Chemical Bonds

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Chemical Bonds by Mind Map: Chemical Bonds

1. Covalent bond

1.1. Basis for the bonds seen in organic chemistry

1.2. Results from sharing one or more pairs of electrons

2. Carbon

2.1. Has 6 protons and 6 neutrons in its nucleus. Its 6 electrons are distributed per the Theory of Octet as 2-4

2.2. It is the 4 electrons in the atom's outer orbit that provides carbon's distinguishing characteristic, since carbon shares those 4 outer electrons with other atoms, in pairs, through covalent bonds.

2.2.1. Carbon bonds readily with other elements, including other carbon atoms, and in particular with hydrogen which, by sharing its electrons with carbon, assumes the stable configuration of the helium atom.

2.3. Compounds made up mainly of one or more carbon atoms with their respective hydrogen attachments are called hydrocarbons.

3. Hydrocarbon

3.1. Methane:The simplest form of an organic hydrocarbon is the gas methane, which has a single carbon attached to 4 hydrogen atoms.

3.1.1. Stripping one hydrogen leaves a methyl group (CH3)

3.2. Ethane: next most common hydrocarbon. 2 carbons share electron while remaining electrons are paired with hydrogen e-.

3.3. Hydrocarbons are classified by # of atoms:

3.3.1. Propane-3

3.3.2. Butane- 4

3.3.3. Pentane- 5

3.3.4. Hexane- 6

3.3.5. Heptane- 7

3.3.6. Octane- 8

3.3.7. Nonane-9

3.3.8. Decane- 10

4. Methyl Group

4.1. Acts as a radical

4.1.1. Radical- any group of atoms that have bonded together to act like an individual atom in chemical reactions. polyatomic ions= they typically carry a charge

5. Alkane Hydrocarbon series

5.1. Straight chained, single bound compounds.

5.2. Burn readily and react with halogens, esp Bromine and Chlorine

5.2.1. Important to development of halogenated anesthetics (Halothane)

5.3. Alkenes= Double bonds

5.4. Alkyne= Triple bonds

6. Isomers

6.1. Same chemical formula, different bonding, shape, or structure

6.2. Carbon-based compounds facilitate isomer formation bc carbon has unique ability to rotate its bonds around its central axis.

6.3. Two types of Isomers:

6.3.1. Structural Isomers: The two forms usually differ in chemical and physical properties

6.3.2. Stereoisomers: identical formulas but differ in spatial arrangement: Class further divided into: Optical Isomers: occur when groups attach to the carbon atom differ from one another in such a way as to polarize (bend) light. Those that bend light to the right: Dextroisomers Bend to the left: levoisomers both dext and levo mix, so no bending of light occurs, mixture is called "Racemic" Form mirror images Geometric Isomers: Occur when compounds contain 2 carbon atoms with a double bond- double bond prevents axial rotation. Cis isomer: groups are on same side as double bond Trans isomer: groups are on opposite sides of bond.

6.4. Difference between Enflurane and Isoflurane- structural difference but same chemically. p 22

7. Functional Groups

7.1. Formulas for organic compounds may be abbreviated with R or R'

7.2. Organic molecules have two parts:

7.2.1. Carbon backbone

7.2.2. One (or more) functional groups that define physical and chemical properties

8. Halogen compounds:

8.1. Functional group: Halogen (F, Cl, BR, I)

8.2. Generic halogen formula= R-X where X=any halogen atom.

8.3. Most inhaled agents fall into this class, derived from either straight-chain hydrocarbons or ether compounds.

9. Ethers

9.1. Two radical groups joined by oxygen: serves as the functional group.

9.2. R-O-R

9.3. Classic ether anesthetics (ex: diethyl ether) have long been abandoned bc of their explosiveness- replaced with nonexplosive halogenated ethers

9.3.1. Halothane, Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, Desflurane

10. Esters

10.1. Made by interacting an alcohol with an acid.

10.2. Formula: R-COO-R

11. Amides

11.1. Related to carboxylic acids; ex: urea

11.2. Formula: CONH2

11.2.1. Contain Nitrogen

11.3. Form entire class of local anesthesia

12. Amines

12.1. Derives from ammonia (NH3)

12.1.1. Functional group is the nitrogen atom

12.2. Can be divided into primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on how many atoms are replaced by a radical

12.3. Formula: R-NH2

12.4. Physiologically Active Amines

12.4.1. Hormones: made in special glands to serve as chemical messengers proteins or peptides Amines or amino acids Steroids

12.4.2. Sympathomimetic amines: NE Dopamine Phenylephrine Dobutamine Epinephrine Methyl substitute at terminal amine that increases Beta1 adrenergic receptor activity (min Beta 2 activity) "God's drug" R-CH2-NH-CH3

13. Aromatic Compounds

13.1. 6 carbons joined by three double bonds of oscillating electrons

13.2. Most basic configuration is a benzene ring (C6H6) where each carbon has one attached hydrogen.