GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

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GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES by Mind Map: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

1. Specific verbs [Gerunds & Infinitives]

1.1. Both infinitive and gerund can take part of the sentence if it's make with certain verbs, those therefore, have to be followed by either Infinitive or Gerund in two different ways. Changing and not changing in meaning.

2. Ex: 1- We've hated doing/to do anything out of place. Verbs like: Like, hate, love, prefer, begin, start, hate, intend, continue... 2 - Saphire stopped doing/to do parkour (She ended his pro parkourer life/She take a break in what she was doing and made a backflip). Verbs like: Remember, stop, forget, regret, try, learn, teach...

2.1. 1 - NO CHANGE IN MEANING BECAUSE OF THE VERB.

2.2. 2 - CHANGE IN MEANING BECAUSE OF THE VERB.

3. Other rules...

3.1. Ex: 1 - I like going to the beach but I prefer staying in my hotel's swimming pool. In his musical video, Ed Sheeran goes running with Addidas running shoes. 2 - Do you like watching films? Try doing some fancy stuff!

3.1.1. 1 - Compound nouns 2 - Direct object

3.2. Gerund can take part of the sentence if it's used in compound nouns, obiuslly with a clear it's meaning. Not only that, but with other kind a' verbs as a direct object, you can also make use of gerund.

4. After Certain verbs

4.1. Ex: The hardest thing in English class is dealing with the teacher. He kept on asking for the exam answers. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

4.2. Gerund can take part of the sentence if it's in a complement of the verb "to be". Gerund can also take part of the sentence if it's after a phrasal verb (verb+adverbi o preposició), but there are some phrasal verbs that include "to" as a preposition, not as part of the infinitive of a verb. Certain verbs like: Prefer, enjoy, miss, avoid, hate, suggest, practise, love, like, finish...

5. Subject

5.1. Ex: Swiming in the lava of a volcanic eruption is for gods. Eating grass should not be a hobby.

5.2. Gerund can take part of the sentence if it's the subject of it. This usually happens if it talks as actions and facts.

6. After Prepositions

6.1. Ex: They are good at eating pizza. I search in the map while walking. There's no point in waiting for Antonio, he won't come.

6.2. Gerund must take part of the sentence if it's followed by a preposition "at 10 o'clock", a group of prepositions or a specific expression with them that must have one in the end "there's no point in"

7. After Expressions

7.1. Ex: Daren couldn't help killing his enemies because he was dead. She can't stand doing a presentation because she is shy.

7.2. Gerund can take part of the sentence if it's put in some kind of limited expressions those expressions are: can't help, can't stand, to be worth, go on, look forward to and it's no use.

8. INFINITIVES

8.1. Infinitive us a gramatical term that refers to a certain verb. A particularity of it a part of having more rules than gerund is that shares some with it. Infinitive is the usual mode used in dictionary definitions because represents the "infinite" form of that verb and it's the basic form of it. Infinitive can has 2 modals with "to" and without "to".

9. After Certain verbs

9.1. Ex: 1 - Shall We go to the witch's house? I might be the mightiest, but you're the prettiest. 2 - I felt the bee sit on my shoulder. We are incredible means live in here. 3 - His clothes make the house smell horrible. My father won't let me go out there in those hours.

9.1.1. 1 - Auxiliar 2 - Perception 3 - "Make" or "Let"

9.2. Infinitive can take part of the sentence if, in this case is done after specific verbs in the zero infinitive. It can be made with auxiliar verbs, perception verbs, "verb+objecte+zero infinitiu", and the verbs "make" and "let". Certain verbs a part from constructions, like: Decide, want, promise, hope, plan, wish, need, appear, refuse, offer, agree, expect...

10. Specific adjectives

10.1. Ex: I am disguised to be in here because I didn't pay the entry. It is determining for Federic to stay without eating anything for 3 hours.

10.2. Infinitive can take part of the sentence if it's after adjectives and it has to be used following this structure: "subjecte+to be+adjectiu+for/of+algú+infinitiu amb to". The part with "for/of" and someone it's not imprescindible. The more usual specific adjectives a part from the construction are: Easy, happy, sad and hard.

11. Talking about 'purpose'

11.1. Ex: 1 - She was here to defeat the boss... To have an incredible amount of money you must work hard. 2 - Amanda would like a portrait to decorate his house. The children in the school have a park to play in.

11.1.1. 1 - Purpose or Intention 2 - Posible use or Prevision

11.2. Infinitive can take part of the sentence if it's used to clear the pourpose or intention in an action using to like "in order to". Abd it also can be used for posible use or prevision of something and it's used with "to" following a noun/pronoun.

12. Other rules...

12.1. Ex: 1 - To be or not to be, that is the question. To held a nation, yeah, we're going that way! I asked how to cure cancer and no one answered. Isidoro cannot forget who to ask, because there's not a clear order. This is the hardcore scene to watch. This is not the correctorder to make things roll. 2 - They had better work like a team. She'd better decide who is going where. Why wait until the next week? Why move if you can stay still?

12.1.1. 1 - Infinitive with to 2 - Zero Infinitive

12.2. Infinitive with "to" can take part of the sentence if it uses "to" as subject of the phrase, also after concrete verbs followed by interrogative particles, and also to make a comment or express a opinion with the strucutre: "subjecte+to be+frase nominal+infinitiu amb to". And the Zero Infinitive used after the expression "had better", and also, without "to" but with "why" in order to make a suggerence.