The 14 Categories of Disability under IDEA (Click on each comment icon for suggested accomm...

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The 14 Categories of Disability under IDEA (Click on each comment icon for suggested accommodations) by Mind Map: The 14 Categories of Disability under IDEA       (Click on each comment icon for suggested accommodations)

1. Mental Retardation

1.1. Although listed as a category under federal law, other titles have been adapted for this disability, which shows significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance

2. Hearing Impairments

2.1. Permanent or fluctuation impairment in hearing but not deafness

3. Orthopedic Impairments

3.1. Includes impairments caused by congenital anomalies (such as clubfoot or absence of limb), disease (such as bone tuberculosis), cerebral palsy, amputations, fractures, or burns resulting in contractures

4. Visual Impairments Including Blindness

4.1. Includes both sight and total blindness, even with correction

5. Deaf-Blindness

5.1. Combination of hearing and visual impairments which results in severe communication and other developmental and educational problems, in that a child cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or blindness.

6. Deafness

6.1. Hearing impairment even with amplification that adversely affects linguistic processing through hearing.

7. Other Health Impairments

7.1. This category includes an extensive list of health impairments, including but not limited to: chronic or acute health problems tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, ADHD, ADD, epilepsy, and anything physical not listed in other categories that impairs a child's ability to learn.

8. Traumatic Brain Injury

8.1. This is defined as an acquired injury to brain by external force. It does not include congenital or degenerative brain injuries.

9. Autism Spectrum Disorders

9.1. Students with autism display developmental disabilities significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction

10. Multiple Disabilities

10.1. A student with multiple disabilities cannot be accommodated by services solely for one impairment.

11. Speech and Language Impairment

11.1. Speech and language impairments are communication disorder that can include stuttering, impaired articulation language, or voice impairment

12. Learning Disabilities

12.1. This is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language. Students have an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. This can include perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain disfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia

13. Emotional Disturbance

13.1. Emotional disturbance does not describe a student who is socially maladjusted, but rather has an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. These students do not have the ability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers, and they exhibit a general or pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

14. Mild Intellectual Disabilities

14.1. Students with mild intellectual disabilities display an IQ of 55-70


15.1. Friend and Bursuck (2012) say students with high-incidence disabilities share these characteristics: * Often hard to distinguish from students without disabilities, especially in non-school settings. * Often display a combination of academic, behavioral and social problems. * Can meet same standards as students without disabilities when highly structured interventions are put into place.

15.2. These disabilities constitute 80% of students with disabilities


16.1. Friend and Bursuck (2012) say students with low-incidence disabilities: * Have received some type of special education service since birth * Need the same attention as students without disabilities * Includes students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities (IQ < 50) may have a developmental delay

16.2. These disabilities constitute 20% of students with disabilities

17. References: NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #15; "Accommodations, Techniques, and Aids for Learning," Learning Disabilities Association of America. Retrieved on May 13, 2017 from "Emotional Disturbance," M.A. Mastropieri and T.E. Scruggs. Retrieved May 13, 2017 from; "Kids Health Fact Sheet for Speech and Language Disorders." Retrieved May 13, 2017 from; Center for Parent Information and Resources, retrieved on May 13, 2017 from; "Traumatic Brain Injury Accommodations," Dade County Schools 2002. Retrieved on May 13, 2017 from; "Project IDEAL." Retrieved on May 13, 2017 from "Health Impairments Accommodations Within School," Retrieved on May 13, 2017 from; "Dennis Land's Accommodations Menu." Retrieved on May 13, 2017 from; Karen Wright's "20 Classroom Modifications for Students with Autism." Retrieved on May 13, 2017 from; "Accommodations for Students with Visual Impairments." Retrieved on May 13, 2017 from