for pregnant/sucklers Separate from pregnant mares/breeding stock Bloods, nasopharyngeal swab PCR EHV-1, EHV-4 Abortion, Ataxia, paralysis, incontinence Intensive care, movement restrictions, euthanasia Vaccination - Equip EHV 1,4 BioEquin H, Prevaccinol (for resp. disease) - import Pneumabort K+1b Jan + July for non-preg; Jan, July, 5+7+9 mnths of gestation in preg (some do 3rd also to make sure) Outdoor on pasture better, drain resp tracts when grazing - otherwise viral cloud across barns etc. - abortion from 1-2 days

3.4. Equine Coital Exanthema

3.4.1. Pox-like lesions - penile, preputial, vulval skin (5-9 days after infection) 10-14 day recovery Symptomatic treatment May have systemic signs

3.5. Equine Infectious Anaemia

3.5.1. Fever, anaemia, oedema, Wt loss, death Lentivirus - infected horseflies/stableflies Transmission via infected plasma used in treatments

3.6. Dourine

3.6.1. Swelling, emaciation, venereal, North Africa, Italy

3.7. Strangles

3.7.1. Respiratory infection- Nasal discharge, submandibular abscesses - young stock Internal abscesses - pneumonia, colic, diarrhoea, weight loss Discharge, nasopharyngeal swabs, tracheal and GP washes - PCR Bloods - challenge, not active disease Isolate cases and contacts Quarantine horses in Early (pre-abscess) - penicillin Abscess - hot fomentations Carriers - GP washes Vaccine (Equilis StrepE; MSD) withdrawn, but may be used after risk assessment

4. Parturition, Dystocia, Postpartum Problems

4.1. Prepare for foaling

4.1.1. 340 days full term - udder enlarges, colostrum, waxing up Calcium phosphate levels, protein levels Observe mare discretely, large well bedded lit warm foaling box - foal at night Evening/night - nesting, digging - could be abdominal pain? 1st stage labour: colic, small urination, droppings, sweaty, look for comfortable place, lies down, uterine contractions, looks at flanks, rolling, get up and down 2nd stage begins when chorioallantois ruptures - point of no return Epiostomy (thoroughbreds with Caslick's surgery so vulva doesnt tear Check positioning of foal Violent abdominal straining, unbroken amnion protrudes, allantoic fluid Posterior delivery - get out ASAP - asphyxia Clear nostrils, find heartbeat

4.2. Newborn Foal

4.2.1. Day 1 - physical exam, tetanus antitoxin, TMPS (Trimetheprin sulphate) Day 2 - PE, TMPS blood samples for haematology inflammatory proteins and IgG check Day 3 - PE, TMPS Exercise in nursery paddock from morning (if good weather)

4.3. Dystocia

4.3.1. Normal - anterior presentation, dorsal, corkscrews out Abnormal presentation - embarrassment to umbilical blood flow Resuscitation with oxygen, NMS monitoring, tongue out, stand mare, epidural analgesia (ease manipulation, less impaction), vaginal lubrication, ropes Breech presentation - epidural analgesia, live foetus caesarian Dead - caesarian, or foetotomy Assisted delivery: Foetal malposture, epidural analgesia, GA (keep light, hoist hindquaters), lubrication, repel foetus, reposition Prepare for caesarean

4.3.2. Red bag delivery - thick unbroken placenta with no water break - open manually before asphyxiation Terminal star = not ready to rupture chorioallantois

4.3.3. Uterine intertia - low blood calcium, weak contractions - oxytocin, calcium, manual assistance

4.3.4. Vaginal Evisceration - large colon, vagina, vulva - dirty, peritonitis, septicaemia, adhesions - give barbiturates an emergency c-section Give fuids, oxygen, sodium bicarbonate, allow to get settled

4.3.5. Twins and monstrosities Repel one foetus, deliver the other Caesarean monstrosities

4.4. Post partum problems

4.4.1. Pain after foaling - uterine cramps, resolve fast, dont need treatment Persistent? Uterine artery haemorrhage, uterine rupture, colonic/caecal rupture 24-48 hours/weeks/months later - colon torsion UTH - fatal (pale mm, shock), or contained haematoma (less severe colic, mm normal, mass on rectal exam) Rupture - low grade colic, progresses - shock and peritonitis Emergency surgery, often fatal Caecocolic rupture - low grade colic, shock and peritonitis progression, emergency seldom indicated - usually fatal Uterine prolapse - after, or with placental release - protect with warm wet towels Rectal prolapse - usually fatal Retained placenta - should tie up so fall with gravity, can gently pull downwards, Oxytocin drips, antibiotics, non-steroidal analgesics/anti-endotoxic doses of flunixin meglamine Obturator paralysis - 'doing splits' whilst foaling, difficulty getting up, hobbling - use sling if can tolerate Torsion - severe colic, surgical emergency, Colopexy Uterine involution/recovery Cervical injuries - mucosal split, trans-os adhesions (Flucidin/hydrocortisone ointment), lacerations, incompetence (Allyl-trenbolone) Guarded prognosis for maintenance Perineal lacerations - minor, - 1st degree, 2nd degree (immediate surgery for correction), 3rd (common opening of rectum and vestibule, need surgery and regular cleaning) Rectovestibular fistulae - most need surgical correction and regular vulval cleaning Other minor injuries - vulval splits, caslick tears, vaginal tears, vaginal haematomas,

4.4.2. Fostering - better than orphan non-thoroughbreds best Confused foals - tranquillisers, beware of injury Orphan - colostrum need, drink from bucket, milk substitutes, bond to humans, social skills from companions