The history of English

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The history of English by Mind Map: The history of English

1. THE INDUSTRIAL AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

1.1. this is

1.1.1. the main distinction

1.1.2. lies in its vocavulary, pronunciation, spelling and grammar

1.2. accumulate words by 2 factors

1.2.1. the industrial revolution

1.2.1.1. in which

1.2.1.1.1. necessitated new words dor things and ideas

1.2.2. the rise of british empire

1.2.2.1. in which

1.2.2.1.1. English adopted foreing words

1.3. the innovations were of British origin

1.3.1. at least

1.3.1.1. half of the influential scientific and technological output was written in English

1.4. the andvances created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations

1.4.1. like

1.4.1.1. protein nuclear vaccine

1.4.1.1.1. they could be created from Latin and Greek

1.5. old words were given new meaning and connotation

2. COLONIALISM AND THE BRITISH EMPIRE

2.1. had begung

2.1.1. as aearly as th 16th century

2.1.1.1. at the end of this century there were 5-7 millions of English speakers

2.1.1.2. over the next year this increased almost 50-fold

2.2. in

2.2.1. 1780, John Adams said that English was destined to be in the next and succeeding centuries

2.2.2. 1882, Jacob Grimm called English "the language of the world"

3. THE NEW WORD

3.1. The English colonizations begun in 1600

3.2. The first settlers were contemporaries of Shakespeare, Bacon and Donne

3.2.1. they would spoken the same language

3.3. was described as "hideous and desolate wilderness, full of wild beast and wild men"

3.4. American kept

3.4.1. words that had been dropped in Britain

3.4.2. and words that soon acquired their meaning

3.4.2.1. specific American meaning

3.5. approaching Shakespearen speesh

3.5.1. encountered in

3.5.1.1. Ozarks

3.5.1.2. Appalachian

3.6. the settlement of America served as

3.6.1. the route of introduction

3.6.1.1. for many Native American wordsinto English language

3.7. some words needed to describe the native American lifestyle were accepted

3.7.1. like

3.7.1.1. canoe squaw papoose

3.8. imigration wasn't limited to english speakers

3.8.1. many nacionalities established their own centres

3.8.2. foreigners were despised

3.8.2.1. they found their best interest to integrate well and to observe speech

3.8.2.2. by the 19th century a standard variaty of American English had developed in the country

3.8.2.2.1. based on

4. AMERICAN DIALECT

4.1. New terms were introduced

4.2. these were much less reticent to adopt native words or make up their own

4.3. Spanish words made their way into English

4.3.1. words like

4.3.1.1. armadillo cannibal guitar mosquito

4.3.2. french words contributed loanwords

4.3.2.1. like

4.3.2.1.1. gopher prairie depot cache

4.4. today new words are used differently in the USA and Britain

5. BLACK ENGLISH

5.1. cheap labour from Africa to the New World

5.1.1. the labour intensive work on

5.1.1.1. tabacco cocoa cotton

5.2. the number of African slaves in America grew

5.2.1. west africa rich in hundreds of different languages

5.2.2. most were superb natural linguist

5.2.3. three and six African languages fluently

5.3. Pidgin is a reduced language

5.3.1. results from

5.3.1.1. extended contact between people with no languagein common.

6. BRITAIN'S OTHER COLONIES

6.1. British settlement in South Africa in 1820

6.1.1. English speakers immigrants moved there

6.1.2. English was made the official language in 1822

6.2. in 1961

6.2.1. South Africa became the only country ever to set up and official Academy to promote the English language

6.2.1.1. English is increasingly recognized as the langua franca

6.3. English become the language of power and elite eduction in South-East Asia

7. LANGUAGE REFORM

7.1. England and Anerica are 2 countries separated by a common language

7.2. Benjamin Franklin reform of spelling

7.2.1. Thomas Jefferson and Noah Webster were conviced

7.2.1.1. that

7.2.1.1.1. Amercian English would evolveinto a completely separate lamguage

7.2.1.2. Noah Webster is credited with single-handrdly changing American spelling

7.2.1.2.1. through

8. LITERARY DEVELOPMENTS

8.1. A vast number of novels were published

8.1.1. to satisfy to Victorian Britain for romantic stories.

8.2. Jane Austenappears to be quite modern

8.2.1. in

8.2.1.1. vocabulary, grammar and style.

8.2.2. To Austen and other writers

8.2.2.1. correct grammar and style were important social markers.

8.3. New ideas, new concepts and new words were introduced

8.3.1. in